C.S. Pirozzi's research while affiliated with University of Utah and other places

Publications (26)

Article
Background Neighborhood poverty has been associated with poor health outcomes. Previous studies have also identified adverse respiratory effects of long-term ambient ozone. Factors associated with neighborhood poverty may accentuate the adverse impact of ozone on respiratory health. Objectives To evaluate whether neighborhood poverty modifies the...
Article
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Background: Forced expiratory volume over one second (FEV1) is central to diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but is imprecise in classifying disease burden. We examined the potential of the maximal mid-expiratory flow rate (FEF25-75%) as an additional tool for characterizing pathophysiology in COPD. Objective: To determine...
Article
Poor air quality affects the health and wellbeing of large populations around the globe. Although source controls are the most effective approaches for improving air quality and reducing health risks, individuals can also take actions to reduce their personal exposure by staying indoors, reducing physical activity, altering modes of transportation,...
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The lockdown policies enacted in the spring of 2020, in response to the growing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, have remained a contentious policy tool due to the variability of outcomes they produced for some populations. While ongoing research has illustrated the unequal impact of Coronavirus disease (COVID-...
Article
Rationale: Exposure to outdoor air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular disease, respiratory illness, and mortality. The effect of air pollution on venous thromboembolism (VTE) is less certain. Objectives: To test for associations between short-term exposure to air pollution and VTE. Methods: Retrospective case-crossover study...
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Importance e-Cigarette, or vaping, product use–associated lung injury (EVALI) has caused more than 2800 illnesses and 68 deaths in the United States. Better characterization of this novel illness is needed to inform diagnosis and management. Objective To describe the clinical features, bronchoscopic findings, imaging patterns, and outcomes of EVAL...
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High air pollution levels are associated with school absences. However, low level pollution impacts on individual school absences are under-studied. Understanding the variability of pollution at individual schools within an urban region could improve school recess decisions, better identify local pollution sources, and improve local economic impact...
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Utah’s low-smoking population and high population density concentrated in mountain valleys, with intermittent industrial activity and frequent temperature inversions, have yielded unique opportunities to study air pollution. These studies have contributed to the understanding of the human health impacts of air pollution. The populated mountain vall...
Preprint
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High air pollution levels are associated with school absences. However, low level pollution impact on individual school absences are under-studied. Positive local findings could improve school recess decisions, better identify pollution sources and improve local economic effects assessments. We modelled PM2.5 and ozone concentrations at 36 schools...
Article
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Barjaktarevic IZ, Buhr RG, Wang X, et al. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2019;14:2927– 2938. The authors have advised that there is an error in the Funding section on page 2935. The correct funding statement is as follows: FundingThis study was supported by R01HL125432-01A1 (MBD), T32HL007106-41 (RMB), and TL1TR001883-01 (RGB). SPIROMICS was supp...
Article
Introduction: The relationship between 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-vitamin D) and COPD outcomes remains unclear. Using the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS), we determined associations between baseline 25-OH-vitamin D and cross-sectional and longitudinal lung function and COPD exacerbations. Methods: Seru...
Article
Importance Few studies have investigated the association of long-term ambient ozone exposures with respiratory morbidity among individuals with a heavy smoking history. Objective To investigate the association of historical ozone exposure with risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), computed tomography (CT) scan measures of respirato...
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Objective: Bronchodilator responsiveness (BDR) is prevalent in COPD, but its clinical implications remain unclear. We explored the significance of BDR, defined by post-bronchodilator change in FEV1 (BDRFEV1) as a measure reflecting the change in flow and in FVC (BDRFVC) reflecting the change in volume. Methods: We analyzed 2974 participants from...
Article
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Background The identification of smoking-related lung disease in current and former smokers with normal FEV1 is complex, leading to debate regarding using a ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) of less than 0.70 versus the predicted lower limit of normal (LLN) for diagnosis of airflow obstruction. We hypothes...
Article
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This study aimed to determine if short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) is associated with increased symptoms or lung function decline in fibrotic sarcoidosis. Sixteen patients with fibrotic sarcoidosis complicated by frequent exacerbations completed pulmonary function testing and questionnaires every three months for one...

Citations

... An expert workshop sponsored by the American Thoracic Society (ATS) was held in 2018 to discuss the overall effectiveness and safety of personal interventions to reduce exposures and health risks of outdoor air pollution (56), focusing largely on considerations for individuals living in countries with relatively higher incomes and lower pollution levels. In early 2019, an expert consultation was convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) to discuss similar topics, but with a broader focus on global populations, including nations with relatively low incomes and high pollution levels (100). ...
... The first group of works mainly perform empirical analyses on the effects of social distancing due to COVID-19 from different perspectives [12,23,33,41,42,44,51,56,57]. The second group of reviewed studies considers the analysis of variables determining air quality improvement during COVID-19 confinement, which is particularly relevant for a better understanding of how those variables can be crucial for air quality improvement within the context of urban regions [8,11,17,26,52,58,59]. A third group of studies focuses on analyzing air quality improvement stimulated by different transport policies at urban regions learning from the COVID-19 scenarios developed to restrict mobility, with particular interest in reducing car traffic [13,14,27,[60][61][62]. ...
... Findings such as those presented here are important because they illustrate the value of idling campaigns in schools. Since many schools are bordering major roadways or highways, and since parents increasingly drop children at school, understanding interpollutant and spatial variability can help protect children in school settings [34,35]. Reduced pollutants due to this behavior shift can also benefit schoolteachers and staff and improve local air quality. ...
... Chest CT findings of EVALI include ground-glass opacities that are usually bilateral and diffuse, with lower lobe predominance, with or without associated consolidation (Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 4) [2,12,14,[16][17][18]. A large case series of 160 adolescents and adults found a positive correlation between the degree of consolidation and severity of lung injury in patients with higher frequency of vaping [17]. ...
... Two-thirds of Utah's population, roughly 2 million residents, live adjacent to the Wasatch Mountain range and the Great Salt Lake. Air pollutants are emitted almost entirely by local sources within Utah [3] and these topographic features exacerbate air quality events, leading this urbanizing region to regularly feature some of the worst short-term air pollution episodes in the world (e.g., [4]). ...
... One study relied on chronic, averaged air pollution measures [12], and the other examined three different two-day air pollution scenarios [11]. A local study on Salt Lake schools found associations between PM 2.5 concentrations and daily rates of school absenteeism [49]. ...
... On the other side, findings of the study performed by Lehouck et al. indicated that a high dose vitamin D supplementation may reduce exacerbations only in COPD patients with severe vitamin deficiency (serum levels less than 10 ng/mL) [33]. In addition, in their study including 1609 participants Burkes et al. found that vitamin D deficiency was associated with worse cross-sectional and longitudinal lung function and increased odds of prior COPD exacerbations suggesting that vitamin D levels may be a potentially useful marker of adverse COPD-related outcomes [37]. Meta-analysis of 25 randomized controlled trials in which efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in COPD patients were evaluated done by Li et al. showed that vitamin D used in patients with COPD could improve the lung function (FEV 1 , FEV 1 /FVC), 6-minute walk distance and reduce exacerbation, sputum volume and COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score [38]. ...
... Interpretation of BDR can employ two approaches: 1) the upper limit of the changes expected in a healthy population; or 2) a threshold at which a clinically meaningful event occurs. The upper limit of the changes expected in a healthy population may not be clinically relevant (61). Although data are limited for clinically meaningful thresholds across a range of diseases and age groups, there is evidence related to survival to support a threshold-based approach (27,57,59,62,63). ...
... Among many life-related air pollutants, long-term exposure to O 3 has become increasingly important in resulting to diseases progression and increased Atmosphere 2022, 13, 1562 2 of 16 mortality [12]. Indeed, more recent studies have linked long-term exposure to O 3 to reduced lung function and an increasing risk of developing emphysema irrespective of being a cigarette smoker [13,14]. Even short-term changes in O 3 levels have been associated with increased mortality [15,16] and cause economic losses [17]. ...
... [16][17][18][19][20][21]. At the broncho alveolar lavage fluid (BAL) of affected patients the most commonly found substances appeared to be tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and/or vitamin E acetate, the presence of lipid-laden macrophages seen with oil red O staining has been reported as well [22,23]. Vitamin E had been recently looked at as possible culprit in the pathogenesis of EVALI as multiple studies report its presence in the BAL samples from patients affected from EVALI, while it hasn't been detected in healthy individuals [9,23]. ...