C. R. Snyder's research while affiliated with University of Kansas and other places

Publications (106)

Article
There has been a dramatic increase in the number of women relative to men who are pursuing and obtaining doctoral degrees in clinical psychology. How will this feminization impact the field of psychotherapy (A. Howard, 1987)? Many possible sequelae are addressed in this chapter. The authors first review the demographic changes pertaining to this in...
Article
Examines the cultural context of hope in the US. It is critical to understand hope in a cultural context and to ensure that all people are eligible to play the hope game: developing meaningful goals, perceiving oneself as capable of establishing pathways, and summoning mental energy all while navigating barriers in a social context. The influence o...
Article
By one count (T. B. Karasu, 1986), there are at least 400 distinct approaches to psychotherapy. By the turn of the millennium, this number will swell to over 500 (Snyder et al, 1999). Amidst all of these purportedly differing approaches, what can be discerned about possible shared frameworks that can bridge this multitude of psychotherapy techniqu...
Book
The Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology studies the burgeoning field of positive psychology, which, in recent years, has transcended academia to capture the imagination of the general public. The book provides a roadmap for the psychology needed by the majority of the population-those who don't need treatment, but want to achieve the lives to wh...
Article
This chapter offers an overview of research on hope. The hope process is iterative, such that thoughts, emotions, and behaviors interact through both feedforward and feedback mechanisms. It explains these interactions within the structure of hope theory and how they should influence well-being. In addition, it explores how this theory can be applie...
Article
Hope has been correlated with greater pain tolerance and thresholds and less reported pain severity. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a brief hope-based intervention involving guided imagery and skills instruction aimed at enhancing pain coping skills among university students performing the cold pressor task. The intervention re...
Article
As new measures are added to the increasingly crowded positive psychology field, they must be juxtaposed with existing instruments to assess their relative utility and guide applied psychology researchers and clinicians in choosing appropriate measures. One such new measure is the Personal Growth Initiative Scale (PGIS; Robitschek, 1998). Comparing...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored the hope and optimism constructs and their unique variances in predicting life satisfaction. The subscales (Agency and Pathways) of the Adult Hope Scale (Snyder, Harris et al., 199134. Snyder , CR , Harris , C , Anderson , JR , Holleran , SA , Irving , LM Sigmon , ST . 1991 . The will and the ways: Development and validation of...
Article
This study investigated the relationship between hope and adherence to a daily inhaled steroid regimen among 48 asthma patients ages 8–12 years old who participated in a 14 day adherence assessment. Participants completed the Children's Hope Scale, and parents completed a questionnaire aimed at demographic and disease-related information. Adherence...
Article
Full-text available
The Adult Trait Hope Scale (Snyder et al., 1991) typically has been administered to samples of college students, and previous researchers have not explored key demographic variables. In a large sample of community persons who were not in college (N = 215), significant differences were detected in Hope Scale scores across differing age groups and ma...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this work was to test the hypothesis that individual nurses' level of hope is associated with greater self-reported comfort and competence in providing palliative care. We conducted a Web-based cross-sectional survey at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, a large referral hospital, during the spring of 2005 with all of the emplo...
Article
Offense-taking is defined as the perceived deprivation of what is rightfully due to a person. Using this definition, a trait self-report measure of the proneness to take offense was developed and validated. The 16-item Offense-Taking Scale (OTS) yielded Cronbach α of .86 and .87, and a test–retest correlation over a 4-week interval of .76. Factor a...
Article
This study was designed to examine hopeful thinking, depressive symptoms, and participation in meaningful activities and roles for survivors 3 months after stroke. It was predicted that: (a) participation would predict lower depressive symptoms; (b) higher hopeful thinking (i.e., beliefs in one's goal pursuit abilities) would predict lower depressi...
Article
Full-text available
The field of psychology, which is traditionally rooted in the study and treatment of psychological disorders and pathology, recently has begun to embrace an examination of individual, as well as societal, strengths and virtues. This subspecialty within psychology, known as positive psychology, can be defined as the attempt to understand the charact...
Article
We report findings from an initial empirical test of a hope-based, group therapy protocol. In this context, hope is defined as a cognitive process through which individuals pursue their goals [Snyder, C. R.: 1994, Free Press, New York]. As such, the eight-session group treatment emphasized building goal-pursuit skills. Findings from a randomized, w...
Article
Objectives: To use Snyder's (1989, 1994b) hope theory as a framework for understanding rehabilitation goals and designing effective interventions. Conclusions: According to this theory, hope reflects the perceived capacity to generate routes to desired goals (called pathway thinking) along with the associated motivational thoughts to use those path...
Article
Attachment theory provides a model for understanding how the attachment styles formed in infancy systematically affect subsequent psychological functioning across the life span. Attachment styles provide the cognitive schemas, or working models, through which individuals perceive and relate to their worlds. In turn, these schemas predispose the dev...
Article
Borrowing from B. A. Wright's (1991) suggestions, a balanced approach is advocated for gathering information and writing the subsequent report. Specifically, it is suggested that the clinician attend to four aspects of an interviewee: (a) the strengths in the client's psychological makeup, (b) the weaknesses in the client's psychological makeup, (c...
Article
Commentary writers vary in their agreement with the ideas presented in the C.R. Snyder and T.R. Elliott lead article (this issue, PP. 1033-1054), but they share the view that clinical-counseling psychology already is in the midst of an evolution. There are two general camps to such commentaries. First, there are those who caution us to move slowly...
Article
Clinical psychology is positioned to play key roles in mental and physical health issues of 21st century America. In this regard, however, the present Boulder model of educating clinical psychologists is not preparing our graduates to meet the diverse demands of either today's or tomorrow's marketplaces. Accordingly, we introduce a new, four level...
Article
The relationships between hope, bereavement-related rumination, and finding meaning (making sense and benefit finding) were examined in 158 college students who experienced the death of a loved one within the latter half of their lives. Greater rumination was related significantly to lessened psychological well-being, and it mediated the relationsh...
Article
An evaluation of a health condition‐specific hope scale adapted from the more general dispositional Hope Scale (Snyder et al., 1991) is provided. Participants ( N = 202) with a rare, debilitating, and potentially stigmatising health condition were recruited from readers of the Anal Fissure Self Help Page. Data were gathered anonymously using an onl...
Article
In this article, important theories of life meaning are discussed, as are the hypothesized effects of meaning on anxiety and depression. A commonality among these theories-hopeful thinking-is highlighted in the context of a goal-directed model of hope (Snyder et al., 1991). It is proposed that hope is a component common to all theories of meaning....
Article
Six studies regarding forgiveness are presented. The Heartland Forgiveness Scale (HFS), a self-report measure of dispositional forgiveness (with subscales to assess forgiveness of self, others, and situations) was developed and demonstrated good psychometric properties. Forgiveness correlated positively with cognitive flexibility, positive affect,...
Article
Hope theory (see Snyder, 1994) is presented as a useful framework for understanding reactions to pain. In Study 1, persons scoring higher on the trait Hope Scale (Snyder, Harris et al., 1991) kept their hands in the freezing water (of a cold pressor task) for significantly longer. In Study 2, the higher-hope males, and not females, as measured by b...
Article
In a sample of 100 community-dwelling older adults (mean age of 76), higher hope related to greater life satisfaction and better perceived physical health, but hope did not relate to number of illnesses or functional disability. The high-relative to low-hope participants were more confident of reaching their goals, and felt that they were further a...
Article
It was hypothesised that forgiveness mediates the relationship between PTSD and hostility within a population of adult childhood abuse survivors. Of the three components of forgiveness-self, other, and situation-self and situation forgiveness were posited as potent mediators of the PTSD and hostility relationship. No differences in the mediational...
Article
Instructors of clinical and social psychology courses have special responsibilities because their course contents deal with information about how students view themselves. A case is made that instructors' desires to increase self-referential thinking must be balanced with the protection of students' welfares. Students need to be exposed to new and...
Chapter
Many times, I have heard people say something akin to the idea that hope is our children's chance for a better future. Appealing as this sentiment may be, however, very little psychological theory and research has addressed the topic of children's hope. The only related research has been that by Kazdin and his colleagues (1983), who described child...
Article
Individual differences in self-reported hope assessed before and during treatment were related to outcome markers of therapeutic improvement. Clients were assigned to either a motivational orientation group or a waiting list group. All clients thereafter received 12 weeks of individual therapy. As hypothesized, higher baseline hope was associated w...
Article
Using a metaphor based on George Orwell's Animal Farm, the author suggests that hope forms an especially robust predictor of well-being in particular, and other outcome markers more generally.
Article
It is suggested that balance is a fundamental and adaptive aspect of human existence. Using this premise, the author presents hope as a natural balancing force against depression.
Article
This chapter is concerned with the ways that clinical psychologists think about or conceive psychological illness and wellness, and especially how they conceive the difference between psychological wellness and illness. More specifically, it is concerned with how clinical psychologists traditionally have conceived the difference between psychologic...
Article
People somehow summon enough mental energy to set the goal of seeking a therapist or other healer. Likewise, they identify pathways to the desired helper and muster the requisite energy to build a working alliance with their newfound agent of change. In essence, self-referred clients already have demonstrated hope in their pursuit of therapeutic su...
Article
Because having hope is requisite for the establishment of satisfying adulthoods, factors contributing to its development must be understood. Using structural equation modeling, the current study tested propositions that hope (1) develops in the context of a secure relationship with a supportive adult in childhood (Snyder, 1994), and (2) mediates th...
Article
Comments on the article by J. Polivy and P.C. Herman (see record 2002-15790-001) regarding false hopes of self-change. This commentary examines the weaknesses of their model and its supporting data, and offers reviews of recent theory and research suggesting that hope is quite authentic. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The tenets of a cognitive, motivational model called hope theory (Snyder et al., 1991) are reviewed, along with the two accompanying instruments for measuring hope in children and adolescents. More than a decade of research on hope theory as it relates to students, teachers, and schools is summarized. Likewise, the applications of hope theory for s...
Article
Using Snyder's theory of hope, the role of hope in the process of dying from a terminal illness is discussed. In this theory, hope is defined as the perceived capability to produce workable routes to desired goals (pathways thinking) and the requisite motivation to use those routes (agency thinking). Strategies by which individuals can maintain and...
Article
What happens when a person's worth is charted by using a pejorative term rather than a positive descriptor? In this chapter, we present our views on the inherent power and problems in the process of labeling (i.e., naming a person according to a characteristics) and measuring (i.e., identifying the degree to which a person possesses that characteri...
Chapter
This entry reviews theory and research on promoting mental health in adulthood through a focus on promoting happiness rather than preventing mental disorder. Most of the entry discusses of the various roles that goals and goal-related beliefs play in the construction of satisfying, fulfilling, and “mentally health” lives.
Article
Full-text available
A cognitive, motivational theory is introduced to the educational research community. Hope theory integrates the conceptualization of goals, along with the strategies to achieve those goals (pathways), and the motivation to pursue those goals (agency). In a 6-year longitudinal study, individual differences in hope, as measured by the Hope Scale (C....
Article
"False" hope is condemned in the literature on the grounds that it reflects the counterproductive use of: (a) expectations based on illusions rather than reality, (b) inappropriate goals, and (c) poor strategies to reach desired goals. Snyder, Harris, et al.'s (1991) hope theory involving self-referential thoughts about finding routes to desired go...
Article
This title provides theory and research that show us how to cope adaptively with the big and small challenges of life. It presents a cutting-edge theory and research about the coping process, taking an interdisciplinary approach and utilizing concepts and methods from social, personality, clinical, cognitive, lifespan, and cross-cultural psychology...
Article
Thirty-seven male veterans with combat-related PTSD completed measures of hostile automatic thoughts, hope, and positive and negative affect. Responses to the items of each measure were presented in two formats: (a) the veteran's feelings today and (b) (on a separate form) how he felt while in combat. Veterans reported significantly higher levels o...
Article
Examines the optimism and hope constructs in the study of the importance of positive mental attitude. The model of hope developed by C. R. Snyder and colleagues is focused on hope as a cognitive set that is directed at goal attainment. Two measures developed to assess individual differences in levels of hope are described and their psychometric pro...
Chapter
In the society where people do not believe they can achieve many of their goals, people may nevertheless hold to a conviction that life will be better for them or their children at some point in future. The human mind is remarkably resilient, and it is known that throughout history, people have held out hope under dire circumstances. Hope for imagi...
Chapter
Publisher Summary The chapter explores the process of development of a system of intervention techniques derived specifically from the hope theory. The review of hope-related literature suggests that hope enhancing may be best achieved by integrating solution-focused, narrative, and cognitive-behavioral interventions, and hope reminding should inco...
Article
Full-text available
A cognitive, two-component model of hope proposed by Snyder and colleagues is reviewed. Hope is defined as the perceived capability to (1) derive pathways to desired goals and (2) motivate oneself via agentic thinking to initiate and sustain movement along those pathways. The roles of these pathways and agency components of hope theory are describe...
Article
From its most famous tale, that of Pandora, hope was meant to prevent the emergence and reemergence of life difficulties. A new model defining hope as a combination of agentic pathways and goal-directed thinking is reviewed. Comparisons of the similarities of this theory to other existing theories are made. The beneficial roles of hope in primary (...
Article
After briefly reviewing the historical views about hope, a hope model based on three components - goal, pathways, and agency thoughts - is presented. Accompanying measures of hope for adults and children are described, and the positive correlates of higher hope are reviewed. Future applications of hope theory are presented, including such topics as...
Article
The virtues are imbedded in a new field: positive psychology. With a definition and brief discussion of the parameters of positive psychology, various factors related to virtues are explored, including their public versus private aspects, domain-specific versus global characteristics, the necessity for careful claims regarding what we do and do not...
Article
A virtue is defined as any psychological process that enables a person to think and act so as to benefit both him- or herself and society. Character is a higher-order construct reflecting the possession of several of the component virtues. The process by which the topics of virtue and character fell out of favor in psychology is reviewed, with a ca...
Article
Results of a survey from the contents of six 1998 journals in social, clinical, personality, and health psychology allow one to conclude that interface research in these fields is grounded in theory, focuses more on understanding weaknesses than strengths, has personality variables playing major roles, and often involves correlation-based studies u...
Article
Based on Onwuegbuzie's 1998 findings pertaining to the relationship of lower scores on hope to higher ones on anxiety about statistics, a brief overview of the etiology of test-related anxieties in the context of Snyder's hope theory is given, and the utility of hope theory for helping students with test-related anxieties is explored.
Article
The predictor variables of hope and social support were examined in relation to the criterion variables of psychosocial outcome in adolescents who survived burn injuries and a matched peer sample. Higher hope contributed unique variance to the prediction of less externalizing behaviors (disruptive behavior disorders) and increased global self-worth...
Article
Non-depressed and depressed persons were hypothesized to input and recall self-referential information that was consistent with their self theories. Non-depressed and depressed persons were compared. Non-depressed (14) and depressed (14) students chose between positive or negative audio statements, and then recalled the statements. Non-depressed re...
Article
The relations of dispositional hope to various self-reported cancer-related coping activities were examined in 115 college women. Dispositionally high- as compared to low-hope women were more knowledgeable about cancer, and this relationship remained when the shared variances due to previous academic achievement, experience with cancer among family...
Article
Full-text available
Hope is the sum of goal thoughts as tapped by pathways and agency. Pathways reflect the perceived capability to produce goal routes; agency reflects the perception that one can initiate action along these pathways. Using trait and state hope scales, studies explored hope in college student athletes. In Study 1, male and female athletes were higher...
Article
Self-theories are posited along 2 related cognitive dimensions. First, the valence of an act varies from negative to positive. Second, the linkage to an act reflects the degree (ranging from none to high) to which one is perceived as being the causal agent for that act. Plotting these 2 dimensions, with valence reflecting the ordinate (negative at...
Article
Self-theories are posited along 2 related cognitive dimensions. First, the valence of an act varies from negative to positive. Second, the linkage to an act reflects the degree (ranging from none to high) to which one is perceived as being the causal agent for that act. Plotting these 2 dimensions, with valence reflecting the ordinate (negative at...
Article
People believe that "Bad things will not happen to me," thereby displaying a sense of unique invulnerability. To vivify the role of such illusions, students in a graduate course covering self-illusions received information based on actuarial tables about the average age of dying and then reported their estimated ages of death. In Class 1, students...
Article
Similar to the measurement of automatic thoughts in depressed persons (Hollon & Kendall, 1980), the Hostile Automatic Thoughts (HAT) Scale was developed and validated as a 30-item self-report index. Comprised of three components, the HAT Scale reflects recurring hostile thoughts that involve physical aggression (11 items), derogation (10 items), an...
Article
Full-text available
Assuming that children are goal-oriented, it is suggested that their thoughts are related to two components-agency and pathways. Agency thoughts reflect the erception that children can initiate and sustain action toward a desired goal; pathways thoughts reflect the children's perceived capability to produce routes to those goals. Hope reflects the...
Article
Full-text available
The authors suggest that people of all ages are goal oriented and that 2 related thought processes typically accompany this goal-related thinking. First, there are pathway thoughts, which tap the perceived capability to generate 1 or more workable routes to desired goals. Second, there are agentic thoughts, which reflect the perception that one can...
Article
Full-text available
Defining hope as a cognitive set comprising agency (belief in one's capacity to initiate and sustain actions) and pathways (belief in one's capacity to generate routes) to reach goals, the Hope Scale was developed and validated previously as a dispositional self-report measure of hope (Snyder et al., 1991). The present 4 studies were designed to de...
Conference Paper
Defining hope as a cognitive set comprising agency (belief in one's capacity to initiate and sustain actions) and pathways( belief in one's capacity to generate routes) to reach goals, the Hope Scale was developed and validated previously as a dispositional self-report measure of hope (Snyder et al., 1991). The present 4 studies were designed to de...
Article
Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to test several psychometric hypotheses regarding the Hope Scale. Across four large samples of college students, a two-factor (agency and pathways) model of hope reproduced the observed data consistently better than did a one-factor model. Support also was found for the tenability of a higher-order latent c...
Chapter
To begin this book, Higgins outlined a historical perspective that emphasized the manner in which previous Adlerian views of safeguarding behavior have contributed to contemporary thinking about self-handicapping. In closing, we return to this historical theme by calling upon another older vantage point to enhance our understanding of self-handicap...
Chapter
One of my most vivid childhood memories centers around a playground ritual that I repeatedly faced. Because my family moved frequently, I found myself having to meet a new group of peers at the beginning of each school year. Being a grade-school male, a typical ceremony involved taking the new kid (me) to the local vacant lot and having him fight a...
Chapter
Bob faced a dilemma. His oft-stated ambition was to be a social worker. In fact, he had been one briefly but lost his job because he was unable to overcome his obsessive fears about things that might happen to him when he went to work. Over the course of several months he skipped twice as many days of work as he attended, and he ultimately agreed t...
Article
Excuse making is defined here as the process of shifting causal attributions for negative personal outcomes from sources that are relatively more central to the person's sense of self to sources that are relatively less central, thereby resulting in perceived benefits to the person's image and sense of control. This definition is used to examine th...
Article
Using a new measure of the tendency to present oneself in an unrealistically positive way, the Self-Presentation Scale (SPS), the present study examined the validity of two different tactics for presenting a favorable self-image. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that individual differences in the use of an attributive tactic, the tendency to...
Article
Excuse-making is defined, and the issues of deception and verbal/nonverbal presentations are discussed in regard to the excuse process. Subsequently, the deception and verbal/nonverbal issues are described in greater detail in the context of whether the excuse occurs temporally after a negative outcome (retrospective), before a negative outcome (an...
Chapter
In the last few years, there has been a proliferation of theory and research regarding excuse attributions in general, and self-handicaps in particular. Although researchers have demonstrated the robustness of this phenomenon (i.e., the fact that people make excuses is well-documented), the effects of these excuse attributions have received little...
Article
Levels of test anxiety, Type A and Type B coronary-prone behavior, fear of failure, and covert self-esteem were studied as predictors of self-handicapping performance attributions for college women who were placed in either a high- (N = 49) or low- (N = 49) evaluative test or task situation. We hypothesized that test anxiety. Type A or Type B level...
Chapter
Human beings are constantly trying to make sense out of the events in their lives. This searching for understanding makes Homo sapiens the most sophisticated theory or model generator among the multitude of living organisms. Although living organisms, for survival reasons, are intimately involved in unraveling the cause and effect relationships in...
Chapter
Several years ago, the first author and his colleagues developed a theory regarding uniqueness-seeking behavior (see Snyder & Fromkin, 1980, for overview). Against a prevailing viewpoint that people always prefer others who are similar to themselves (i.e., the Donn Byrne, 1971, reinforcement theory of interpersonal attraction), it was proposed that...
Article
after defining what we mean by excuse making and discussing the nature of self-defeating excuses, we turn our attention to a consideration of how excuses work at both the intra- and interpersonal levels / next, we examine the conditions under which excuses may become self-defeating / finally, we discuss the processes underlying repetitive (e.g., di...
Book
"Like a Bridge over Troubled Waters" The surge of current interest in the interface between clinical and social psychology is well illustrated by the publication of a number of general texts and journals in this area, and the growing emphasis in graduate programs on providing training in both disciplines. Although the bene­ fits of an integrated cl...
Article
Levels of test anxiety, Type A and Type B coronary-prone behavior, fear of failure, and covert self-esteem were studied as predictors of self-handicapping performance attributions for college women who were placed in either a high- (N = 49) or low- (N = 49) evaluative test or task situation. We hypothesized that test anxiety, Type A or Type B level...
Article
Conducted 2 studies to examine the importance of the tactic used in presenting a favorable self-image (denying negative characteristics vs attributing positive characteristics) and to examine the perceived audience of the self-presentation (internal vs external) on responses to self-report personality items. In Study 1, 60 items were administered u...

Citations

... The stigmas and negative reactions that they received are key predictors of avoidance coping [22]. Moreover, survivors who labelled their experience as rape and reported a higher acceptance of rape myths consumed more alcohol per week and exhibited more depression symptoms compared to acknowledged survivors who reported lower acceptance of rape myths [22][23][24]. ...
... Snyder et al. (1991) proposed Hope Theory with pathways thinking and agency thinking. Pathways thinking refers to individuals' plans to pursue desired objectives (Feldman & Dreher, 2012), while agency thinking refers to perceptions of ability to make progress toward goals (Snyder et al., 1999). Researchers found that hope was positively related to meaning in life, grit, and subjective happiness among Latine populations (e.g., Vela, Lerma, et al., 2014;Vela et al., 2015). ...
... There is concern that clinicians who communicate a professional opinion to a client that one's disorder is irremediable, or that the client is beyond help, may be contributing to iatrogenic harm, may be incorrect, and may dangerously impede that individual's sense of hope. Hope plays a critical role in psychological treatment (e.g., Moore, 2005;Snyder, Wrobelski, Parenteau, & Berg, 2004), and hopelessness (which research suggests is more like pessimism than absence of hope) is strongly and significantly associated with psychological despair, the wish to hasten death, suicide ideation, self-injury, and risk for death by suicide (Brown, Beck, Steer, & Grisham, 2000;Heisel & Flett, 2005). ...
... There is concern that clinicians who communicate a professional opinion to a client that one's disorder is irremediable, or that the client is beyond help, may be contributing to iatrogenic harm, may be incorrect, and may dangerously impede that individual's sense of hope. Hope plays a critical role in psychological treatment (e.g., Moore, 2005;Snyder, Wrobelski, Parenteau, & Berg, 2004), and hopelessness (which research suggests is more like pessimism than absence of hope) is strongly and significantly associated with psychological despair, the wish to hasten death, suicide ideation, self-injury, and risk for death by suicide (Brown, Beck, Steer, & Grisham, 2000;Heisel & Flett, 2005). ...
... Each of the blind men's explanations differs, ranging from a rope (the tail) to a spear (one of the elephant's tusks), and the six men argue over who is correct, as their descriptions are so diverse. The moral of this parable is that individuals often make proclamations on a subject, item, concept, etc., with the belief that their view represents the complete truth, when in fact, their perspective/experience only provides part of the real, holistic picture (Goldstein, 2010;Snyder & Ford, 2013). ...
... Helplessness in this context may serve as a way to reduce attention from overly threatening information (e.g., Lifshin et al., 2020;Lifshin & Mikulincer, 2021), an external justification for behavior (Festinger, 1957), and an excuse for past or future failure (cf. Berglas & Jones, 1978;Higgins, Snyder, & Berglas, 1990;Urdan & Midgley, 2001). ...
... Second, it is important to note that the findings reported in the current study are also based on relatively small effect sizes. These results however, are consistent with much of the The Implicit Self-Theory Scale 20 existing research in the field (Harris, Snyder, Higgins & Schrag, 1986;Haynes, Daniels, Stupnisky, Pery & Hladky, 2008;Howell & Buro, 2009;Martin & Brawley, 2002;Midgley & Urdan, 2001;Ommundsen, 2001), and likely reflect the multiplicity of factors that give rise to achievement and motivation outcomes in school. It is also important not to overlook the fact that small effect sizes can have a major impact on academic performance over time (Abelson, 1985;Blackwell et al., 2007;Dweck, 2008;Rosenthal & Rubin, 1982). ...
... On the other hand, when resources are limited, pathways can be restricted as well. Resources include not only financial allocations but also authority, empowerment, information, communication channels, and trust Snyder, 1995aSnyder, , 1995bSnyder, Tran, et al., 2000;Veninga, 2000;Youssef & Luthans, 2006; for a comprehensive review, see Youssef, Luthans et al., 2007a; for a highly focused micro-intervention strategy, see Luthans, Avey, et al., 2006). Valid and reliable measures of hope as a state have also been established (Snyder et al., 1996). ...
... First, there are the thoughts that people have about their ability to produce one or more workable routes to their goals, known as pathways thinking. The second is thoughts that people have regarding their ability to begin and continue movement on selected pathways toward those goals, known as agency thinking (Snyder et al., 2006). Both types of thinking must be present for a person to experience hope. ...
... But still we cannot refuse the contribution of TP, which shows coherence with limited previous studies that argued about how FTP helps one in adapting to one's social environment (Atchley, 1975). Researchers such as Snyder, Rand, and Ritschel (2006) have argued that only future orientation has potential that differentiates human beings from animals, who always live in the present and are not able to think about abstract things and conscious intentionality, which is a fundamental requirement for conceptualization of the future. This unique characteristic of human beings confirms its crucial function during this stage of life, when planning and thinking about life projects with strong motivational value are needed and in this way social well-being is equally important for their mental health. ...