C. O. Justice's research while affiliated with University of Maryland, College Park and other places

Publications (229)

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The GEOGLAM (Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring) Initiative was established in 2011 by the G20 Action Plan on Food Price Volatility and Markets to utilize satellite data to improve crop production outlooks and early warning information. Core to GEOGLAM's mission is empowering agricultural policy and program decisions, regard...
Preprint
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Aerosols play a critical role in radiative transfer within the atmosphere, and they have a significant impact on climate change. As part of the validation of atmospheric correction of remote sensing data affected by the atmosphere, it is critical to utilize appropriate aerosol models as aerosols are a main source of error. In this paper, we propose...
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An innovative program focused on collaboration and capacity building is looking to improve outcomes for smallholder farmers, reduce hunger, and alleviate food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa.
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The GEOGLAM Crop Monitor for the G20 Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS) provides a public good of open, timely, science-driven information on crop conditions in support of market transparency. It reflects an international, multi-source, consensus assessment of crop growing conditions, status, and agro-climatic factors likely to impact gl...
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Remotely sensed Earth observations (EO) have their history firmly rooted in agricultural monitoring, and more recently with applications in food production, food security, and sustainable agriculture. Still, after more than 45 years of observing the Earth's land surface, usage of EO data by operational monitoring entities concerned with global agri...
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While people are aware that there is a continuing conflict in Ukraine, there is little understanding of its impact. The military conflict in South-Eastern Ukraine has been on-going since 2014, with a major socio-economic impact on the Donetsk and Luhansk regions. In this study, we quantify land cover land use changes in those regions related to cro...
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The two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on-board NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites have provided nearly two decades of global fire data. Here, we describe refinements made to the 500-m global burned area mapping algorithm that were implemented in late 2016 as part of the MODIS Collection 6 (C6) land-product reproces...
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The Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite was launched in 2011, in part to provide continuity with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument aboard National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Terra and Aqua remote-sensing satellit...
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We characterize the agreement and disagreement of four publically available burned products (Fire CCI, Copernicus Burnt Area, MODIS MCD45A1, and MODIS MCD64A1) at a finer spatial and temporal scale than previous assessments using a grid of three-dimensional cells defined both in space and in time. Our analysis, conducted using seven years of data (...
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Paddy Rice is the prevalent land cover in the mosaicked landscape of the Hanoi Capital Region, Vietnam. In this study, we map double and single crop rice in Hanoi using a random forest algorithm and a time-series of Sentinel-1 SAR imagery at 10m and 20m resolution using VV-only, VH-only, and both polarizations. We compare spatial and areal variatio...
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This letter aims at analyzing subpixel misregistration between multispectral images acquired by the Multi Spectral Instrument (MSI) aboard Sentinel-2A remote sensing satellite, and exploring its potential for moving target and cloud detection. By virtue of its hardware design, MSI's detectors exhibit a parallax angle that leads to subpixel shifts t...
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In this study, we estimate rice residue, associated burning emissions, and compare results with existing emissions inventories employing a bottom-up approach. We first estimated field-level post-harvest rice residues, including separate fuel-loading factors for rice straw and rice stubble. Results suggested fuel-loading factors of 0.27 kg m−2 (±0.0...
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Knowledge on geographical location and distribution of crops at global, national and regional scales is an extremely valuable source of information for many applications. Traditional approaches to crop mapping using remote sensing data rely heavily on reference or ground truth data in order to train/calibrate classification models. As a rule, such...
Article
Knowledge on geographical location and distribution of crops at global, national and regional scales is an extremely valuable source of information for many applications. Traditional approaches to crop mapping using remote sensing data rely heavily on reference or ground truth data in order to train/calibrate classification models. As a rule, such...
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This study investigates misregistration issues between Landsat-8/OLI and Sentinel-2A/MSI at 30 m resolution, and between multi-temporal Sentinel-2A images at 10 m resolution using a phase correlation approach and multiple transformation functions. Co-registration of 45 Landsat-8 to Sentinel-2A pairs and 37 Sentinel-2A to Sentinel-2A pairs were anal...
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We examine dramatic cropland expansion in Karamoja, Uganda by investigating the links between biophysical and political historical events leading to the current state of agricultural land use. Our objective was to quantify agricultural expansion, uncover the dominant drivers leading to the current state of agricultural land use and its impacts on l...
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The two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments, on-board NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, have provided more than a decade of global fire data. Here we describe improvements made to the fire detection algorithm and swath-level product that were implemented as part of the Collection 6 land-product reprocessing, which comm...
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NASA’s Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (Earth Observing System) (LANCE) supports users interested in monitoring and analyzing a wide variety of natural and man-made phenomena in Near Real-Time (NRT). This chapter provides descriptions of how LANCE products are being used and key lessons learned about delivering these products to...
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NASA’s Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (Earth Observing System) (LANCE) provides global data and imagery from the Terra, Aqua and Aura satellites in less than 3h from satellite observation to meet the needs of the near real–time (NRT) applications community. Science quality, or higherlevel “standard” products are made available w...
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Fire is an important disturbance agent in Myanmar impacting several ecosystems. In this study, we quantify the factors impacting vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of Myanmar. Satellite datasets in conjunction with biophysical and anthropogenic factors were used in a spatial framework to map the causative factors of fires. Specif...
Article
Fire products derived from coarse (500 m to 1 km) spatial resolution satellite data have become an important source of information for the fire science and applications communities. There is however a demand for moderate (30 m) spatial resolution burned area data sets, systematically generated at regional to global scale, that to date has been only...
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Agriculture is a highly dynamic process in space and time, with many applications requiring data with both a relatively high temporal resolution (at least every 8 days) and fine-to-moderate (FTM < 100 m) spatial resolution. The relatively infrequent revisit of FTM optical satellite observatories coupled with the impacts of cloud occultation have tr...
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Global agricultural monitoring utilizes a variety of Earth observations (EO) data spanning different spectral, spatial, and temporal resolutions in order to gather information on crop area, type, condition, calendar, and yield, among other applications. Categorical requirements for space-based monitoring of major agricultural production areas have...
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In order to secure the necessary image acquisitions for global agricultural monitoring applications, we must first articulate Earth observation (EO) requirements for diverse agricultural landscapes and cropping systems. Crucial to this task is the identification of agricultural growing season timing at a meaningful spatial scale, so as to better de...
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Cloud cover impedes optical satellite remote sensing instruments from obtaining clear views of the Earth's surface. Meanwhile, agriculture is a highly dynamic process, with significant changes in crop biomass and condition often occurring within roughly a week. The Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) Initiative repr...
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Landsat 8, a NASA and USGS collaboration, acquires global moderate-resolution measurements of the Earth's terrestrial and polar regions in the visible, near-infrared, short wave, and thermal infrared. Landsat 8 extends the remarkable 40 year Landsat record and has enhanced capabilities including new spectral bands in the blue and cirrus cloud-detec...
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[1] The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite incorporates fire-sensitive channels, including a dual-gain high saturation temperature 4 µm channel, enabling active fire detection and characterization. The active fire product, based on the 750m moderate resolution...
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Quantification of global forest change has been lacking despite the recognized importance of forest ecosystem services. In this study, Earth observation satellite data were used to map global forest loss (2.3 million square kilometers) and gain (0.8 million square kilometers) from 2000 to 2012 at a spatial resolution of 30 meters. The tropics were...
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In many regions of the world, fire is an integral part of land-use practices. The accurate spatio-temporal characterization of the fire regime can, therefore, inform landuse policy at many scales. Satellite-based fire detections can be manipulated with GIS methodologies to investigate the spatio-temporal patterns of fire across a landscape. However...
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[1] The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was launched in October 2011 as part of the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP). The VIIRS instrument was designed to improve upon the capabilities of the operational Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and provide observation continuity with NASA's Earth Observ...
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The objectives of the fire mapping and monitoring theme of the global observation of forest and landcover dynamics (GOFC-GOLD) program are to refine and articulate the international requirements for fire related observations, to increase access to and make the best possible use of existing and future observing systems for fire management, policy de...
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Forest cover and forest cover loss for the last decade, 2000–2010, have been quantified for the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) using Landsat time-series data set. This was made possible via an exhaustive mining of the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM +) archive. A total of 8881 images were processed to create multi-temporal image...
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Central Asian dry lands are grass- and desert shrub-dominated ecosystems stretching across Northern Eurasia. This region supports a population of more than 100 million which continues to grow at an average rate of 1.5% annually. Dry steppes are the primary grain and cattle growing zone within Central Asia. Degradation of this ecosystem through burn...
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The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board the NASA EOS Terra and Aqua satellites was the first sensor on medium-resolution polar orbiting missions with dedicated bands for the detection and characterization of high temperature objects, predominantly actively burning fires. The MODIS active fire data record now extends to ov...
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Sensors on the new generation of US operational environmental satellites will provide measurements suitable for active fire detection and characterization. The NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite, launched on October 28, 2011, carries the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), which is expected to continue the active fire data rec...
Technical Report
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This study report provides a comprehensive list of ongoing REDD projects and programmes as well as their potential contributions to GHG emissions. Varying levels of international commitment towards the objectives of REDD+ initiatives highlighted are examined and discussed in relation to the objectives and specific challenges in their implementation...
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This paper describes the lessons learned from the development of the Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) prototype and its transition to an operational system, the Global Fire Information Management System (GFIMS), at the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in August 2010. These systems provide active fire dat...
Conference Paper
This paper summarizes the NASA VIIRS Land Science team's findings to date with respect to the utility of the VIIRS Land and Cryosphere EDRs to meet NASA's science requirements. Based on previous assessments and results from a recent 51-day global test performed by the Land Product Evaluation and Analysis Tool Element (Land PEATE), the NASA VIIRS La...
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Moderate resolution satellite data have become an integral part of land remote sensing, which provide observations to support global and climate change research and applications of societal benefit. Starting with the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), daily data analysis in the time-domain provided important new insights in vege...
Chapter
Successful and sustainable use of natural resources crucially depends on the ­continuous assessment and monitoring of the land resource status, their use mechanisms, and their impacts on future resource availability. Remote sensing observations are crucial to all these activities, especially those with finer resolutions in the 30–60 m range, and mo...
Article
The NASA MODIS global fire data products are digital maps calculated from Terra and Aqua MODIS data, designed primarily to serve the needs of the emissions modeling community. The algorithms were designed to provide a comprehensive global product, and to perform well over the expected range of fire conditions and scene variability. The goal was to...
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The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites are key instruments that ­provide data on global land, atmosphere, and ocean dynamics (Salomonson et al. 1989). MODIS acquires data, which covers the entire earth surface on a near-daily basis in 36 spectral bands that spa...
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The increased thermal signal in the 3.7 µm channel, together with radiometric measurements in the longwave and shortwave channels, enable the detection of thermal anomalies from AVHRR for a wide range of environmental and observing conditions. The AVHRR has been used worldwide for operational fire monitoring and for research purposes since at least...
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A method for the systematic evaluation of the temporal reporting accuracy and precision of burned area products conducted using active fire detections as the reference dataset is described. The method is applied globally to 6 years of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) burned area and active fire product data. The distribution of...
Conference Paper
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The past decade has seen a rapid increase in availability and usage of near real-time data from satellite sensors. Applications have demonstrated the utility of timely data in a number of areas ranging from numerical weather prediction and forecasting, to monitoring of natural hazards, disaster relief, agriculture and homeland security. As applicat...
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This study examines the suitability of 250 m MODIS (MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for mapping global cropland extent. A set of 39 multi-year MODIS metrics incorporating four MODIS land bands, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and thermal data was employed to depict cropland phenology over the study period. Sub-pixe...
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This study reports results of a classification tree approach to mapping the wetlands of the Congo Basin, focusing on the Cuvette Centrale of the Congo River watershed, an area of 1,176,000 km2. Regional expert knowledge was used to train passive optical remotely sensed imagery of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (E...
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Crop residue burning is a global agricultural activity that is a source of carbon and air quality emissions. Carbon and air quality emissions from crop residue burning in the contiguous U.S. (CONUS) were estimated for a five-year period, 2003 through 2007, using multispectral remote sensing-derived products. The atmospheric species that comprise th...
Article
The overall objective of this project is to produce, validate and distribute a global land surface climate data record (CDR) using a combination of mature and tested algorithms and the best available polar orbiting satellite data from the past to the present (1981-2009), and which will be extendable into the NPOESS era. The data record will consist...
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Burning crop residue before and/or after harvest is a common farming practice however; there is no baseline estimate for cropland burned area in the contiguous U.S. (CONUS). We present the results of a study, using five years of remotely sensed satellite data to map the location and areal extent of crop residue burning in the CONUS. Our burned area...
Article
Technological advances have driven all aspects of Earth observation data, including improvements realized in sensor characteristics and capabilities, global data processing, near real-time monitoring, value-added products, and the distribution of global products. In particular, the growth of the World Wide Web is contributing to an increase in the...
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We present an automated method for mapping burned areas using 500-m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery coupled with 1-km MODIS active fire observations. The algorithm applies dynamic thresholds to composite imagery generated from a burn-sensitive vegetation index and a measure of temporal texture. Cumulative active fire m...
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Landsat remote sensing of the central African humid tropics is confounded by persistent cloud cover and, since 2003, missing data due to the Landsat‐7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) scan line corrector (SLC) malfunction. To quantify these limitations and their effects on contemporary forest cover and change characterization, a comparison was...
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The 2003 active fire observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), on board NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, were analyzed to assess burning activity in the cropland areas of the Mississippi River Valley region. Agricultural burning was found to be an important contributor to fire activity in this region, accounting...