C. Barr Taylor's research while affiliated with Palo Alto University and other places

Publications (393)

Article
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Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic has heightened the need for mental healthcare that can be delivered remotely and at scale to college students. This study evaluated the efficacy of online self-help for stress among students during the pandemic. Method: College students with moderate or higher stress (N = 585) were recruited between November 2020 a...
Article
Objective: To explore predictors of treatment seeking and uptake among individuals following an online eating disorders (EDs) screen in the U.S. disseminated by the National Eating Disorders Association. Method: Respondents who screened at risk or positive for a probable ED from 04/2019 to 05/2021 (N = 263,530) were eligible to complete a 2-mont...
Article
Eating disorders (EDs) are debilitating health conditions and common across cultures. Recent reports suggest that about 14.0% of university students in Malaysia are at risk for developing an ED, and that prevalence may differ by ethnicity and gender. However, less is known about the prevalence of EDs in nonuniversity populations. Objective: The c...
Article
Thin ideal internalization is a risk factor for disordered eating behaviors, poor body image, and eating disorders (EDs). This paper evaluated the psychometric properties of a novel measure, the Perceived Benefits of Thinness Scale (PBTS), which assesses how individuals feel being thinner would affect various aspects of their lives. Three separate...
Article
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Background The COVID-19 pandemic could affect college students’ mental health. We examined screening rates for psychological disorders before and during the pandemic.Methods Undergraduates were surveyed before (n = 3643) or during the pandemic (n = 4970). Logistic regression adjusting for participant demographics was conducted.ResultsFrequencies of...
Article
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Background Chatbots have the potential to provide cost-effective mental health prevention programs at scale and increase interactivity, ease of use, and accessibility of intervention programs. Objective The development of chatbot prevention for eating disorders (EDs) is still in its infancy. Our aim is to present examples of and solutions to chall...
Article
Objective Prevention of eating disorders (EDs) is of high importance. However, digital programs with human moderation are unlikely to be disseminated widely. The aim of this study was to test whether a chatbot (i.e., computer program simulating human conversation) would significantly reduce ED risk factors (i.e., weight/shape concerns, thin-ideal i...
Article
Objective To characterize disordered eating behaviors, eating disorder (ED) risk and diagnosis, and treatment seeking behaviors in active-duty military personnel/veterans compared with civilians. Method Self-selecting participants (n = 113,388; 1744 were military personnel/veterans) 18+ years old completed the National Eating Disorders Association...
Article
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(1) Background: The current study leveraged social media to connect with teens with EDs to identify population specific characteristics and to gather feedback on an mHealth intervention. (2) Methods: We recruited teens with EDs from social media in two phases: (1) Discovery Group, (2) Testing Group. The Discovery Group (n = 14) participants were re...
Article
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Mental health phone applications (apps) provide cost-effective, easily accessible support for college students, yet long-term engagement is often low. Digital overload, defined as information burden from technological devices, may contribute to disengagement from mental health apps. This study aimed to explore the influence of digital overload and...
Article
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BACKGROUND: Online guided self-help may be an effective and scalable intervention for symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) among university students in India. METHODS: Based on an online screen for GAD administered at four Indian universities, 222 students classified as having clinical (DSM-5 criteria) or subthreshold (GAD-Q-IV score ≥ 5....
Article
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Objective In a national sample of college students, the current study aimed to: 1) examine differences in probable diagnoses of EDs (i.e., anorexia nervosa (AN), clinical/subthreshold bulimia nervosa (BN), or binge eating disorder (BED)) and weight and shape concerns by sexual orientation and gender identity, and 2) examine differences in ED chroni...
Article
Objective Examine how eating disorder (ED) correlates, ED-related clinical impairment, general psychopathology, and ED diagnoses differ across weight statuses in a sample of university women with EDs. Method Participants were 690 women from 28 U.S. universities who screened positive for an ED (with the exception of anorexia nervosa [AN]) and parti...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Chatbots have the potential to provide cost-effective mental health prevention programs at scale and increase interactivity, ease of use, and accessibility of intervention programs. OBJECTIVE The development of chatbot prevention for eating disorders (EDs) is still in its infancy. Our aim is to present examples of and solutions to chall...
Article
Full-text available
About a third of college students struggle with anxiety, depression, or an eating disorder, and only 20-40% of college students with mental disorders receive treatment. Inadequacies in mental health care delivery result in prolonged illness, disease progression, poorer prognosis, and greater likelihood of relapse, highlighting the need for a new ap...
Article
Objective There is a lack of research on the prevalence of eating disorders (EDs) in Singapore. The aims of our study were to (a) estimate the prevalence of EDs, risk status, and help‐seeking behaviors among adults in Singapore, (b) examine gender differences between ED status groups, and (c) characterize clinical profiles of ED status groups. Met...
Article
Objective We compared eating disorder (ED) characteristics and treatment seeking behaviors between self‐identified competitive athletes and non‐athletes in a large, community‐based sample. Method During the 2018 National Eating Disorders Awareness Week, 23,920 respondents, 14.7% of whom identified as competitive athletes, completed the National Ea...
Article
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Objective: To examine eating disorder (ED) symptomatology, related clinical impairment, and comorbid psychopathology in college women with EDs across five racial and two ethnic groups. Method: Participants were 690 women from 28 US universities who screened positive for an ED. Thirteen variables assessing ED symptoms, related clinical impairment...
Article
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Background: ICare represents a consortium of European Investigators examining the effects of online mental health care for a variety of common mental health disorders provided in a variety of settings. This article provides an overview of the evidence of effectiveness for Internet-based treatment for four common mental health disorders that are th...
Article
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Importance Eating disorders (EDs) are common, serious psychiatric disorders on college campuses, yet most affected individuals do not receive treatment. Digital interventions have the potential to bridge this gap. Objective To determine whether a coached, digital, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) intervention improves outcomes for college women wi...
Article
Objective Eating disorders (EDs) compromise the health and functioning of affected individuals, but it can often take them several years to acknowledge their illness and seek treatment. Early identification of individuals with EDs is a public health priority, and innovative approaches are needed for such identification and ultimate linkage with evi...
Article
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Background Women experience poorer health outcomes following acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) have emerged as sensitive and cost-effective markers of autonomic function and prognostic risk factors of poor cardiac outcomes. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether sex-specific differences...
Article
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Introduction: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is prevalent among college students. Smartphone-based interventions may be a low-cost method of treatment. Method: College students with self-reported GAD were randomized to receive smartphone-based guided self-help (n = 50), or no treatment (n = 50). Post-treatment and six-month follow-up outcomes i...
Article
Objective Scaling an online screen that provides referrals may be key in closing the treatment gap for eating disorders (EDs), but we need to understand respondents' help‐seeking intentions and behaviors after receiving screen results. This study reported on these constructs among respondents to the National Eating Disorders Association online scre...
Article
The unprecedented COVID‐19 crisis presents an imperative for mental health care systems to make digital mental health interventions a routine part of care. Already because of COVID‐19, many therapists have rapidly moved to using telehealth in place of in‐person contact. In response to this shift, Waller and colleagues compiled a series of expert re...
Article
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Background To determine whether differential all-cause hospital readmission exists for men and women 2 years after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) treatment for acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and to identify potential pathways contributing to this association. Methods Four hundred and sixteen (416) patients admitted with ACS were recruite...
Article
Background Digital health interventions (DHIs) are poised to reduce target symptoms in a scalable, affordable, and empirically supported way. DHIs that involve coaching or clinical support often collect text data from 2 sources: (1) open correspondence between users and the trained practitioners supporting them through a messaging system and (2) te...
Article
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Objective: This study examined the associations between insomnia, anxiety, and depression in college women with eating disorders (EDs). Participants: Six hundred and ninety women from 28 US colleges who screened positive for an ED were assessed for psychiatric comorbidities. Women were, on average, 22.12 years old, mostly White (60.1%) and undergra...
Article
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This pilot study adapted family-based treatment (FBT) for youth with potentially prodromal anorexia nervosa (AN). Fifty-nine youth with clinically significant AN symptom constellations, but who never met full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.) (DSM-IV) criteria for AN, were enrolled in a partially randomized...
Article
Digital technology, which includes the collection, analysis, and use of data from a variety of digital devices, has the potential to reduce the prevalence of disorders and improve mental health in populations. Among the many advantages of digital technology is that it allows preventive and clinical interventions, both of which are needed to reduce...
Preprint
UNSTRUCTURED Background: Digital technology, which includes the collection, analysis, and use of data from a variety of digital devices, has the potential for reducing the prevalence of disorders and improving mental health in populations. Among the many advantages of digital technology is that it allows preventive and clinical interventions, both...
Article
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Purpose: Understanding how known eating disorder (ED) risk factors change in relating to one another over time may inform efficient intervention targets. We examined short-term (i.e., 1 month) reciprocal longitudinal relations between weight/shape concern and comorbid symptoms (i.e., depressed mood, anxiety) and behaviors (i.e., binge drinking) ov...
Article
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Purpose of Review This paper provides a review of the recent literature on screening for eating disorders (EDs) on college campuses, and reports on methodology, prevalence rates, treatment receipt, and ED screening tools. Recent Findings Recent research highlights relatively high prevalence rates of EDs among students on college campuses, with the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background. Eating problems are highly prevalent among young adults. Universities could be an optimal setting to prevent eating disorders through psychological intervention. As part of the World Mental Health-International College Student initiative, this systematic review and meta-analysis synthesizes data on the efficacy of eating disorder preven...
Article
Objective: Technology-enabled services frequently have limited reach and suboptimal engagement when implemented in real-world settings. One reason for these implementation failures is that technology-enabled services are not designed for the users and contexts in which they will be implemented. User-centered design is an approach to designing tech...
Article
Objective: The Internet-based Healthy Body Image (HBI) Program, which uses online screening to identify individuals at low risk of, high risk of, or with an eating disorder (ED) and then directs users to tailored, evidence-based online or in-person interventions to address individuals' risk or clinical status, was deployed at 28 U.S. universities...
Article
Background Body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint and are established risk factors for eating disorders and are also prevalent in individuals who are overweight and obese. Studies have shown that online prevention programs can lower these risk factors. The aim of this feasibility pilot study was to estimate effects of a 12-week online health p...
Article
The purpose of this study was to conduct a longer-term (i.e., 9-month) follow-up of students identified with possible anorexia nervosa (AN) as part of the Healthy Body Image Program, an online platform for screening and delivering tailored feedback and interventions, offered at 36 US universities. Participants were 61 individuals who screened posit...
Conference Paper
Introduction: Women experience poorer clinical outcomes after Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). While the reason for this differential is unclear, autonomic function -indicative of vagal and sympathetic modulation directed to the sinus node- is a candidate mechanism. Hypothesis: That sex-specific differences in heart rate variability (HRV) in the year...
Article
Objective The treatment gap between those who need and those who receive care for eating disorders is wide. Scaling a validated, online screener that makes individuals aware of the significance of their symptoms/behaviors is a crucial first step for increasing access to care. The objective of the current study was to determine the reach of dissemin...
Article
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Background:: Ageing populations and increasing survival following acute coronary syndrome has resulted in large numbers of people living with cardiovascular disease and at high risk of hospitalizations. Rising hospital admissions have a significant financial cost to the healthcare system. Aim:: The purpose of this study was to determine whether...
Article
Objective Phobic anxiety is a risk factor for poor prognosis following Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). A psychophysiological marker of vagal function, autonomic dysfunction may play a critical role in this relationship. The aim of the study was two-fold: to assess whether phobic anxiety was characterised by autonomic dysfunction (heart rate variabil...
Article
The Internet-based Healthy Body Image (HBI) Program platform uses online screening to identify individuals at low risk for, high risk for, or with an eating disorder (ED) and then directs users to tailored, evidence-based online/mobile interventions or referral to in-person care to address individuals’ risk/clinical status. We examined findings fro...
Article
Objective: As eating disorders (EDs) often emerge during college, managing EDs would ideally integrate prevention and treatment. To achieve this goal, an efficient tool is needed that detects clinical symptoms and level of risk. This study evaluated the performance of a screen designed to identify individuals at risk for or with an ED. Participants...
Article
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Background Although there is extensive evidence for the efficacy of online eating disorder (ED) prevention programs in clinical trials, these programs have rarely been adopted beyond the trial phase and offered to a wider audience. As risk factors for eating disorders are partly associated with overweight and overweight in turn is correlated to dis...
Chapter
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Eating disorders (EDs) are important and common problems among adolescents and young women, and preventing them would be an important public health achievement. Fortunately, several recent studies, informed by cross-sectional, longitudinal, and clinical risk factor research, have demonstrated a significant decrease in ED risk factors, with several...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Web-based preventive interventions can reduce risk and incidence of bulimia and binge eating disorders among young high-risk women. However, their specific effects on core symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN) are rather weak. OBJECTIVE The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an indicated, parent-based, Web-based...
Article
Full-text available
Background Web-based preventive interventions can reduce risk and incidence of bulimia and binge eating disorders among young high-risk women. However, their specific effects on core symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN) are rather weak. Objective The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an indicated, parent-based, Web-based...
Article
Full-text available
Background Disordered eating (DE) is a widespread, serious problem. Efficacious prevention programs that can be delivered at-scale are needed. Methods A pragmatic randomized controlled trial of two online programs was conducted. Participants were young-adult women from Australia and New Zealand seeking to improve their body image. Media Smart-Targ...
Presentation
Introduction everyBody is a suite of tailored, online eating disorder (ED) prevention and health promotion interventions for women at different levels of risk for disordered eating and body dissatisfaction. While the efficacy of everyBody has been evaluated in several previous trials, the current trial within the ICare consortium focuses on dissemi...
Article
Background: Inadequate sleep duration, sleep patterns, and sleep quality have been associated with metabolic, circadian, and behavioral changes that promote obesity. Adolescence is a period during which sleep habits change to include less sleep, later bedtimes, and greater bedtime shift (e.g., difference between weekend and weekday bedtime). Thus,...
Chapter
This chapter describes the diagnostic criteria used in clinical and research settings to define eating disorders and highlights important changes in the criteria introduced by DSM-5 in 2013. Emerging evidence suggests that the DSM-5 categories usefully capture a range of eating problems in need of clinical attention that were not well described in...
Chapter
The concluding chapter of this section outlines several gaps in current knowledge that will be critical to address in future research. DSM-5 introduced a number of changes in diagnostic criteria for eating disorders, and it is crucial to determine the utility of these revised criteria in addressing the needs of adolescents with clinically significa...
Chapter
This chapter examines risk factors for the development of eating disorders and efforts to prevent them. A number of variables are considered to be risk factors; however, extant research has notable limitations, including the low prevalence of these conditions within the general population, which complicates the identification of reliable risk facto...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on treatments for adolescents with eating disorders, using information derived from randomized controlled trials and evidence-based treatments for eating disorders in adults. Available data provide some guidance in selecting treatments, but there are significant limitations in research on psychological and pharmacological inter...
Article
Objective: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in the population, but relatively few affected individuals receive treatment for it. Smartphone applications (apps) could help address this unmet need by offering sound psychoeducational information and evidence-based cognitive behavioral coping tools. We conducted a randomized co...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives.: We conducted a meta-review to determine the reporting quality of user-centered digital interventions for the prevention and management of cardiometabolic conditions. Materials and methods.: Using predetermined inclusion criteria, systematic reviews published between 2010 and 2015 were identified from 3 databases. To assess whether c...
Article
Methods: Using a payer perspective, we estimated the costs of (1) delivering an online guided self-help (GSH) intervention to individuals with EDs, including the costs of "stepping up" the proportion expected to "fail"; (2) delivering an online preventive intervention compared to a "wait and treat" approach to individuals at ED risk; and (3) apply...
Article
Introduction: Research indicates that individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) may experience deficits in positive affect (PA), and tend to dampen or intentionally suppress PA. Despite the presence of PA-related pathology in GAD, little is known about change in PA during GAD treatment. Objective: This study examines changes in PA, neg...
Conference Paper
Purpose: Dietary restraint and body dissatisfaction are not only risk factors for eating disorders but also linked to overweight. Targeted prevention can lower these risk factors in young women. The aim of this feasibility pilot study was to estimate effects of online health promotion and eating disorder prevention in a sample of overweight and obe...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual minorities face greater exposure to discrimination and rejection than heterosexuals. Given these threats, sexual minorities may engage in sexual orientation concealment in order to avoid danger. This social stigma and minority stress place sexual minorities at risk for anxiety and related disorders. Given that three fourths of anxiety disord...
Poster
Reports current status of ongoing study Abstract: Dietary restraint and body dissatisfaction are established risk factors for eating disorders and are also linked to eating related health problems like overweight. Targeted prevention can lower these risk factors considerably. The aim of this study is to evaluate the reach, effectiveness, adoption,...