C B Hollenbeck's research while affiliated with Palo Alto Research Center and other places

Publications (68)

Article
The present study was performed in 17 nondiabetic subjects and was initiated to determine whether enhanced adipose tissue lipolysis, either basal or catecholamine induced (isoproterenol), and/or resistance to insulin inhibition of isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis were correlated with resistance to insulin-mediated glucose disposal by muscle. Insu...
Article
Patients with high blood pressure tend to be insulin resistant, glucose intolerant, hyperinsulinemic, and dyslipidemic. Since these metabolic defects are accentuated by obesity, we thought it important to compare the effects of 3 months' treatment with either lisinopril (20 mg/day) or low dose hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg/day) on blood pressure and...
Article
We examined the relation between insulin resistance, plasma glucose and insulin responses to meals, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, and postprandial lipemia in a population of 37 healthy nondiabetic individuals. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were determined at frequent intervals from 8 AM through midnight (breakfast at 8 AM and lunch...
Article
Full-text available
To understand why low-fat high-carbohydrate (CHO) diets lead to higher fasting and postprandial concentrations of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Patients with NIDDM were placed randomly on diets containing either 55% CHO, 30% fat, and 15% protein or 40% CHO, 45% fat, and 15% pro...
Article
Resistance to insulin-mediated glucose disposal has been previously shown to be increased in association with obesity, high blood pressure, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. We initiated the present study to quantify the separate effects of hypertension and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus on insulin resistance in both nonobese an...
Article
In this chapter I have attempted to review the current literature drawing on those studies that I believe provide the best scientific evidence in regard to this issue. When those studies that provide the best scientific evidence are reviewed, there is evidence that increasing dietary fructose consumption can significantly increase fasting plasma tr...
Article
Full-text available
This study was initiated to explore the possibility that an increase in the supply of gluconeogenic precursors contributes to the overproduction of glucose by the liver in NIDDM patients. To address this issue, a form of experimental NIDDM was produced in rats by injecting a low dose (38 mg/kg) of STZ and comparing lactate and alanine production an...
Article
Conventional immunoassays to quantify insulin concentration do not differentiate between insulin and proinsulin. Thus, previous conclusions as to the relationship between the development of hyperglycemia in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and pancreatic insulin secretory function may have been confounded by not being ab...
Article
Conventional immunoassays to quantify insulin concentration do not differentiate between insulin and proinsulin. Thus, previous conclusions as to the relationship between the development of hyperglycemia in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and pancreatic insulin secretory function may have been confounded by not being ab...
Article
In order to assess the ability of nicotinic acid to decrease plasma glucose concentration, normal individuals were given continuous four hour infusions of either nicotinic acid (NA), somatostatin (SRIF), NA + SRIF, or 0.9% NaCl (Saline). Plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration decreased to about one-fourth of the basal value in respon...
Article
In order to evaluate the relationship between peripheral white blood cell (WBC) count, insulin-mediated glucose uptake, and several risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD), WBC, plasma glucose and insulin responses to a 75-g oral glucose challenge, fasting plasma cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and triglyceride concen...
Article
The present studies demonstrate that the removal rate of exogenously labelled 125I-VLDL-protein is prolonged when total serum from insulin-deficient rats combined with isolated 125I-VLDL is injected into normal recipient rats (6.8 +/- 0.7 vs 4.2 +/- 0.4 min; p < 0.01), but not when 125I-VLDL-protein is isolated and injected alone (4.2 +/- 0.8 vs 4....
Article
The effect of metformin treatment was studied in 13 patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), whose fasting plasma glucose concentration was greater than 10 mmol/L with maximal sulfonylurea doses. Patients were studied before and 3 months after receiving 2.5 g/day metformin. The fasting plasma glucose concentration (12.4 +/- 0.8...
Article
Cigarette smoking is associated with increases in plasma triglycerides and decreases in plasma high density-lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration. These changes not only increase risk of coronary heart disease but also are secondary to resistance to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake or hyperinsulinaemia. To see whether there is a relation between c...
Article
The effect of metformin treatment was studied in 13 patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), whose fasting plasma glucose concentration was greater than 10 mmol/L with maximal sulfonylurea doses. Patients were studied before and 3 months after receiving 2.5 g/day metformin. The fasting plasma glucose concentration (12.4 +/- 0.8...
Article
Vitamin A was administered to eight patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in conjunction with the two different test meals containing (as percentage of total calories) either 15% protein, 60% carbohydrate (CHO), and 25% fat or 15% protein, 40% CHO, and 45% fat. The vitamin A and test meals were given at noon (4 h after a standard bre...
Article
Vitamin A was administered to eight patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in conjunction with the two different test meals containing (as percentage of total calories) either 15% protein, 60% carbohydrate (CHO), and 25% fat or 15% protein, 40% CHO, and 45% fat. The vitamin A and test meals were given at noon (4 h after a standard bre...
Article
To define the relationship, if any, between insulin-mediated glucose disposal and serum uric acid. Cross-sectional study of healthy volunteers. General Clinical Research Center, Stanford (Calif) University Medical Center. Thirty-six presumably healthy individuals, nondiabetic, without a history of gout. Obesity (overall and regional), plasma glucos...
Article
The dietary treatment of individuals with diabetes remains a controversial issue. The major emphasis in recent years has been on the reduction of total fat and saturated fat and replacement with complex carbohydrate. The rationale for this approach is based on the premise that such diets will reduce the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) by redu...
Article
The effect of metformin treatment was studied in nine patients with mild (fasting plasma glucose concentration less than 7.5 mmol.l-1) non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) concentration greater than 2.0 mmol.l-1. Individuals were studied before and three months after receiving 2.5 g/day of metformin....
Article
Plasma glycerol and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were determined in the basal state and in response to physiological hyperinsulinaemia in 30 non-obese individuals, 15 with Type 2 diabetes and 15 with normal glucose tolerance. Patients with Type 2 diabetes had higher basal concentrations of both glycerol (81 +/- 7 (+/- SE) vs 61 +...
Article
A classification of carbohydrate-containing foods based on their glycemic response to 50-g carbohydrate portions has recently been developed. The relative glycemic potency of many of these carbohydrate-containing foods have been compared, and these data have been published in the form of a glycemic index. It has been suggested that meals containing...
Article
Nineteen patients with Type 2 diabetes were treated with glipizide for 2.5-6 months, and measurements made of metabolic variables before and after glipizide treatment. For purposes of analysis, the glipizide associated decrease in fasting plasma glucose concentration was used to divide patients into 'good' responders (decrease of 4.0 mmol l-1 or mo...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of the acute ingestion of glucose on the concentration of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) and total vitamin B-6 (TB6) in plasma was studied. Five males and four females were given 1 g D-glucose/kg body wt. A blood sample was collected at 0-10 min and 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 h and the plasma was analyzed for PLP and TB6. There was a signif...
Article
This study was carried out to determine whether hepatic glucose production (HGP) could be suppressed in normal subjects by infusing different amounts of glucose, in the absence of significant changes in steady state plasma glucose (SSPG) or insulin (SSPI) concentrations. Consequently, subjects were infused with somatostatin (215 nmol/h), insulin (2...
Article
Maximal dynamic exercise results in a postexercise hyperglycemia in healthy young subjects. We investigated the influence of maximal exercise on glucoregulation in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects (NIDDM). Seven NIDDM and seven healthy control males bicycled 7 min at 60% of their maximal O2 consumption (VO2max), 3 min at 100% VO2max, and 2 m...
Article
To evaluate the effect of glucagon on regulation of plasma FFA concentration, continuous iv infusions of either somatostatin (S) or somatostatin (S) plus glucagon (G) were administered to 18 individuals with normal glucose tolerance. In 9 of these individuals there was no insulin replacement, whereas in the other 9 individuals enough insulin was in...
Article
The effect of metformin treatment on various aspects of carbohydrate and lipoprotein metabolism has been defined in 12 patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Patients were studied before and after approximately 4 mo of metformin therapy. Treatment was initiated with a single dose of 500 mg/day, increased at weekly intervals,...
Article
Twelve patients with Type 2 diabetes and uncontrolled hyperglycaemia, never before treated with anti-diabetic drugs, were studied before and after several months of glibenclamide therapy. Fasting plasma glucose fell significantly (p less than 0.01) from 12.5 +/- 1.1 (mean +/- SE) to 8.3 +/- 0.4 mmol l-1 with glibenclamide therapy, as did glycosylat...
Article
Although low-fat high-carbohydrate diets are recommended for patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in an effort to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), the results of short-term studies have shown that these diets can lead to changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism associated with an increased risk of CAD....
Article
Recently, there has been increasing interest toward the liberalization of sucrose in the diets of individuals with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). However, there is evidence from several well-controlled prospective studies demonstrating that the consumption of moderate amounts of sucrose may result in hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemi...
Article
Plasma glucose and insulin concentration following a 75 g oral glucose challenge and glucose uptake during a hyperinsulinaemic glucose clamp study were determined in 50 non-obese individuals. The study population was divided into five groups on the basis of their glucose tolerance: normal, impaired glucose tolerance, Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent)...
Article
Measurements of various aspects of glucose, insulin and lipid metabolism were made before and after the administration of enprostil (a synthetic dehydroprostaglandin E2) for one week to ten patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Both fasting (P less than 0.01) and postprandial (P less than 0.001) plasma glucose concentration...
Article
Fasting and postprandial plasma glucose, free fatty acid (FFA), lactate, and insulin concentrations were measured at hourly intervals for 24 h in 27 nonobese individuals-9 with normal glucose tolerance, 9 with mild non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM, fasting plasma glucose less than 175 mg/dl), and 9 with severe NIDDM (fasting plasma gl...
Article
The changes in hepatic glucose production (Ra), tissue glucose disposal (Rd), and plasma glucose and insulin concentration that took place over a 16-h period from 10 to 2 p.m. were documented in 14 individuals; 8 with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and 6 with normal glucose tolerance. Values for Ra were higher than normal in patien...
Article
Although plasma glucose and insulin responses have been shown to vary considerably when either normal subjects or patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) consume different carbohydrate-rich foods, it has been difficult to demonstrate this phenomenon when the same foods have been incorporated into a single mixed meal. To pursue...
Article
The quantity and nature of carbohydrate has always been a central feature of the diabetic dietary prescription. In many Western countries from at least the 18th Century until about ten years ago people with diabetes were almost invariably advised to radically reduce total carbohydrate and to eliminate as far as possible mono- and disaccharides. Fro...
Article
In order to define the relationship between treatment-induced changes in diabetic control and improvement in in vivo insulin-stimulated glucose utilization (insulin clamp technique) 30 patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) were treated with either insulin, glipizide or diet alone, depending on their initial weight. Fasting p...
Article
It has been demonstrated that carbohydrate-rich foods result in different plasma glucose responses when eaten alone by normal subjects and patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). This study was designed to test if the glycemic response to mixed meals can be altered by selecting carbohydrate-rich foods based on their glycemic...
Article
Measurements were made of both glucose disposal (M) during hyperinsulinemic clamp studies and plasma glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge in 100 individuals with normal glucose tolerance. The subjects were divided into 4 quartiles on the basis of M values, ranging from a low mean (+/- SEM) value of 140 +/- 3 mg/m2 X min (quart...
Article
The effects of variations in dietary carbohydrate and fat intake on various aspects of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were studied in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Two test diets were utilized, and they were consumed in random order over two 15-day periods. One diet was low in fat and high in carbohydrate, and co...
Article
In the present study eight control subjects and eight patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) consumed single portions of processed beans equivalent to 50 g of carbohydrate. The beans were processed by different methods into two physical forms; one maintained the integrity of the bean cells (undamaged bean cells, UC) and the o...
Article
Defects in both insulin secretion and action have been documented in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), leading to the suggestion that both fasting hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in NIDDM are secondary to insulin deficiency. In order to test this hypothesis, insulin secretion (plasma insulin response to oral glucose...
Article
The ability of intensive insulin treatment to increase plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels was evaluated in 12 patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Patients were treated for 6 weeks with one daily morning injection of ultralente insulin, in combination with administration of regular insulin before breakfast, lu...
Article
The present study assesses the impact of variations in the amount of fiber in high carbohydrate diets on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in NIDDM. The amount and source of carbohydrate, and source of dietary fiber, were held constant. Two 4-wk diet periods were randomly assigned and all subjects completed both dietary periods. Diets were identica...
Article
The present study assesses the impact of variations in the amount of fiber in high carbohydrate diets on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in NIDDM. The amount and source of carbohydrate, and source of dietary fiber, were held constant. Two 4-wk diet periods were randomly assigned and all subjects completed both dietary periods. Diets were identica...
Article
This study addresses the metabolic effects of sucrose in the diets of 11 individuals with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Each of two dietary periods were 15 days in length, and contained 50% of the calories as carbohydrate, 30% as fat, and 20% as protein. The only variable between the two periods was the percentage of total calorie...
Article
The effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus on maximal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in the rat was studied in isolated adipocyte, perfused hindlimb, and the intact organism. Basal glucose transport per fat cell was reduced by approximately two-thirds (P less than 0.001), being associated with a similar decrease in glucose oxidation...
Article
The insulin clamp technique, which is often assumed to measure the ability of insulin to stimulate glucose uptake, actually measures both insulin-independent and insulin-dependent glucose uptake. In contrast, the minimal model technique, recently introduced by Bergman, Philips and Cobelli (1981), attempts to directly estimate insulin sensitivity (i...
Article
The study was carried out to quantify the ability of physiological increases in the plasma insulin concentration to stimulate glucose disposal above basal levels in 25 normal subjects and 25 patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Patients were sex, age, and weight matched, and glucose disposal was determined under basal condi...
Article
Six women with well-defined insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) were studied for 4 weeks during a control diet containing 45% of the calories as carbohydrate, 40% fat (P/S ratio 0.14), 15% protein, and 580 mg of cholesterol, and for 6 weeks during a high-carbohydrate low-fat cholesterol-restricted diet with 65% carbohydrate, 20% fat (P/S rat...
Article
Hypocaloric liquid formula diets were given for one month to 20 moderately obese patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus divided into two equal groups; group 1 was treated with weight loss alone; group 2 received glipizide in addition to the hypocaloric diet. Mean weight loss was similar in the two groups (6.5 +/- 0.6 v 6.4 +/- 0.5 kg...
Article
Full-text available
This study was initiated to compare the abilities of two alternative approaches to the measurement of insulin-dependent glucose disposal in normal humans. The ability of insulin to stimulate glucose disposal was measured in 12 normal subjects by determining glucose disposal rates during insulin clamp studies carried out at both basal insulin concen...
Article
The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of differences in habitual level of physical activity on insulin action in healthy males between 60 and 75 years of age. The study population consisted of 20 non-obese individuals with normal glucose tolerance: 13 older subjects (68 +/- 4 years) not exercising regularly and 7 older subjects (66 +/-...
Article
In the present study, 12 patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) consumed eucaloric, mixed food diets on three consecutive days. Diets provided 50% of the calories as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. The percent of carbohydrate fed as complex (starches) and simple (monoand disaccharides) varied among the 3 days. O...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, six women with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) were assigned to begin either a control diet containing 45% of the calories as carbohydrate, 40% fat, and 15% protein for four weeks, or a high carbohydrate, low fat diet with 65% carbohydrate, 20% fat, and 15% protein for six weeks. All subjects completed both periods...
Article
Previous reports have documented the fact that plasma glucose and insulin responses can vary in response to the ingestion of different carbohydrate-rich foods. This has led to the creation of a "glycemic index," a classification of dietary carbohydrates on the basis of the relative rise in plasma glucose after the administration of the food in ques...
Article
Insulin clamp studies were carried out in 50 individuals, 25 with normal glucose tolerance and 25 with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Both diagnostic groups were further subdivided on the basis of body mass index (BMI) into an obese (BMI greater than 28 kg/m2) or nonobese group (BMI less than 28 kg/m2). The obese and nonobese subj...
Article
The relative effects of time versus ambient glucose concentration on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was estimated by performing 5-h insulin clamp studies in patients with NIDDM. Each experimental subject was studied three times, at steady-state plasma insulin levels approximately 2000 microU/ml, but at different steady-state plasma glucose conce...
Article
The relationship between in vivo insulin-stimulated glucose utilization (euglycemic clamp technique) and various estimates of the plasma insulin response to oral glucose was defined in 62 subjects with normal glucose tolerance. Both the incremental insulin increase above fasting (r = 0.61) and the total integrated insulin response (r = 0.65) were h...
Article
The insulin-stimulated glucose metabolic clearance rate, assessed by the insulin clamp technique, was compared in 40 normal subjects and 40 age- and weight-matched patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. These studies were conducted at steady-state plasma insulin levels of approximately 100 microU/ml, and the mean (+/- standard error...
Article
Full-text available
We have tested the effectiveness of a commercial starch blocker on the digestion and absorption of dietary carbohydrates in six normal, healthy volunteers. The effectiveness of the starch blocker to attenuate or block the digestion of carbohydrate was assessed against a placebo by the measurement of end tidal breath hydrogen, plasma glucose, and in...
Article
Full-text available
The composition and nutritional adequacy of subject-selected high carbohydrate, low fat diets were investigated in six women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Subjects were randomly assigned to begin either the experimental diet with 65% carbohydrate, 20% fat, and 15% protein for 6 wk, or a control diet with 45% carbohydrate, 40% fat, and 1...

Citations

... Other groups publishing at around the same time or shortly afterwards produced broadly comparable results (Rivellese et al, 1980;Riccardi et al, 1984). Those who were unable to duplicate these findings may have used foods which were not sufficiently rich in soluble fibre (Hollenbeck et al, 1988). ...
... The high-fibre group showed statistically or clinically significantly greater reductions in fasting and postprandial blood glucoses, HbA 1c , and lipids concen trations, and greater weight loss. 61 These positive findings were not observed in other fibre supplementation studies where the intake of dietary fibre was increased by only 16 g/1000 kcal through the consumption of foods prepared in a research kitchen 62 or by 14 g/day through dietary instruction. 63 In 2011, Wanders and colleagues 64 performed a systematic review of 102 randomised controlled trials that concluded that viscous (soluble) fibre had the most profound effect on appetite suppression. ...
... Similarly, when the incremental TAG area under the curve was calculated after ingesting virtually isoenergetic meals with 91·2 and 55·6 % of energy as fat, TAG concentrations were significantly increased after the ingestion of both the meals, without a significant difference between the trials (54) . An earlier study, in type 2 diabetic patients, reported that the postprandial TAG response to a mixed meal containing 25 % of energy as fat was only marginally, and nonsignificantly, less than that to an isoenergetic meal containing 45 % fat (55) . The protein content of the two meals given by Chen et al. was kept constant (15 % of energy), therefore implicating the higher carbohydrate content of the lower-fat meal as a factor preventing an attenuated lipaemic response. ...
... Its advantages include insignificant risks of clinical hypoglycemia, which is a serious side effect caused by antidiabetic agents such as insulin and sulfonylureas [87]. In addition, metformin reduces plasma triglycerides and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) [88][89][90][91], which may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease. The drug has received considerable attention due to a reduced cancer incidence in diabetic patients treated with metformin [13][14][15]. ...
... Because plasma proinsulin is a risk factor for diabetes 42 , we also determined if proinsulin is secreted from MIN6 cells treated with CPA 43 ( Supplementary Fig. 2a, b). We show proinsulin is secreted during treatment with CPA (1 h and 18 h) and secretion decreases following washout of CPA from cells (after 18 h treatment). ...
... The metabolic characteristics of diabetes patients are abnormally high concentrations of glucose in the blood and lipid metabolic abnormality (Coulston & Hollenbeck, 1988). The serum lipid abnormalities in type 2 DM are characterized by decreased HDL-C level and hypertriglyceridemia, whereas total cholesterol and LDL-C levels are similar to those in nondiabetic subjects (Kjeld et al., 2001). ...
... Both interventions tested yielded reductions in anthropometric profile variables at 6-month. To our knowledge, only two small studies investigated the effect of a low-fat diet in patients with T1D and found, in the first study (n Z 10) a stable weight after 3-month but a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity [25] while, in the second study, a low-fat dietary intervention over 4 weeks (n Z 6) resulted in a decrease in total-and LDLcholesterol, but an increase in TG levels [26]. No study yet investigated the effects of a MED-diet in patients with T1D. ...
... Chronic smokers are insulin resistant. They are more likely to develop hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia than nonsmokers [7]. Another study has found that serum cholesterol, TG, VLDL-C, and LDL-C concentrations are significantly higher whereas HDL-C concentrations are significantly lower in smokers, than in non-smokers [8]. ...
... In contrast, some studies have reported no changes or a decrease in glucose with niacin therapy. Indeed, in a study conducted on nonobese, healthy, physically active men and women with normal glucose tolerance, glucose levels decreased from baseline during 4 h of continuous intravenous infusion of niacin (Skowronski et al. 1992). ...
... A recent Mendelian randomization study in humans supports a causal inverse relationship between HDL-C and leukocyte counts 38 . Similarly, insulin resistance has been associated with high white blood cell count in humans [39][40][41] . It is therefore possible that the observed association between metabolic dysfunction and clone growth is linked to increased HSC proliferation. ...