Bruce V. Ettling's scientific contributions

Publications (3)

This paper gives the results of a series of experiments and how they shed light on problems of electrical fires. Experimental glowing connections were made by allowing wires to make poor contact with another object in series in a circuit.
Marks or cavities in wiring that were made by electrical arcing were compared to those made by mechanical means. Arc marks are usually easily distinguished from mechanical gouges. Electrical heating attributed to the reduction in cross-sectional area of the wire is negligible.
Electrical wiring (mainly copper) was subjected to overcurrent, arcing, or fire heating in the laboratory. Many samples were also taken from actual fires. The melting and damage patterns tended to be characteristic for each cause of damage, although there was some overlap in effects. Some guidelines on the use of the observed effects are given for...


... Finally, the last scale which is the large-scale analysis allows to focus on real fire scenario with complex materials in complex environments and allows to investigate the interactions between burning items contributing to the effective fire growth. Electrical cables are one of the main fire hazards in homes [51] and in many industrial sectors such as buildings [52][53][54], aircraft [55], spacecraft [56] and nuclear power plants (NPPs) [57]. Several hundred kilometers of electrical cables can be found in most industrial plants that contain numerous electrical devices (electrical cabinets, digital switch racks…) and multiple cable trays connecting these appliances. ...
... A common misconception is that glowing connections and arc faults are similar. However, an arc fault is a continuous electrical discharge between two conducting points [17] that produces heat from an ionizing spark, whereas a glowing connection consists of purely resistive heating [18]. At a very high current, glowing connections can emit a bright light and be misidentified as an arc fault. ...