Brent E. Turvey's research while affiliated with Hospital Juarez De Mexico and other places

Publications (130)

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Crime scene investigation refers to the process of establishing the scientific facts of a case using physical evidence that has been gathered in relation to suspected criminal activity. Crime scene investigation does not occur only within the confines of yellow barrier tape under the watchful eye of law enforcement officers and investigators; it is...
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Those who solve complex problems do so by gathering information before acting; thinking systematically; reviewing their progress; and correcting themselves often. Those who make the most errors tended to cling to preconceived theories; do not correct themselves; and blame others when things go wrong. These errors made in complex situations are not...
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When acts of torture are used, sponsored, or tolerated by government agents, it is an abuse of authority. What's more, it is an effective demonstration of cruelty evidencing cultural and institutional tyranny. This is perhaps why there is no better mechanism for inducing resentment, mistrust, and then active resistance from those who suffer its eff...
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The forensic interview is conducted for the purposes of assisting an investigation, in a legally defensible manner, and meets the criteria for courtroom admissibility. It is also intended to be structured in such a fashion as to elicit specific types of information from the subject in order to achieve maximum integrity and accountability. These mea...
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Rape refers to nonconsensual sexual penetration. It is a form of sexual assault, which refers generally to any nonconsensual sexual contact. The purpose of this chapter is to provide the forensic investigator with an applied understanding of the variety of physical evidence involved in cases of alleged rape and sexual assault, how to evaluate it, a...
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The medicolegal death investigation is meant to be an independent scientific inquiry carried out by qualified investigative and medical personnel trained in forensic pathology. In reality, it is more often a muted effort, hampered by untrained personnel, political agendas, and an overall lack of examiner competence within a broken and underfunded s...
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Crime scene processing is a term that refers to the recognition, documentation, preservation, collection, and transportation of physical evidence for examination and testing. There are different kinds of crime scenes and different levels of processing, each with its own limitations and considerations. These efforts must be consistent, comprehensive...
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Forensic victimology is concerned with the investigation and examination of particular victims alleged to have suffered specific crimes, which is an idiographic form of knowledge building. It is intended to serve both investigative and forensic goals, which are very different in scope and reliability with respect to findings. To reduce bias and ach...
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Forensic investigators have a professional duty of care that must include adequate education and training; competent practice for which they must be accountable; fitness for duty; and a clearly defined code of professional ethics outlining their obligation to the truth and the law before agencies or politics. Unfortunately the existing literature s...
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The forensic investigators understand what they need to do to identify, document, collect, and preserve forensic evidence of all kinds and to do so in a fashion that ensures its reliability and admissibility. They also understand they will be challenged, from all sides, which they embrace because this is how it should be. It also means they are cap...
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The terms forensic investigator and forensic investigation are part of our cultural identity. They can be found in the news, on television, and in film. They are invoked, generally, to imply that highly trained personnel will be collecting some form of physical evidence with eventual scientific results that cannot be questioned or bargained with. I...
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A threshold assessment (TA) is an investigative report that reviews the initial physical evidence of the behavior, forensic victimology, and crime scene characteristics for a particular case, or a series of related cases, in order to provide immediate direction. It is not informed by complete access to all crime scene documentation, victim informat...
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Allegations of sexual assault are just that. Consequently, until there has been an investigation and a criminal conviction, the person making the allegation may only be referred to as a complainant. Referring to them as a “victim” prior to this is biased, from a forensic perspective, and violates the function of a criminal trial. This is because us...
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Professionalization is the process by which any trade or vocation becomes professional, characterized by a high degree of competence with respect to domain-specific knowledge, skills, and abilities. Ideally, professional societies, associations, and organizations are intended to assist with the professionalization of the fields they serve. This gen...
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Case linkage, also referred to as linkage analysis, is the process of determining whether there are discrete connections, or distinctive behavioral factors, that associate two or more previously unrelated cases by means of crime scene analysis. It involves establishing and comparing the physical evidence, victimology, crime scene characteristics, m...
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The term sexual homicide is a broad classification. It can be accurately used to describe any homicide that evidences one or more of the following: sexual activity, a sexual component, or a sexual aspect. Examples of these include evidence of sexual activity between the offender and the victim, victim nudity—full or partial to include the exposure...
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Anabolic steroid abuse is often discussed in relation to body dysmorphic disorder, which is a psychiatric condition characterized by those who worry about their body image (e.g., shape, size, and dimensions) to the point of delusion. Such cases are incredibly rare. However, they are also covered by the discussions in this chapter as they share the...
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The authors have observed that police officers and their families deny steroid abuse as part of the cycle of addiction; public safety agencies deny it so that they don’t have to take any corrective or punitive action that might bring further liability; and the courts deny it, hoping to protect prior convictions from the stain of law enforcement mis...
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Unionized agencies may have some problems with this. Additionally, drug tests may not be administered in some agencies until there is a job offer on the table. However, a waiver could be drafted in order to satisfy these issues. Refusal to sign the waiver would indicate that there might be a problem, and suggests the need for further pre-employment...
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Clen and Adderall prescriptions are very popular among celebrities and reality television stars as a means for rapid weight loss—however, they also associated with irrational behavior. Adderall is an amphetamine, while Clenbuterol is a beta 2 agonist. Both are appetite suppressants and promote fat loss with muscle retention. In high doses, both can...
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Possession of anabolic steroids is generally a misdemeanor unless the intent to sell can be established. Then it becomes a felony. As we will discuss, the dealer–user model is common with these drugs, to finance what can be an expensive addiction.
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Wellness is often described as good physical and mental health.
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Eric Meadors is a former student of both authors.
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Criminal profiling refers to any means of inferring the traits of individuals responsible for committing criminal acts. Professionals involved in the practice of criminal profiling have historically included behavioral scientists, social scientists, forensic scientists and criminal investigators. Generally, profiling methods tend to be either induc...
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This text provides an investigative and forensic desk reference manual for investigators and attorneys responding to complaints of anabolic steroid abuse among public safety personnel, including those in law enforcement, firefighting, and emergency medical services. Anabolic Steroid Abuse in Public Safety Personnel: A Forensic Manual provides reade...
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In this chapter, we discuss the nature and consequences of police corruption and its contributions to miscarriages of justice. At the outset, it is important to understand that those working in the criminal justice system come to appreciate that each police agency, and each police station, is separate from every other—both physically and culturally...
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Forensic nursing is a subspecialty of forensic science and nursing in which the science of nursing is applied to the resolution of legal matters. A forensic nurse is a particular kind of forensic examiner who provides patient care in the context of evidence recognition, documentation, collection, and preservation efforts. Forensic nurses are conseq...
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To the forensic community’s credit, history has shown that even complex evidentiary issues can be answered when qualified and ethical forensic scientists use validated methods, techniques, and technologies to examine physical evidence. It has been thus for more than a century. Although forensic scientists are influential players in the justice syst...
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Apart from fingerprints or DNA, perhaps the most powerful evidence that an investigator can have is a suspect confession or eyewitness identification. Either can be enough to get an indictment and then eventually lead a jury to convict. However, through DNA exonerations, both types of evidence have been revealed as more fallible than generally pres...
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The purpose of this chapter is to discuss what happens when there is a failure with respect to forensic examinations, whether it be on the part of a single professional, among laboratory supervisors, or across an entire laboratory system. It demonstrates that such failures cannot occur in a vacuum, and that they are often the result of influences t...
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Once the reality of wrongful convictions has been confirmed anecdotally, the question of frequency arises. Researchers and other CJ professionals want to know how often miscarriages occur, and whether there are consistent correlates that can lend themselves to prediction and possibly prevention. At the outset, it must be acknowledged that despite t...
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The purpose of this chapter is to discuss prosecutorial misconduct, which is “the use of deceptive or reprehensible methods to attempt to persuade either the court or the jury” (see California v. Hill, 1998; California v. Espinosa, 1992; California v. Price, 1991; and California v. Pitts, 1990). Prosecutorial misconduct is considered a major factor...
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Stranger violence occurs when an offender attacks a victim that he or she does not know. There is a false belief held by some that strangers represent the greatest danger to our personal safety. This perception endures because of the way the media reports and portrays crime. This chapter dispels prevailing myths and rhetoric connected with stranger...
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In this chapter, we explore the relationship between flawed forensic science, expert testimony, and miscarriages of justice. First, we take stock of how the legal community tends to view the forensic sciences. Then we review related empirical findings. Next, we discuss the National Academy of Sciences Report on the forensic science community-a wate...
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The purpose of this chapter is to provide readers with an applied sense of what 911 emergency response is and does; the challenges faced by 911 dispatchers when dealing with callers in distress; and the problems that have and continue to plague 911 emergency response systems in general, from personnel issues to funding shortages.
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Miscarriage of justice is a general term used to describe the inequity that occurs when victims or offenders do not receive fair treatment by the justice system, often resulting in a legal outcome that is not in their favor. The goals of this chapter are to dispel prevailing myths and rhetoric connected with the nature and causes of miscarriages in...
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Extract: Workplace violence is defined by one authority as "violence or the threat of violence against others" (OSHA 2002, 1). Because of sensational coverage by the popular media, the public perception of the frequency of different incarnations of workplace-related violence, such as homicide, is likely to be greatly distorted. Watching the evening...
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An informant is anyone who supplies information to a third party; usually, the information is of a sensitive, proprietary, or otherwise confidential nature. In the criminal justice system, the term criminal informant (aka confidential informant, CI, or "snitch") is generally used to describe someone who provides investigators with information relat...
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This chapter presents the concept of sex trafficking and the broad spectrum of sexual assault victimization that it creates. The culture of sex trafficking is, in part, created by sexual assault, thrives on sexual assault as a commodity and a weapon, and ensures the continued sexual assault of those coerced into servitude. The economic continuum is...
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Extract: Before the turn of the century, I was a frequent visitor to the office of Dr. Stephen Pittel in Berkeley, California. Dr. Pittel still a friend and trusted colleague, is also a forensic psychologist who specializes in cases that involve interpreting the effects of drugs and alcohol. During one of my visits I noticed, tapes to the wall abov...
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The most objective and reliable measure for examining the victim–offender relationship is the level of exposure involved. Victim exposure is the amount of contact or vulnerability to harmful elements experienced by the victim and is determined by examining and considering lifestyle exposure and situational exposure. This chapter explores how lifest...
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Forensic victimology is concerned with the investigation and examination of particular victims alleged to have suffered specific crimes, which is an idiographic form of knowledge building. It is intended to serve both investigative and forensic goals, which are very different in scope and reliability with respect to findings. To reduce bias and ach...
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The purpose of this chapter is to consider ineffective assistance of counsel issues—aka “bad lawyering”—and their relationship to miscarriages of justice. This begins with a discussion of the right to effective counsel, as well as the structure and function of the criminal defense community. It concludes with a review of IAC issues, both before and...
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This chapter reviews the major ethical issues and questions peculiar to criminal defense attorneys as they represent their clients. While it is not possible to consider or anticipate every dilemma faced by those advocating for criminal defendants, the authors discuss the most significant issues as they have experienced them. Specific ethical consid...
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A professional organization is a group with clear membership guidelines that establishes terms of professionalization and pledges sanction or expulsion for those unable or unwilling to meet those terms. This chapter discusses the role of professional organizations in the regulation and maintenance of the criminal justice professions. This includes...
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Criminal justice educators share a common set of ethical responsibilities towards their employers, colleagues, students, and fiats of scholarship. They are a professional guide, charged with ushering their student towards professionalism, letting them know what to expect and how to behave, all the while explaining the rules that must be followed. E...
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"Forensic Fraud" is a timely work that examines the problem of forensic fraud both theoretically and empirically, assessing the relationships among examiner, workplace, evidentiary, and impact variables. Unvalidated or improper forensic science is a leading cause of wrongful convictions. In more than 50% of the DNA exonerations nationwide, unvalida...
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A teaching tool that provides both the sociological and forensic perspective as it relates to ethics in criminology. This textbook was developed from an idiom shared by the authors and contributors alike: ethics and ethical challenges are generally black and white - not gray. They are akin to the pregnant woman or the gunshot victim; one cannot be...
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The criminal justice system is the network of government and private agencies intended to manage accused and convicted criminals. The criminal justice system is comprised of multiple interrelated pillars, consisting of academia, law enforcement, forensic services, the judiciary, and corrections. These pillars are fashioned to support the ideals of...
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The term forensic examiner generally refers to any professional who examines and interprets physical evidence with the expectation of courtroom testimony. This chapter explores the primary ethical issues that confront forensic examiners in their casework and subsequent testimony. These issues include examiner bias and observer effects, inducements...
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Students of criminal justice have before them an endless series of choices that will define their character. Thoughtful and sober control of their ethical compass is immediately important to their professional career, as all of their conduct is open to scrutiny by future employers. This is truer in the criminal justice professions than any other, g...
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Corrections is the branch of the criminal justice system that deals with the probation, incarceration, management, rehabilitation, treatment, parole, and sometimes execution of convicted criminals. It is attended to by a wide range of professionals, including wardens, sheriffs, jail officers, prison guards, corrections investigators, probation/paro...
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This chapter takes a realistic view of crime laboratory management and administration, in order to ferret out the most significant ethical issues as the authors have experienced them. It focuses on the obligations and responsibilities of those in supervisory roles, with respect to management, culture, maintenance, and personnel issues. The authors...
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Police administration refers to the control and operation of law enforcement agencies, and the subsequent discharge of policies that keep the peace, increase public safety, and prevent crime. From a command perspective, police administration involves setting agency policy and making operational decisions that best achieve the aforementioned goals w...
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Whistleblower is a generic term used to describe someone that reports misconduct within their own agency or institution; or, as described in Miethe (1999, p. 11): "an employee or former employee who reports misconduct to persons who have power to take action". This includes reporting breaches of administrative policy, professional ethics, professio...
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In order for the ethical prosecutor to exercise their discretion properly, and to assess the quality of the investigation that has been conducted, attention must be given to the following legal issues: reading the case file; overall investigative quality; warrants and probable cause; witness credibility; officer credibility; and the credibility of...
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This chapter explores the more common ethical issues that are confronted by those on patrol, and also by those conducting criminal investigations. However, before these issues are explored, one must understand that a responding law enforcement agency has a duty of care, referring to the professional and legal obligation to be competent custodians o...
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The judiciary is the branch of the criminal justice system that deals with the adjudication and exoneration or punishment of criminal defendants. This chapter reviews the ethical issues arising from those that some refer to as Éc;bad judgesÉ: those who are guided by principles that are Éc;incompetent, self-indulgent, abusive, or corruptÉ and ultima...
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Correctional settings are visited by mental health practitioners under a variety of different employment circumstances, providing inmate evaluations and treatment. This chapter provides an overview of the ethical issues encountered by mental health practitioners employed directly by a correctional facility. These include ethical issues related to i...
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Victims face many challenges as they enter the criminal justice system. Not everyone who can help them will. Not everyone who is supposed to help them is able, willing, or even technically required to do so. And not everyone who claims to be helping is making things better. As a result of the cumulative effects of an overburdened justice system, ap...
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The purpose of this chapter is to discuss what happens when there is a failure with respect to forensic examinations, whether it be on the part of a single professional, among laboratory supervisors, or across an entire laboratory system. It will demonstrate that such failures cannot occur in a vacumm, and that they are often the result of influenc...
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This chapter focuses on the history of criminal profiling. Inferring the traits of individuals responsible for committing criminal acts has commonly been referred to as “criminal profiling.” Criminal profiling has a legal history that can be traced back to the blood-labeling of Jews in Rome. Over the past 200 years, professionals engaged in the pra...
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This chapter discusses the general method, principles, and practice standards of behavioral evidence analysis (BEA). BEA is an ideo-deductive method of crime-scene analysis (CSA) and criminal profiling. It involves the examination and interpretation of physical evidence, forensic victimology, and crime-scene characteristics. For the purposes of cri...
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Crime-scene analysis (CSA) and criminal-profiling methods depend upon a host of different variables that must be gathered, weighed, and interpreted. Chief among these are the characteristics evident in the crime scene. Crime-scene characteristics are the features of a scene as evidenced by offender behavior related to decisions about the victim and...
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This chapter presents awareness about the kinds of subjects that should be studied and understood before a sex crime can be comprehensively investigated. The term sex crime generally refers to any confluence of criminal and sexual acts. In some cases, sexual activity is inherently criminal, such as that involving a lack of consent. Among the primar...
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Forensic victimology, an idiographic form of knowledge building, is concerned with the investigation and examination of particular victims alleged to have suffered specific crimes. It is intended to serve both investigative and forensic goals, which are very different in scope and reliability with respect to findings. To reduce bias and achieve a m...
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The application of the scientific method creates two different types of knowledge: idiographic and nomothetic. Nomothetic (group) study results in knowledge about the characteristics of groups, which is not only useful but also necessary when trying to define groups, solve group-related problems, or generate initial theories about issues in specifi...
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Motive can be defined as the emotional, psychological, and material needs that impel and are satisfied by behavior. Determinations of motive are not made directly as it is not possible to read the mind of any criminal. Nor are confessions regarding motivation reliable without corroboration. Motives are most reliably inferred by reasoning from the f...
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People lie at some point in life, either to protect themselves or to protect others. In some instances, these untruths may be referred to as “white lies”—when they are harmless, perhaps beneficial to those around, and contribute to the greater good. Under other circumstances, a lie may be an utter betrayal of personal or professional commitments, i...
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Sexual asphyxia can be practiced both as an autoerotic activity and as a consensual sadomasochistic act between two or more people. When consensual sexual asphyxia results in death, the death is unintended. Conversely, acts of nonconsensual sexual asphyxia would be for the needs of the person restricting the other person's oxygen source and are bes...
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Behavioral evidence analysis (BEA) is an ideo-deductive method of criminal profiling that seeks to examine the behaviors and patterns in a particular offense and then make specific inferences about offender characteristics that are evident directly from crime-related behavior. The purpose of BEA is to provide insight into criminal behavior and to d...
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This chapter provides an introduction to crime reconstruction. Crime reconstruction is the determination of the actions and events surrounding the commission of a crime. A reconstruction may be accomplished by using the statements of witnesses, the confession of a suspect, the statement of a living victim, or the examination and interpretation of p...
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This chapter discusses the importance of practice standards for the reconstruction of crime. A reconstruction of events is not as simple as observation and conclusion based on experience. There are steps in between that must be followed to ensure a measure of reliability and accuracy. Forensic practitioners have a duty to strive for objectivity, co...
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This chapter discusses the practical aspects of reconstruction courtroom presentation and testimony. The defining quality of forensic scientists is their anticipation of courtroom testimony and the possibility that they will be called upon to present scientific findings, under penalty of perjury, in a court of law. The professional credibility of t...
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This chapter presents various ways to help investigators prepare for the moment when they are first notified that a sex crime has been reported and that their assistance is required. The knowledge, capabilities, confidence, and decisions brought to bear during the initial response will dictate the depth and competence of any work that follows. It i...
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This chapter explains the relationship between forensic science and crime reconstruction as they relate to the justice system. Forensic science is the application of scientific knowledge and principles to the resolution of legal disputes, whether criminal or civil. A forensic scientist is one who examines and determines the meaning of physical evid...
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This chapter discusses the concept of crime scene investigation and provides the framework for understanding its role in the investigation of sexual assault. Crime scene investigation refers to the process of establishing the scientific facts of a case using the physical evidence produced in relation to suspected criminal activity. The point of con...
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This chapter presents a list of generally recommended interview guidelines that should apply to witnesses, victims, and suspects alike. Suspect-specific interviewing guidelines and guidelines for interviewing children are also discussed. Frame-by-frame analysis is introduced as a highly effective interview technique used with both victims and suspe...
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This chapter discusses the alleviation of the epidemic of substandard reporting that plagues the forensic community. A forensic examination report is a detailed description of the evidence and materials examined which includes examinations performed, the methods used, the results achieved, and any conclusions that may subsequently be derived. Most...
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This chapter presents various aspects of wound pattern analysis which includes types of wound, physical origin of wounds, and motivational origin of wounds. Types of wound include blunt force trauma, burn, sharp force injury, and therapeutic and diagnostic wounds. It is found that wound patterns originate from a variety of intentional and accidenta...
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This chapter focuses focused on serial rapists, offenders who commit two or more related offenses involving a sexual assault. A serial rapist is one who has committed two or more related offenses involving a sexual assault. It is suggested that sex offenders must be sufficiently motivated to commit the offense; they must be angry enough, impaired e...
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This chapter discusses various aspects of rapist modus operandi (MO) and signature. A sex offender's MO behavior is functional in nature and is composed of learned behaviors that can evolve and develop over time. General types of MO behaviors can include crime scene characteristics such as number of offenders, route taken to offense location, and n...
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Crime reconstruction requires the ability to put together a puzzle using pieces of unknown dimensions without a guiding picture. There is consideration of ethics, bias, practice standards, the crime scene investigation, evidence dynamics, and other issues that inhabit the pages of this text. Each shapes and influences the methods used and the infer...

Citations

... Such correlations undoubtedly exist, but we speculate that competent blade runners or Turing Test judges will need to have such highly specialized skills-skills that will undoubtedly have to evolve over time to parallel advances in computing-that specialized methods of measuring such skills will continue to have value for the foreseeable future. At first glance, the skills needed to distinguish humans from non-human intelligent entities might seem analogous to the specialized skills people in law enforcement use to detect lies (Holm 2010;Mares and Turvey 2018;Vrij et al. 2017), but the analogy quickly breaks down when one realizes how difficult the bot problem really is. The signals for detecting human lies do not change much over time, but the non-humanness of AIs and bots is necessarily a moving target. ...
... In the United States, it is estimated that 25%-50% of child custody disputes involve allegations of domestic violence (Hardesty et al., 2015;Morrill et al., 2005). Harman et al. (2018) described FA of DV as the "silver bullet" in custody disputes because of their potential impact on decisions regarding access to the child (Mares & Turvey, 2018). FAs of DV are often made in the course of a broader conflict between the parties, sometimes at the bitter end of a relationship (Austin, 2005). ...
... Many researchers proposed actor-level fraud detection models for detecting frauds related to providers or patients. The provider-level fraud has a more critical effect on the healthcare expenditure as compared to patient-level fraud [20]. In [21], the unsupervised Bayesian hierarchical based methods are used for detecting frauds in medical claims. ...
... ENDNOTES 1 The indicative profiles that we develop in this study are developed in the investigative context, not in the forensic context. Forensic context profiles, by comparison to investigative context, are those types of profiles that are prepared for consultations or examinations of known offenders who are being tried in criminal or civil court, primarily for legal purposes (Turvey, 2015). Investigative context profiles, on the other hand, focus on the general characteristics of potential or likely offenders. ...
... It is well established that AAS use is not restricted to men and while rates amongst women are much lower [203], the complexities of treatment and care are undoubtedly much higher [23,204,205]. Prevalence of AAS use is higher amongst groups with specific characteristics such as professions where size or strength is an asset [206][207][208][209], amongst gay and bisexual men [20,22,29,210,211] and those using or who have previously used other drugs [212] [30,33,67,[212][213][214]. These "sub groups" may or may not require specific interventions and may merely illustrate the complexities of human nature. ...
... Adjusting the thresholds allows for application of the model to different scenarios that may have different requirements. For example, in the investigative phase an analyst would want to make sure not to miss any possible links (a greater tolerance for false positives), while a court, considering BCL-evidence, would want to make sure the defendant indeed is guilty (minimise risk for false positives) (Turvey & Freeman, 2016). ...
... As we gain a clearer picture of the accuracy and error rate of behavioural crime linking models, their usefulness increase in both the criminal investigative phase and in the trial phase with behavioural crime linking being presented as expert evidence. The basic concept of making inferences about an offender from crime scene evidence is an old one, traceable back to the beginning of the Common Era and the investigation of Blood libel murders (Turvey, 2012). The coining of the term offender profiling and the systematic development of the practice is, however, most commonly credited to the members of the Behavioral Science Unit of the Federal Bureau of Investigation in the 1970s (Davis, Rainbow, Fritzon, West, & Brooks, 2018). ...
... One of the laws is the development of processes and educational units as described in the Law of National Education System Number 20 of 2003 Article 39 Paragraph (1) that educational staff is tasked to implement administration, management, development, supervision and technical services to support education processes and units. Argues that the problem is that the condition in which the lecturer or educator does not understand well the duties and functions as described in the law [9]- [13]. ...
... Beyond, reviews demonstrate that the theoretical assumptions underlying CP are to a large extent outdated and lack empirical support (Petherick & Ferguson, 2013;Snook et al., 2008). The basic idea behind CP is that the characteristics of an unknown offender can be inferred from their behavior during the crime and rests upon two main assumptions: behavioral homology (offenders committing similar crimes possess similar characteristics) and behavioral consistency (offenders behave consistently across their offenses) (Turvey, 2012b). The few available studies examining these assumptions provide no or only partial empirical support (Bateman & Salfati, 2007;Bennell & Canter, 2002;Bennell & Jones, 2005;Sjöstedt et al., 2004;Woodhams & Toye, 2007). ...
... The reason for this seems to be that once a suspect believes there is enough evidence to prove their guilt, they conclude that a confession is more likely to create a favourable impression with the police and the courts than a denial would. stages of a suspect interview (Bull and Milne, 2004;Hartwig et al., 2005;Napier and Adams, 2006;Ord et al., 2008;Savino and Turvey, 2005;Shuy, 1998;Vrij, 2004). For example, Zulawski and Wicklander (1992) suggest that early disclosures will only elicit resistance from a suspect and cause them to commit more fully to denial. ...