Brent Carrara's research while affiliated with University of Ottawa and other places

Publications (8)

Article
A novel class of covert channel, out-of-band covert channels, is presented by extending Simmons' prisoners' problem. This new class of covert channel is established by surveying the existing covert channel, devicepairing, and side-channel research. Terminology as well as a taxonomy for out-of-band covert channels is also given. Additionally, a more...
Conference Paper
New viewpoints of covert channels are presented in this work. First, the origin of covert channels is traced back to acc ess control and a new class of covert channel, air-gap covert channels, is presented. Second, we study the design of covert channels and provide novel insights that differentiate the research area of undetectable communication fr...
Conference Paper
A methodology for characterizing and measuring out-of-band covert channels (OOB-CCs) is proposed and used to evaluate covert-acoustic channels (i.e., covert channels established using speakers and microphones). OOB-CCs are low-probability of detection/low-probability of interception channels established using commodity devices that are not traditio...
Conference Paper
In this work, we study the ability for malware to leak sensitive information from an air-gapped high-security system to systems on a low-security network, using ultrasonic and audible audio covert channels in two different environments: an open-concept office and a closed-door office. Our results show that malware installed on unmodified commodity...
Conference Paper
In this work, we study the use of digital credentials in an online digital identity management setting. We focus on the problem of users sharing their digital credentials with one another, a problem called the “transferability” or “lending” problem. Further, we present the detailed mathematics showing how non-transferability can be achieved through...
Conference Paper
In this work we apply randomized biometric templates (RBTs) to voice biometrics by performing an experiment using speech samples from the TI46 database. Additionally, we present a novel algorithm for extracting reliable features from voice biometrics and analyze the resulting entropy of the cryptographic keys generated by the RBT algorithm. We eval...

Citations

... Among the covert channels, out-of-band channels typically run on physically separated machines and share no common resources aside from a physical medium [6]. These channels have been exploited by adversaries to leak the private information of users. ...
... Although they gave a variety of patterns, they failed to give a formal representation or give a specific detection method for each or fixed patterns. Carrara [74] regarded the tunnel from an attacker's perspective. By using bandwidth and entropy as metrics, the attacker can identify tunnel traffic by determining the probability of passing through the tunnel. ...
... Noise goes beyond simple additive Gaussian noise, since sounds from the audible spectrum extend into the ultrasonic band, see also Figure 2(a). This renders pure energy-based detectors insufficient [3,12]. ...
... However, recent research has discovered that many physical side effects of computation on air-gapped computers can be exploited to construct so-called physical covert channels to re-enable data exfiltration. The physical side effects that can be exploited are various, including thermal [2], optical [3][4][5][6], magnetic [7][8][9], acoustic [10][11][12][13], or electromagnetic (EM) [14][15][16][17]. The communication distance of such covert channels is usually very short, ranging from several centimeters to several meters, due to the high attenuation of the exploited physical effects in the distance. ...
... Fingerprints [5], handwritten signatures [6], and facial features [7] are all examples of keystroke patterns. Biometric keys can be extracted using any of these approaches.A smart card-centred biometricsbased remote user verification mechanism was suggested by Carrara et al. [8]. Because they use one-way hash functions, biometric verification, a smart card, and a nonce, their method is secure. ...
... Replication of data, such as replicating IP address records, needs to take place in order to create a fault tolerant system [21]. Identity Provider (idP) discovery where the destination of authentication requests need to be determined can be another challenging aspect of centralized systems including being very "labor intensive" [22,23]. Ultimately, security, revocation of credentials, privacy and interoperability present challenges to centralized systems. ...