Bradley Goodyear's research while affiliated with The University of Calgary and other places

Publications (153)

Article
Full-text available
Motion can compromise image quality and confound results, especially in pediatric research. This study evaluated qualitative and quantitative approaches to motion artifacts detection and correction, and whether motion artifacts relate to injury history, age, or sex in children with mild traumatic brain injury or orthopedic injury relative to typica...
Article
Background: Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is an MR sequence that has potential as a biomarker in concussion. We compared QSM in pediatric concussion patients versus a comparison group of children with orthopedic injuries (OI) and assessed QSM’s performance relative to the current clinical benchmark (5P risk score) for predicting persist...
Article
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The analysis of large, multisite neuroimaging datasets provides a promising means for robust characterization of brain networks that can reduce false positives and improve reproducibility. However, the use of different MRI scanners introduces variability to the data. Managing those sources of variability is increasingly important for the generation...
Article
Background Behavioral symptoms, including mood disorders, substantially impact the quality of life of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), even when clinical remission is achieved. Here, we used multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine if IBD is associated with changes in the structure and function of deep gray matter bra...
Article
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In the largest sample studied to date, white matter microstructural trajectories and their relation to persistent symptoms were examined after pediatric mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). This prospective, longitudinal cohort study recruited children aged 8-16.99 years with mTBI or mild orthopedic injury (OI) from five pediatric emergency departme...
Article
Simultaneous EEG-fMRI is a growing and promising field, as it has great potential to further our understanding of the spatiotemporal dynamics of brain function in health and disease. In particular, there is much interest in understanding the fMRI correlates of brain activity in the gamma band ( > 30 Hz), as these frequencies are thought to be assoc...
Article
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Sophisticated network-based approaches such as structural connectomics may help to detect a biomarker of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in children. This study compared the structural connectome of children with mTBI or mild orthopedic injury (OI) to that of typically developing (TD) children. Children aged 8–16.99 years with mTBI (n = 83) or O...
Article
Background: Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is an MR sequence that has potential as a biomarker in concussion. We compared QSM in pediatric concussion patients versus a comparison group of children with orthopedic injuries (OI) and assessed QSM’s performance relative to the current clinical benchmark (5P risk score) for predicting persist...
Article
Full-text available
Background Pediatric mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) affects millions of children annually. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is sensitive to axonal injuries and white matter microstructure and has been used to characterize the brain changes associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODD...
Article
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Impairments of cognitive function during alterations in arterial blood gases (e.g., high-altitude hypoxia) may result from the disruption of neurovascular coupling; however, the link between changes in arterial blood gases, cognition, and cerebral blood flow (CBF) is poorly understood. To interrogate this link, we developed a multimodal empirical s...
Article
Background: EEG and fMRI have contributed greatly to our understanding of brain activity and its link to behaviors by helping to identify both when and where the activity occurs. This is particularly important in the development of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), where feed forward systems gather data from imagined brain activity and then send t...
Article
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Objective The long-term consequences of pediatric concussion on brain structure are poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the presence and clinical significance of cerebral microbleeds several years after pediatric concussion. Methods Children and adolescents 8-19 years of age with either a history of concussion (n = 35), or orthopedic i...
Preprint
Full-text available
Simultaneous EEG-fMRI is a growing and promising field, as it has great potential to further our understanding of the spatiotemporal dynamics of brain function in health and disease. In particular, there is much interest in understanding the fMRI correlates of brain activity in the gamma band (30-100 Hz), as these frequencies are thought to be asso...
Article
Full-text available
While functional neuroimaging studies typically focus on a particular paradigm to investigate network connectivity, the human brain appears to possess an intrinsic “trait” architecture that is independent of any given paradigm. We have previously proposed the use of “cross-paradigm connectivity (CPC)” to quantify shared connectivity patterns across...
Article
Objective Scalp electroencephalographic (EEG)–functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggest that the maximum blood oxygen level‐dependent (BOLD) response to an interictal epileptiform discharge (IED) identifies the area of IED generation. However, the maximum BOLD response has also been reported in distant, seemingly irrelevant areas...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Motion can compromise image quality and confound results, especially in pediatric research. This study evaluated qualitative and quantitative approaches to motion artifacts detection and correction, and whether motion artifacts relate to injury history, age, or sex in children with mild traumatic brain injury or orthopedic injury relati...
Article
Background Identifying which EEG signals distinguish left from right leg movements in imagined lower limb movement is crucial to building an effective and efficient brain-computer interface (BCI). Past findings on this issue have been mixed, partly due to the difficulty in collecting and isolating the relevant information. The purpose of this study...
Article
Background: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the utility of generalizability theory in assessing the reliability of EEG data. Generalizability theory and its relevance for measurement are described, followed by the steps to consider and decisions to be made when conducting a generalizability analysis. Methods: Using an actual data set, h...
Article
The purpose of this study was to extend the extant literature regarding brain areas that are activated during executed and imagined lower limb movement. Past research suggests that stepping, as a cyclical movement, should activate the motor control areas of the brain that integrates smooth movements with spinal cord nerves. The neuronal activity ne...
Article
Understanding brain activity during walking and imagined walking is critical for accurate design of brain computer interfaces (BCIs) for patients with limited or no mobility. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has great potential for this purpose; however, during imaging, subjects must remain in a supine position, which limits studies to...
Article
Objective To assess cerebrovascular reactivity in response to a visual task in participants with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods Prospective cohort study including 40 CAA, 22 AD, 27 MCI, and 25 healthy controls. Each partici...
Article
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Objectives To test the hypotheses that peak skeletonized mean diffusivity (PSMD), a measure of cerebral white matter microstructural disruption, is 1) increased in patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) compared to normal control (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD); 2) associated with neuropsychological test...
Article
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Deficits in proprioception, the ability to discriminate the relative position and movement of our limbs, affect ~50% of stroke patients and reduce functional outcomes. Our lack of knowledge of the anatomical correlates of proprioceptive processing limits our understanding of the impact that such deficits have on recovery. This research investigated...
Article
COVER ILLUSTRATION A stylistic impression of task fMRI sensorimotor activations created by combining an fMRI‐derived activation map with a painting by Vassilios Antonakos via a neural network algorithm ( www.deepart.io).
Article
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Background Many patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) experience non-hepatic symptoms that are possibly linked to altered interoception, the sense of the body’s internal state. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine if PBC patients exhibit structural and functional changes of the thalamus and insula, brain regions that proc...
Article
Mounting evidence has shown disrupted brain network architecture across the psychosis spectrum. However, whether these changes relate to the development of psychosis is unclear. Here, we used graph theoretical analysis to investigate longitudinal changes in resting-state brain networks in samples of 72 subjects at clinical high risk (including 8 ca...
Article
Perinatal stroke causes lifelong disability, particularly hemiparetic cerebral palsy. Arterial ischemic strokes (AIS) are large, cortical, and subcortical injuries acquired near birth due to acute occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Periventricular venous infarctions (PVI) are smaller, subcortical strokes acquired prior to 34 weeks gestation i...
Conference Paper
Introduction Resting state functional connectivity (RS-FC) offers insight into brain functional alterations in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the differential RS-FC patterns underlying cognitive symptoms in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, and its sister disease cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA; caused by...
Article
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Understanding the fundamental alterations in brain functioning that lead to psychotic disorders remains a major challenge in clinical neuroscience. In particular, it is unknown whether any state-independent biomarkers can potentially predict the onset of psychosis and distinguish patients from healthy controls, regardless of paradigm. Here, using m...
Article
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Memory deficits are a hallmark of psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. However, whether the neural dysfunction underlying these deficits is present before the onset of illness and potentially predicts conversion to psychosis is unclear. In this study, we investigated brain functional alterations during memory processing in a sample of 155 ind...
Article
Background and purpose: Cerebral microinfarcts are small ischemic lesions that are found in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) patients at autopsy. The current study aimed to detect cortical microinfarcts (CMI) on in vivo 3 Tesla (3T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in CAA patients, to study the progression of CMI over a 1-year period, and to corr...
Article
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Introduction: Behavioral symptoms are commonly reported by patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). In other patient populations, symptoms are commonly associated with hippocampal volume reduction linked to neuroinflammation (inferred from regional iron deposition), as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We hypothesized that...
Article
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Background Memory deficits are a hallmark of psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. However, whether neural dysfunction underlying these deficits is present prior to onset of illness and potentially predicts conversion to psychosis are unclear. This study aimed to investigate: 1) baseline brain functional alterations during memory processing in...
Article
Full-text available
While graph theoretical modeling has dramatically advanced our understanding of complex brain systems, the feasibility of aggregating connectomic data in large imaging consortia remains unclear. Here, using a battery of cognitive, emotional and resting fMRI paradigms, we investigated the generalizability of functional connectomic measures across si...
Article
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Background Early-onset major depressive disorder (EO-MDD), beginning during childhood and adolescence, is associated with more illness burden and a worse prognosis than adult-onset MDD (AO-MDD), but little is known about the neural features distinguishing these subgroup phenotypes. Functional abnormalities of the amygdala are central to major depre...
Preprint
Mounting evidence has shown disrupted brain network architecture across the psychosis spectrum. However, whether these changes relate to the development of psychosis is unclear. Here, we used graph theoretical analysis to investigate longitudinal changes in resting-state brain networks in samples of 72 subjects at clinical high risk (including 8 ca...
Preprint
While graph theoretical modeling has dramatically advanced our understanding of complex brain systems, the feasibility of aggregating brain graphic data in large imaging consortia remains unclear. Here, using a battery of cognitive, emotional and resting fMRI paradigms, we investigated the reproducibility of functional connectomic measures across m...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Paediatric mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a public health burden. Clinicians urgently need evidence-based guidance to manage mTBI, but gold standards for diagnosing and predicting the outcomes of mTBI are lacking. The objective of the Advancing Concussion Assessment in Pediatrics (A-CAP) study is to assess a broad pool of neurob...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Fatigue, itch, depressed mood, and cognitive impairment significantly impact the quality of life of many patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Previous neuroimaging studies of non-hepatic diseases suggest that these symptoms are often associated with dysfunction of deep gray matter brain regions. We used resting-state functi...
Conference Paper
Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) measures the temporal synchrony between different brain regions while the subject is at rest. We present an investigation using visual information propagation transfer functions as potential optic neuritis (ON) markers for the pathways between the lateral geniculate nuclei, the primary visual cortex, the lateral occipit...
Article
Background Patients with diffuse glioma are known to have impaired cognitive functions pre-operatively. However, the mechanism of these cognitive deficits remains unclear. Resting state functional connectivity in the fronto-parietal network (FPN) is associated with cognitive performance in healthy subjects. For this reason, it was hypothesized that...
Article
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Structural connectivity (SC) of white matter (WM) and functional connectivity (FC) of cortical regions undergo changes in normal aging. As WM tracts form the underlying anatomical architecture that connects regions within resting state networks (RSNs), it is intuitive to expect that SC and FC changes with age are correlated. Studies that investigat...
Article
Perinatal stroke injures developing motor systems, resulting in hemiparetic cerebral palsy. Diffusion tensor imaging can explore structural connectivity. We used diffusion tensor imaging to assess corticospinal tract diffusion in hemiparetic children with perinatal stroke. Twenty-eight children (6-18 years) with unilateral stroke underwent diffusio...
Article
Full-text available
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a small-vessel disease preferentially affecting posterior brain regions. Recent evidence has demonstrated the efficacy of functional MRI in detecting CAA-related neurovascular injury, however, it is unknown whether such perturbations are associated with changes in the hemodynamic response function (HRF). Here we...
Article
Objectives: The magnitude of the blood oxygen dependent level (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) response to visual stimulation is reduced in the small vessel disease cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), reflecting impaired vascular reactivity. We determined whether BOLD responses were reduced in another small vessel disease, cerebral autosomal dominant a...
Article
Objective: Brain tumor patients are known to have deficits in cognitive, motor, and emotional domains. Comprehensive evaluation of the brain tumor patient includes taking into account all these domains at baseline and throughout treatment. However, standard neuropsychological assessment methods are lengthy, expensive, and are often variable. The a...
Article
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Recent years have witnessed an increasing number of multisite MRI functional connectivity (fcMRI) studies. While multisite studies are an efficient way to speed up data collection and increase sample sizes, especially for rare clinical populations, any effects of site or MRI scanner could ultimately limit power and weaken results. Little data exist...
Article
The pre-ictal state is of interest for better understanding pathophysiological processes leading up to seizures and for identifying potential biomarkers for the prediction of these events. We present two cases of patients with focal epilepsy (occipital, insular) who had seizures during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans. Interictal...
Article
This study examined the impact of childhood neglect, serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) polymorphisms on white matter (WM) integrity in major depressive disorder (MDD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Fifty-five medication-free MDD patients and 18 controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging scanning,...
Article
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Spontaneous fluctuations of blood-oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) signals are highly synchronous between brain regions that serve similar functions. This provides a means to investigate functional networks; however, most analysis techniques assume functional connections are constant over time. This may...
Data
For the ICA-Clust-FE feature extraction and GLM-Clust-FE feature extraction, significant clusters were identified by comparing patients vs. controls for various ICA components or GLM contrasts (see main text for details). These label-dependent statistical comparisons were done using only training set data, never test set data, which is important to...
Article
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Background Growing evidence documents the potential of machine learning for developing brain based diagnostic methods for major depressive disorder (MDD). As symptom severity may influence brain activity, we investigated whether the severity of MDD affected the accuracies of machine learned MDD-vs-Control diagnostic classifiers. Methods Forty-five...
Article
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Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are highly comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders; however, the neural mechanisms of this comorbidity are poorly understood. Previous research has demonstrated that children with DCD and ADHD have altered brain region communication, particularly within the...
Article
This study examined the impact of childhood neglect, serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) polymorphisms on white matter (WM) integrity in major depressive disorder (MDD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Fifty-five medication-free MDD patients and 18 controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging scanning,...
Article
Full-text available
Lower blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal changes in response to a visual stimulus in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been observed in cross-sectional studies of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), and are presumed to reflect impaired vascular reactivity. We used fMRI to detect a longitudinal change in BOLD responses to...