Bjørn Helge Johnsen's research while affiliated with University of Bergen and other places

Publications (138)

Chapter
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Introduksjon til boken: Operativ psykologi 3: Personellomsorg. Her gir vi mål og hensikt med boken.
Book
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Denne boken har som intensjon å koble relevant teori knyttet til personellomsorg og praktiske utfordringer for organisasjoner som rammes av krevende omsorgsoppgaver. Boken består av i alt 12 kapittel.
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Based on the impact of the theoretical big five of teamwork model proposed by Salas et al. (2005), the present study aimed at investigating the model within an operational police simulation. One hundred and sixty-seven frontline police officers participated in the study. Based on path analyses, a reduced model excluding trust and leadership obtaine...
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In recent decades there has been an increased emphasis on non-technical skills in medical teams. One promising approach that relates teamwork to medical efficiency is the theory of Shared Mental Models (SMM). The aim of the present study was to investigate the suitability of the Shared Mental Model approach for teamwork between operators in emergen...
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Cite this article Johnsen BH, Brattebø G, Espevik R, et al. The effect of complexity of ambulance missions on shared mental models in virtual teams. ABSTRACT Background
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The personality disposition hardiness has been shown to be associated with adaptive coping strategies and is considered an important protective factor against development of mental health symptoms. One of the criticisms found in the hardiness literature concerns the question whether the construct is equally important for men and women. Using a pros...
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The Big Five theory suggests that five components in teamwork are essential for team effectiveness in stressful environments. Furthermore, three coordinating mechanisms are claimed to be decisive to upholding and informing vital teamwork processes. Although much research has been conducted into the Big Five theory and its components, to the best of...
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Future deep space astronauts must maintain adequate nutrition despite highly stressful, isolated, confined and dangerous environments. The present case-study investigated appetite regulating hormones, nutrition status, and physical and emotional stress in a space analog condition: an explorer conducting a 93-day unsupported solo crossing of Antarct...
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Because of its brevity, the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) has become one of the most popular and used measure for detecting psychological distress. Originally intended as a unidimensional measure, the majority of subsequent factor-analytic studies have failed to support GHQ-12 as a unitary construct and have instead proposed a pleth...
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Som et resultat av Covid-19 pandemien har myndighetene iverksatt en rekke dypt- gripende tiltak for å slå ned smitten. Tiltakene har hatt stor innflytelse på den daglige virksomheten til borgerne. Konsekvensene av tiltakene har resultert i øket belastning og store krav til tilpasning. Hensikten med dette arbeidet er å presentere relevant forskning...
Article
Introduction: Minor mental health problems among service members deployed in combat areas are relatively common, but social support is a protective factor. With the advent of digital communication, as well as more frequent family separations, a stable family support system may be more important than before. In this exploratory study, we aimed to t...
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The present qualitative study conducts in-depth interviews with astronauts and other subject matter experts in order to shed light on human adaptability in extreme environments. Deep space travel will entail a range of highly stressful conditions to which astronauts must adapt. Feelings of isolation will be increased, as the space traveler is farth...
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Implementering av teamevaluering i operativ avdeling: En case studie av «Bottom-Up» organisasjonsutvikling
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Studies on the relation between personality and Situation Awareness (SA) have been inconclusive. The present study investigates the relation between personality hardiness and SA during a simulated police scenario using a mediation approach. One hundred and sixty-seven police officers completed the test in a scenario with the arrest of a suspected p...
Article
The individual biopsychological response to a specific stressor is the result of a complex interplay between many different factors including physiology, behavior, and personality. The goal of the present study was to explore the potential link between physical fitness, hardiness (Kobasa 1979), and the individual autonomic stress arousal experience...
Article
There is a lack of research on the relation between obsessive‐compulsive disorder (OCD) and resilience. Dispositional resilience, as described and defined in literature on hardiness, consists of three facets, namely beliefs about having control in everyday living, having a sense of purpose or commitment, and a positive attitude toward challenges. T...
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Psychological hardiness has been associated with lower PTSD in military personnel, but the processes of action remain unclear. This study uses a prospective design to examine whether hardiness has an indirect effect on PTSD symptoms through avoidance coping. Our sample included 163 Norwegian military personnel who served in international operations...
Poster
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Fulbright research was conducted in Norway from August 2006 through March of 2007, focused on developing a cross-culturally valid and reliable measure of psychological hardiness. Hardiness was first described by Kobasa (1979) as a set of personality variables (summarized as commitment, control and challenge) associated with continued good health un...
Chapter
The use of psychologists and of psychological testing in the selection of police officers has increased dramatically over the last decades. This chapter presents a nontraditional approach to the role of the psychologist in the selection of special-operations police officers. This includes the use of personality tests as a basis for forming hypothes...
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Background High quality team leadership is important for the outcome of medical emergencies. However, the behavioral marker of leadership are not well defined. The present study investigated frequency of behavioral markers of shared mental models (SMM) on quality of medical management. Method Training video recordings of 27 trauma teams simulating...
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Background: Sleep is increasingly being recognised as important for the health and well-being of sailors. The aim of the current study is to investigate the relationship between hardiness and reported insomnia-symptoms in a maritime military setting during a 4-month counter piracy naval mission in the Gulf of Aden. Materials and methods: A sampl...
Conference Paper
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An evidence review was conducted to examine individual differences in adaptability for long duration missions. Deep space missions will expose astronauts to more intense stressors than previously encountered. Isolation will be greater and more prolonged, living and work areas more confined, and communications and resupply channels to earth longer a...
Article
Training of police officers is important in order to maintain an effective law enforcement community. The present study investigates the mediating effect of motivation for operational duties on the relation between operational self-efficacy and performance satisfaction as well as perceived strain during a simulated operational scenario. Moderating...
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Military personnel often engage in excessive alcohol use after returning from deployments. Thus far, research has paid scant attention to personality factors that may increase or diminish the risk for increased alcohol consumption in this population. The present study explores how psychological hardiness, avoidance coping, and stress exposure may i...
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The aim of this study was to explore the role of individual and contextual buffers against the effects of work stress among police investigators. 156 Norwegian police investigators were assessed on the predictor variables psychological hardiness, work engagement, social support, and meaningfulness, and on the outcome variables of burnout, subjectiv...
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Purpose The present paper describes the theoretical basis for a brief decision-making training program for frontline police officers as well as an outline of the training program, officers’ evaluation of perceived relevance and perceived learning effects. Design A between group design was used in order to test for differences in evaluation between...
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This study examines psychological hardiness and avoidance coping as predictors of risk for alcohol abuse in military personnel following war-zone deployment. U.S. Army soldiers returning from Afghanistan completed questionnaire surveys during their first week home, and again seven to nine months later. The Time 1 survey was administered in paper fo...
Article
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A large number of studies have shown that hardiness and cohesion are associated with mental health in a military context. However, most of them are presented without controlling for baseline mental health symptoms, which is their most significant source of error. The present study investigates the combined effect of hardiness and cohesion in a pros...
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a b s t r a c t The literature on the association between psychopathy and anxiety is somewhat mixed, but it has been proposed that one possible advantage of psychopathy might be resiliency against anxiety. Another con-struct related to resiliency is psychological hardiness, and several studies have identified associations between psychological hard...
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Seafarer's mental health is vital for a well-functioning organisation. Neglecting mental health status on board could be extremely costly for both the crew affected as well as the company. The present article outlines an extensive programme implemented in the Royal Norwegian Navy for personnel deployed in international operations. The challenges in...
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The capacity to interpret others people's behavior and mental states is a vital part of human social communication. This ability, also called mentalizing or Theory of Mind (ToM), may also serve as a protective factor against aggression and antisocial behavior. This study investigates the relationship between two measures of psychopathy (clinical as...
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K-means cluster analysis was performed on a Norwegian infantry battalion deployed in Kosovo. A four-cluster solution was obtained. The High Hardy cluster showed high scores on all three facets of hardiness. The Low Hardy cluster showed low scores on all facets. The Sensation Seeking cluster was described as low on control and commitment but high on...
Conference Paper
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INTRODUCTION: A major problem facing military personnel and veterans is alcohol abuse, which can devastate individual lives, and also drives up health care costs and degrades the readiness of military forces. Alcohol and substance abuse in turn contribute to a range of other negative outcomes including depression, family violence and suicide. Effec...
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The present study investigates the effects of psychological hardiness and successful completion of a rigorous 250-km ski march over 9 days in Arctic winter conditions. This ski march is the final portion of a selection program for border rangers in the Norwegian Armed Forces. Study participants were N = 178 soldiers with a mean age of 19.9 years (r...
Article
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Neuroticism, non-executive functioningand heart rate variability (HRV) in both threat and non-threat situations. Sixty-five male sailors fromthe Royal Norwegian Navy participated in the study. Participants were randomly assigned into non-threat andthreat groups. Neuroticism wa...
Article
The goal of the study was to investigate the relationship between Hare's four-facet model of psychopathy and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) in a forensic, culturally homogenous sample. 22 male prisoners from Bergen Prison participated. There was only a statistically significant negative zero-order correlation between the...
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Psychological hardiness characterizes people who remain healthy under psychosocial stress. The present exploratory study investigates possible links between hardiness and several immune and neuroendocrine markers: IL-6, IL-12, IL-4, IL-10, & neuropeptide-Y. A total of 21 Norwegian navy cadets were studied in the context of a highly stressful milita...
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the inter-correlation between three different instruments for the assessment of psychopathic personality disorder. Eighty male inmates at Bergen prison (Norway) participated in the study. All the participants were assessed for psychopathy using the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991), th...
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The current research investigated cultural differences in emotional intelligence among top officers on board vessels of multicultural maritime companies. We found that Southeast Asian officers scored higher than European officers on the total Emotional Intelligence scale. When separating the EQ scale in its facets, higher scores for Asian officers...
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Objective This study tested the relationship between individual differences and Situation Awareness (SA) during training in a navigation simulator.Background Simulators have become an important tool in the training and education of maritime personnel with a view to improving decisions and performance. There are a few, inconclusive empirical studies...
Article
Impaired ability to form associations between negative events in gambling and aversive somatic reactions may be a predisposing factor for pathological gambling. The current study investigated whether a group of pathological gamblers and a control group differed in aversive classical conditioning. A differential aversive classical conditioning parad...
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In this theory-driven literature review we examine how leadership and emerging research in positive organizational behaviour (POB) may inform our understanding of human mechanisms that affect safety outcomes. According to authentic leadership theory, leader self-awareness and self-regulation processes are vital mechanisms in the leader–follower exc...
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The present study examined whether shared mental models of team members’ characteristics were associated with team outcomes (i.e., performance, communication, and physical arousal) in cross training and a high-intensity simulation requiring coordinated team action. In a quasi-experimental design, 36 Navy officer cadets were randomly assigned to 12...
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The aim of the present study was to test whether the shared mental models of team members have an effect on team performance, communication, and physical arousal in two distributed teams in pursuit of a common goal. A sample (N = 15) of newly formed navy teams was compared with a sample (N = 13) of seasoned navy teams. The results showed that famil...
Article
Hansen, A. L., Waage, L., Eid, J., Johnsen, B. H. & Hart, S. (2011). The relationship between attachment, personality and antisocial tendencies in a prison sample: A pilot study. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology52, 268–276. This study examined the role of adult attachment and personality in relation to antisocial tendencies (i.e. convictions for...
Article
This study investigated the relationship between evaluative conditioning (EC), reinforcement sensitivity, and risk-taking on a simulated slot machine in a lab setting. Participants (51 female, 49 male, mean age 21.01years [SD=2.49] healthy adults) completed an EC paradigm with both negative unconditioned stimuli (negative EC) and positive unconditi...
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We conducted a randomised controlled trial pilot study (N = 30) with two treatment groups: (1) Manualised cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) (n = 15) and (2) escitalopram combined with CBT (n = 15). Treatment was administered individually and the CBT included weekly sessions for eight consecutive weeks. The treatment with escitalopram lasted for a...
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The current study compared expert-observer ratings of situation awareness (SA) with subjective self-ratings of SA in Norwegian military academy cadets during a summer combat survival course. The cadets (N = 30) completed an 8-day combat survival course characterized by sleep and food deprivation, continuous operations, and altered circadian entrain...
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The aim of the present manuscript is to present a user-friendly and flexible platform for transforming Kubios HRV output files to an .xls-file format, used by MS Excel. The program utilizes either native or bundled Java and is platform-independent and mobile. This means that it can run without being installed on a computer. It also has an option of...
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Non-technical skills are seen as an important contributor to reducing adverse events and improving medical management in healthcare teams. Previous research on the effectiveness of teams has suggested that shared mental models facilitate coordination and team performance. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether demonstrated teamwork ski...
Chapter
A major goal of the present chapter is to try to provide a comprehensive framework that researchers can use to generate testable hypotheses about the autonomic influences on the heart. This will include a brief discussion of the differential autonomic influences on different cardiac effector tissues including sympathetic–parasympathetic interaction...
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This study investigated the relationship between aversive conditioning, heart rate variability suppression, behavioral activation system/behavioral inhibition system and risk-avoidance on the Iowa gambling task (IGT) in a nonclinical sample (29 male, 29 female, mean age = 20.7). A laboratory based Pavlovian aversive conditioning paradigm was used w...
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Navigation errors are a frequent cause of serious accidents and work-related injuries among seafarers. The present study investigated the effects of experience, perceived realism, and situation awareness (SA) on the perceived learning outcome of simulator-based navigation training. Thirty-two Norwegian Navy officer cadets were assigned to a low and...
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The frigate His Norwegian Majesty's ship (HNoMS) Fridtjof Nansen was participating in operations in the Gulf of Aden in support of the EU mission tasked with protecting vessels from the threat of piracy. The crew was therefore prioritized and given the first batch of Influenza A (H1N1) vaccine (Pandemrix(®)). To investigate the type, frequency, and...
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Hystad, S. W., Eid, J., Johnsen, B. H., Laberg, J. C. & Bartone, P. T. (2010) Psychometric properties of the revised Norwegian dispositional resilience (hardiness) scale. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 51, 237–245. In the 30 years that have elapsed since it was first introduced, the concept of hardiness has continued to attract the attention a...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between different personality variables and pathological gambling (PG). The NEO-FFI and measures of impulsivity and sensation-seeking were administered to a sample of pathological gamblers (n = 90) and to a contrast group of non-pathological gamblers (n = 66) matched on sex and age. Gender,...
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Attending university is a pleasurable experience for many students. Yet for others it represents a highly stressful time of extensive studying and pressure to meet the requirements of academia. Academic stress is associated with a variety of negative outcomes such as physical illness and deteriorating mental health. This paper explores the capacity...
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Despite the widespread use of the Impact of Event Scale to measure post-traumatic stress symptoms, psychometric evaluations of the scale have revealed mixed findings. The aim of the present study is to provide new empirical evidence and examine the factor structure, reliability, and predictive validity of the Norwegian version of the IES-R. Posttra...
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The present study investigated whether personality hardiness predicts peer ratings of leadership style in Navy officer cadets. Cadets (n = 71) completed the Dispositional Resiliency (hardiness) Scale, and later rated their peers using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (full range of leadership model). Results show the hardy–commitment facet...
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the influence of psychological hardiness, social judgment, and “Big Five” personality dimensions on leader performance in US military academy cadets at West Point. Design/methodology/approach – Army cadets were studied in two different organizational contexts, i.e. summer field training and during...
Article
In the present paper, we describe a model of neurovisceral integration in which a set of neural structures involved in cognitive, affective, and autonomic regulation are related to heart rate variability (HRV) and cognitive performance. We detail the pathways involved in the neural regulation of the cardiovascular system and provide pharmacological...
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This study investigated the relationship between symptom clusters of psychopathy, as measured by the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare 1991), and ability to recognize facial expressions of emotion. Participants were 43 adult male inmates. Facial expressions of emotion were taken from Ekman and Frisen (1976). The present results indica...
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We studied the relationship between experiencing and coping with life-threatening events and self-perceived health in navy personnel operating mainly under peaceful circumstances. The data were collected in a cross-sectional study from a questionnaire sent by mail at the end of 2002 to all employees in the Royal Norwegian Navy (N=3878) as part of a...
Article
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between resting heart rate variability (HRV) and cognitive functions during threat of shock. A Continuous Performance Task and a Working Memory Task were used to measure cognitive functions. Sixty-five male participants from the Royal Norwegian Navy participated. HRV was measured duri...
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There is evidence that young people are at high risk of developing gambling disorders. The prevalence and correlates of gambling among youth therefore merit closer study. During spring 2004, a sample of 1,351 boys and girls (aged 16-19 years) from 151 high-school classes (clusters) participated in an internet survey about gambling. The response rat...