Björn Kuhla's research while affiliated with Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology and other places

Publications (62)

Article
Full-text available
Efforts to reduce nitrogen (N) emissions are currently based on the optimization of dietary- N supply at average herd N requirements. The implementation of the considerable individual differences and predispositions in N- use efficiency and N- excretion in breeding programs is hampered by the difficulty of data collection. Cow individual milk urea...
Article
Manure nitrogen (N) from cattle contributes to nitrous oxide and ammonia emissions and nitrate leaching. Measurement of manure N outputs on dairy farms is laborious, expensive, and impractical at large scales; therefore, models are needed to predict N excreted in urine and feces. Building robust prediction models requires extensive data from animal...
Conference Paper
The under HS increased water intake and HP but unchanged feed intake and milk production suggest that cows were in beginning/mild heat stress | HS did not alter CH4 production | Reduced dietary NDF content did not mitigate HS | Future studies should investigate feeding strategies to mitigate mild heat stress and clarify the heat increment of digest...
Article
Full-text available
In its climate protection law, Germany pursues the aim of achieving greenhouse gas neutrality by 2045. To approach this aim, the emissions from all sectors shall be reduced by 65 % by 2030 relative to 1990 and this includes mitigation of enteric methane (CH4) emissions from livestock. The enteric CH4 emission rate must be reduced to 853 kt CH4 by 2...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction. High ambient temperatures may limit heat dissipation of dairy cows leading to heat stress, which is associated with negative effects on milk production, feed intake and disease susceptibility (Baumgard & Rhoads, 2013). Lower feed intake alters the metabolic status and directly impacts the immune system of dairy cows. Mesenteric lymph...
Article
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Improving feed utilization efficiency in dairy cattle could have positive economic and environmental effects that would support the sustainability of the dairy industry. Identifying key differences in metabolism between high and low feed-efficient animals is vital to enhancing feed conversion efficiency. Therefore, our objectives were (1) to determ...
Article
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Improvements in feed intake of dairy cows entering the early lactation period potentially decrease the risk of metabolic disorders, but before developing approaches targeting the intake level, mechanisms controlling and dysregulating energy balance and feed intake need to be understood. This review focuses on different inflammatory pathways interfe...
Article
The objective of this study was to provide a review of animal-related factors indicative of heat stress in dairy cows. To date, the temperature humidity index (THI) is a common method of evaluating the risk of heat stress in cows by employing climatic parameters. However, the THI is a general and indirect indicator that fails to consider individual...
Article
Our aim was to compare the energy balance estimated (EBest) according to equations published by various energy feeding systems (German Society for Nutrition Physiology, French National Institute for Agricultural Research, and National Research Council) and the EB calculated by use of calorimetrically measured heat production (EBhp) of 20 high-yield...
Article
To measure methane (CH4) emissions from cattle on-farm, a number of methods have been developed. Combining measurements made with different methods in one data set could lead to an increased power of further analyses. Before combining the measurements, their agreement must be evaluated. We analysed data obtained with a handheld laser methane detect...
Article
Full-text available
Enteric methane (CH4) production from cattle contributes to global greenhouse gas emissions. Measurement of enteric CH4 is complex, expensive and impractical at large scales; therefore, models are commonly used to predict CH4 production. However, building robust prediction models requires extensive data from animals under different management syste...
Article
Full-text available
Ruminant production systems are important contributors to anthropogenic methane (CH4) emissions, but there are large uncertainties in national and global livestock CH4 inventories. Sources of uncertainty in enteric CH4 emissions include animal inventories, feed dry matter intake (DMI), ingredient and chemical composition of the diets, and CH4 emiss...
Article
Full-text available
Evaluation and mitigation of enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminant livestock, in particular from dairy cows, have acquired global importance for sustainable, climate-smart cattle production. Based on CH4 reference measurements obtained with the SF6 tracer technique to determine ruminal CH4 production, a current equation permits evaluation o...
Article
Considerable interest exists both from an environmental and economic perspective in reducing methane emissions from agriculture. In ruminants, CH4 is produced by a complex community of microorganisms that is established in early life but can be influenced by external factors such as feed. Although CH4 emissions were thought to be constant once an a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Large-scale measurement of enteric methane (CH 4) from individual animals is a prerequisite for estimation of genetic parameters and prediction of breeding values. Direct measurement of individual CH 4 emissions is logistically demanding and expensive, and correlated traits (proxies) or models can be used instead as a means to predict emissions. Ho...
Article
Full-text available
Large-scale measurement of enteric methane (CH4) from individual animals is a requisite for estimation of genetic parameters and prediction of breeding values. Direct measurement of individual CH4 emissions is logistically demanding and expensive, and correlated traits (proxies) or models can be used instead as a means to predict emissions. However...
Article
Full-text available
In the last decade, various applications of gaseous exchange measurements have been developed for quantifying the production or consumption of particular gases. Notably, booming research into methane emissions has led to an expansion of the number of facilities in which such measurements can be performed. Recent research by Gardiner et al. (2015) h...
Article
Full-text available
Dear Editor: In the last decade, various applications of gaseous exchange measurements have been developed for quantifying the production or consumption of particular gases by animals. Notably, booming research into methane emissions has led to an expansion of the number of facilities in which such measurements are made. Recent research by Gardine...
Article
Full-text available
High performing dairy cows experience distinct metabolic stress during periods of negative energy balance. Subclinical disorders of the cow’s energy metabolism facilitate failure of adaptational responses resulting in health problems and reduced performance. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) with its sympathetic and parasympathetic branches plays...
Article
In this study, the handheld laser methane detector (LMD) was discussed as a tool for estimating the methane emissions of individual dairy cows by measuring the profiles of the exhaled air. Data obtained with the most recent generation of the device were compared with those of indirect open-circuit respiration chambers, which are commonly used to qu...
Article
Our objective was to compare the ranking of dairy cows according to their methane (CH) emissions as measured by a respiration chamber (RC) technique and the GreenFeed (GF) technique during 3 periods in second lactation. Two-day CH measurements in a RC performed in wk 3, 14, and 42 of lactation were flanked by GF measurements for 20 (period 1 [P1]),...
Article
Full-text available
During the transition between late gestation and early lactation dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress due to the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus and the mammary gland. Additional thermal stress as occurring with rising temperatures during the ongoing climate change has further adverse implications on energy intake, metab...
Article
Our objective was to compare the ranking of dairy cows according to their methane (CH4) emissions as measured by a respiration chamber (RC) technique and the GreenFeed (GF) technique during 3 periods in second lactation. Twoday CH4 measurements in a RC performed in wk 3, 14, and 42 of lactation were flanked by GF measurements for 20 (period 1 [P1])...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change is a growing international concern, and it is well established that the release of greenhouse gases (GHG) is a contributing factor. So far, within animal production, there is little or no concerted effort on long-term breeding strategies to mitigate against GHG from ruminants. In recent years, several consortia have been formed to co...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Increasing environmental heat during summer periods leads to decreased milk production, reduced reproduction rate and growth of dairy cows. Particularly, the period of late-gestation and early-lactation represents an enormous metabolic challenge for the dam, regularly resulting in a negative energy balance during the early post-partum period. Heat...
Conference Paper
Laser Methane Detectors (LMD) can be used to quantify CH4 emissions in the air exhaled by dairy cows. Aim of the present study was to validate the new version of the LMD (LMM mini-g, Crowcon Detection Instruments) with respect to measuring concentrations of CH4 comparing two devices among each other and with measurements in respiration chambers at...
Data
List of differentially expressed transcripts between samples of the HS and PF group. (DOCX)
Data
Primers used for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
High environmental temperatures induce detrimental effects on various reproductive processes in cattle. According to the predicted global warming the number of days with unfavorable ambient temperatures will further increase. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of acute heat stress during the late pre-ovulatory phase on morpholog...
Data
Significantly affected Canonical Pathways according to IPA analysis. (DOCX)
Data
Transcript abundance of different housekeeping genes in samples of the HS and PF groups. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Climate changes lead to rising temperatures during summer periods and dramatic economic losses in dairy production. Modern high-yielding dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress during the transition period between late gestation and early lactation to meet the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus or the mammary gland, and additi...
Chapter
Respiration chambers equipped with O2, CO2 and CH4 gas analysers allow the short-term measurement of gas exchange as a prerequisite to study dynamics in energy metabolism of farm animals. Starting from those technical aspects and limitations of dynamic gas exchange recordings, this chapter covers the mathematical evaluation of data obtained from sh...
Article
Full-text available
Our objective was to investigate the quantitative and qualitative effects of propylene glycol (PG) allocation on postpartum adipose tissue mobilization in over-conditioned Holstein cows. Nine ruminally cannulated and arterially catheterized cows were, at parturition, randomly assigned to a ruminal pulse dose of either 500 g of tap water (n = 4) or...
Article
The aim of the present experiment was to compare silage prepared from maize having a brown midrib (BMR) mutation with control (CTR) maize to identify their effects on enteric methane emission, digesta mean retention time (MRT), ruminal fermentation and digestibility. In addition, the utility of archaeol present in faecal samples was validated as a...
Article
Full-text available
High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS) and one pair-fed (PF) at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1), co...
Article
After parturition, feed intake of dairy cows increases within the first weeks of lactation, but the molecular mechanisms stimulating or delaying the slope of increase are poorly understood. Some of the molecules controlling feed intake are neuropeptides that are synthesized as propeptides and subsequently processed before they bind to specific rece...
Article
After parturition, feed intake of dairy cows increases within the first weeks of lactation but the molecular mechanisms stimulating or delaying the slope of increase are poorly understood. Some of the molecules controlling feed intake are neuropeptides that are synthesized as propeptides and subsequently processed before they bind to specific recep...
Article
Full-text available
Hormones and metabolites act as satiety signals in the brain and play an important role in the control of feed intake (FI). These signals can reach the hypothalamus and brainstem, 2 major centers of FI regulation, via the blood stream or the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). During the early lactation period of high-yielding dairy cows, the increase of FI...
Chapter
The mobilization of adipose tissue of dairy cows during early lactation is reflected by increased fatty acid (FA) plasma concentrations. The capacity of the liver for complete oxidation of non-esterified FA (NEFA) is limited leading to an increased formation of ketone bodies, re-esterification, and accumulation of triacylglycerides in the liver. Th...
Chapter
Insulin response in skeletal muscles is thought to be impaired in dairy cows during early lactation to favor nutrient supply, especially glucose, towards the mammary gland. However, the molecular mechanisms of insulin action on glucose metabolism in cows and in other ruminants are still not completely understood, particularly during early lactation...
Chapter
Hormones and metabolites act as satiety signals in the brain and play an important role in control of feed intake. These signals can reach the hypothalamus and brainstem, two major centers of feed intake regulation, via the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The contribution of putative anorexic or orexic CSF signals, possibly leading to the insufficient f...
Chapter
High-yielding dairy cows have enormous energy and nutrient requirements for milk production which are generally not met by a sufficient feed intake resulting in a negative energy balance (NEB) characterized by mobilisation of body reserves. It is still controversial whether during early lactation the mobilization of body reserves causes insufficien...
Chapter
In mammals, the time of pregnancy and lactation is highly energy demanding and shifts the priority of energy partitioning from the immune system and body reserves towards the conceptus and the mammary gland (Nelson et al., 2002). The resulting peripartal breakdown of (acquired) immunity has been determined most of all by diminished blood leukocyte...
Chapter
Catecholamines increase around parturition in dairy cows and the hepatic adrenergic system is involved in metabolic adaptation during early lactation, e. g., by stimulation of hepatic glucose production (glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis) after parturition to cover glucose demands (McDowell, 1983; Nonogaki, 2000; Weber et al., 2013). Effects of ad...
Chapter
The peptide hormone ghrelin is produced in the ruminal and proximal duodenal wall with a small portion of ghrelin being post-translationally modified by fatty acids at Ser3. Both forms (desacyl and acyl ghrelin) are released into the blood stream and have been initially assigned a role in the control of feed intake. While acyl ghrelin increases fee...
Chapter
During the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation, high-yielding dairy cows mobilize large amounts of adipose tissue resulting in increased plasma concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). NEFA are mostly oxidized to CO2 whereas at excessive concentrations, NEFA are re-esterified to form triacylglycerides leading to the develo...
Article
In addition to plasma metabolites and hormones participating as humoral signals in the control of feed intake, oxidative metabolic processes in peripheral organs also generate signals to terminate feeding. Although the degree of oxidation over longer periods is relatively constant, recent work suggests that the periprandial pattern of fuel oxidatio...
Article
In addition to its role in energy storage, adipose tissue (AT) is an important endocrine organ and it secretes adipokines. The adipokine adiponectin improves insulin sensitivity by activation of its receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Lipolysis in AT is downregulated by the G-protein coupled receptor (GPR109A), which binds the endogenous ligand β-hydrox...
Article
A general phenomenon in peripartum mammals is the breakdown of (acquired) immunity. The incidence of parasite load, disease and inflammation often rise during the specific energetically demanding time of pregnancy and lactation. In this period, blood leukocytes display decreased DNA synthesis in response to mitogens in vitro. Leukocyte activation,...

Citations

... As a result, milk SCN − with antibacterial capabilities may be useful in extending milk shelf-life. Urea had no effect on milk output, FCM, milk composition, milk SCN − , or SCC, which might be attributed to the meals' identical nutritional content [35]. Dietary coated urea had no impact on the production or composition of milk, according to Xin et al. [36]. ...
... For instance, steers with low residual feed intake presented greater mitochondrial abundance and CS activity than steers with high residual feed intake; in other words, high-efficiency steers probably partitioned nutrients more efficiently toward energy metabolism . Moreover, a recent work carried out in high and low feed-efficient dairy cattle during weeks −4, 2, and 12 postpartum studied net fat oxidation, heat production, and mtDNA-to-nDNA ratio, and found that the high feed-efficient group had lower heat production (HP) per kilogram of metabolic BW (BW 0.75 ), as well as a higher number of relative mtDNA copies, pointing out that lower feed efficiency could result from fewer hepatic mitochondria and greater HP losses (Kennedy et al., 2021). Indeed, during yr 2 of the present study, our group studied energy partitioning and found that, at 192 DIM, residual HP per kilogram of BW 0.75 was lower in NZH than NAH cows. ...
... Transition dairy cows, from late gestation to early lactation, are more likely to experience metabolic changes (ketosis, fatty liver) and infectious (metritis, mastitis) diseases [1,2]. During the transition period, cows generally undergo a state of negative energy balance (NEB) which could be responsible for the above physiologic challenges [3,4]. ...
... Studies that considered environmental conditions often evaluated only the effect on the day of semen collection, ignoring the long-term consequences of extreme weather on the entire spermatogenic cycle [28,29]; others, which also considered long-term interactions, only used temperature. The THI, which combines temperature and humidity, has been introduced as a better indicator of thermal stress in cattle because of its objectively described threshold levels [30]. ...
... whereby urinary nitrogen excretion (N U ) was set to 50 g/d [37] even though the real N U in dairy cows varies between 75 and 150 g/d [38]. However, the N U contribution to HP is negligible and an error of about 0.3% in the absolute HP values was accepted [39]. ...
... Further studies characterizing diet composition are needed for representative livestock systems and could conducted using relatively low cost, out-of-the-box survey tools such as the Rural Household Multi-Indicator Survey (RHoMIS, 76). Constructing a comprehensive database of existing studies of diet composition and digestibility of common feeds in SSA should be high priority for improving Tier 2 enteric CH 4 estimates and inventories (77). ...
... Measuring individual daily enteric CH 4 emissions using the classical reference techniques [i.e., respiration chamber (RC) or sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) tracer gas technique] has proven difficult, expensive, and not feasible on a large scale, and proxies are required (Negussie et al., 2017). Among other proxies, mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy on milk has been identified as promising (Dehareng et al., 2012;Vanlierde et al., 2018Vanlierde et al., , 2021 as it is rapid and low-cost and is currently routinely applied to the recording of cow milk. These authors published MIR prediction models using CH 4 reference data from RC and SF 6 methods . ...
... Methane yield [CH 4 yield (g kg −1 DMI) = CH 4 emis- Animal observations lacking CH 4 emission or DMI data were excluded from the dataset (n = 359). Studies in which CH 4 emission was negatively correlated with DMI were also excluded (12 studies totaling 376 individual animal records) following discussion in a review by Hristov et al. (2018). Additionally, records from treatments including anti-methanogenic additives or feed ingredients (e.g., nitrate, tannins, lipid supplementation) were excluded (n = 163) . ...
... Tajima et al. (2007) and Pragna et al. (2018) reported a decrease in rumen fluid total VFA, acetate, and acetate-to-propionate ratio and an increased butyrate concentration in Holstein heifers under HS. Acetobacter has the potential contribute to acetate by oxidizing sugars (Lyons et al., 2018). Actinobacteria, known as Gram-positive bacteria, can produce lactate and acetate as end-products using starch, polysaccharides and oligosaccharides (Ventura et al., 2007). ...
... Furthermore, feed intake is a key covariate predicting CH 4 emissions because it is the consequence of certain dietary characteristics and animal nutritional requirements, both affecting the fermentative and digestive process (Charmley et al., 2016). Models based exclusively on feed chemical composition parameters did not perform well for the complete dataset as well as all subsets (results not shown), which is in line with Niu et al. (2018), reasserting also the key importance of DMI in determining CH 4 emission (Congio et al., 2022a). Average daily gain (ADG) was positively related with CH 4 emission that agrees with previous results from Benaouda et al. (2020). ...