Bernard J. Crespi's research while affiliated with Simon Fraser University and other places

Publications (27)

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I suggest that the current study of autism is problematic, due to: (1) its failure to pursue a medical model of disease causation, with protocols for differential diagnoses of causes; (2) a notable incidence of unrecognized false positive diagnoses in children; (3) the conceptual equating of autism with sets of traits that have been shown to be gen...
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Darwin posited that social competition among conspecifics could be a powerful selective pressure. Alexander proposed a model of human evolution involving a runaway process of social competition based on Darwin’s insight. Here we briefly review Alexander’s logic, and then expand upon his model by elucidating six core arenas of social selection that...
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Aging research is unparalleled in the breadth of disciplines it encompasses, from evolutionary studies examining the forces that shape aging to molecular studies uncovering the underlying mechanisms of age-related functional decline. Despite a common focus to advance our understanding of aging, these disciplines have proceeded along distinct paths...
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Video games are popular and ubiquitous aspects of human culture, but their relationships to psychological and neurophysiological traits have yet to be analyzed in social-evolutionary frameworks. We examined the relationships of video game usage, motivations, and preferences with autistic and schizotypal traits and two aspects of neurophysiology, re...
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Evidence linking endometriosis to low prenatal testosterone, and evidence that risk of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with high prenatal testosterone, has motivated the hypothesis that endometriosis and PCOS exhibit inverse comorbidity. The inverse comorbidity hypothesis predicts that populations exhibiting higher prevalence of one...
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Evolutionary and comparative approaches can yield novel insights into human adaptation and disease. Endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome each affect up to 10% of women and significantly reduce the health, fertility, and quality of life of those affected. Polycystic ovary syndrome and endometriosis have yet to be considered as related to one...
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Autism is a highly heterogeneous condition, genetically and phenotypically. This diversity of causation and presentation has impeded its definition, recognition, assessment, and treatment. Current diagnostic criteria for autism involve two domains, restricted interests and repetitive behavior (RRBs) and social deficits, whose relationship remains u...
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Several recent studies have provided evidence that use of calcium channel blockers, especially amlodipine and nifedipine, can reduce mortality from Covid-19. Moreover, hypocalcemia (a reduced level of serum ionized calcium) has been shown to be strongly positively associated with Covid-19 severity. Both effectiveness of CCBs as antiviral therapy, a...
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The author apply concepts and tools from evolutionary medicine to understanding the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The pandemic represents a mismatched conflict, with dynamics and pathology apparently driven by three main factors: (i) bat immune systems that rely on low inflammation but high efficacy of interferon-based defenses; (ii) viral tactics that diff...
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I describe and explain (1) evidence regarding a key role for autism spectrum cognition in human technology; (2) tradeoffs of autistic cognition with social skills; and (3) a model of how cumulative technological culture evolves. This model involves positive feedback whereby increased technical complexity selects for enhanced social learning of mech...
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Recent advances in genetics, and new applications of evolutionary biology, are transforming psychology and psychiatry. The purpose of this article is to review and synthesize the progress in these two areas that is most salient to the practice of clinical psychology. First, I describe how the results of genome-wide studies have elucidated the genet...
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Imprinted genes mediate fetal and childhood growth and development, and early growth patterns drive fetal programming effects. However, predictions and evidence from the kinship theory of imprinting have yet to be directly integrated with data on fetal programming and risks of metabolic disease. I first define paternal-gene and maternal-gene optima...
Article
How is quantification of social deficits useful for studying autism and schizophrenia? - Bernard Crespi
Article
Oxytocin and testosterone coordinate adaptive social behaviors with stimuli in the environment. Administration of oxytocin and testosterone is associated with increased and reduced indicators of empathy, respectively, but how levels of these hormones are jointly affected by naturalistic empathy-inducing stimuli remains unclear. In this study, saliv...
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The first treatments showing effectiveness for some psychiatric disorders, such as lithium for bipolar disorder and chlorpromazine for schizophrenia, were discovered by accident. Currently, psychiatric drug design is seen as a scientific enterprise, limited though it remains by the complexity of brain development and function. Relatively few novel...
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Genomic imprinting generates a category of genes that is unique because: (1) they are subject to intragenomic conflicts, within individuals, and thus (2) their phenotypic effects on offspring-to-mother interactions are predictable from evolutionary theory. I describe recent advances in our understanding of how imprinted genes may exert conflicting...
Data
PRISMA_2009_flow_diagram_1 – Supplemental material for Baby food and bedtime: Evidence for opposite phenotypes from different genetic and epigenetic alterations in Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes
Data
PRISMA_2009_checklist_1 – Supplemental material for Baby food and bedtime: Evidence for opposite phenotypes from different genetic and epigenetic alterations in Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes
Article
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Prader–Willi and Angelman syndromes are often referred to as a sister pair of neurodevelopmental disorders, resulting from different genetic and epigenetic alterations to the same chromosomal region, 15q11-q13. Some of the primary phenotypes of the two syndromes have been suggested to be opposite to one another, but this hypothesis has yet to be te...
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A series of recent papers has demonstrated “mirror extreme” variation in measures of brain size, between individuals with deletions compared to duplications, for copy number variation loci. For most loci, ASD-associated CNVs involve larger brain sizes, and schizophrenia-associated CNVs involve smaller brain sizes, the same patterns also found for i...
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Trade-offs between advantageous but conflicting properties (e.g., speed vs. accuracy) are ubiquitous in cognition, but the relevant literature is conceptually fragmented, scattered across disciplines, and has not been organized in a coherent framework. This paper takes an initial step toward a general theory of cognitive trade-offs by examining fou...
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Predicting evolution remains difficult. We studied the evolution of cryptic body coloration and pattern in a stick insect using 25 years of field data, experiments, and genomics. We found that evolution is more difficult to predict when it involves a balance between multiple selective factors and uncertainty in environmental conditions than when it...
Article
Hippocrates attributed women's high emotionality - hysteria - to a 'wandering womb'. Although hysteria diagnoses were abandoned along with the notion that displaced wombs cause emotional disturbance, recent research suggests that elevated levels of oxytocin occur in both bipolar disorder and endometriosis, a gynecological condition involving migrat...

Citations

... Older adults demand particular attention due to the complexity of their health issues (Promislow et al., 2022). Among these issues, we can highlight the loss of resilience, which is part of frailty concept. ...
... Dinsdale and Crespi [7], Crespi and Dinsdale [49] and Dinsdale et al. [8] recently proposed and evaluated the hypothesis that an important contributing cause to the etiology of endometriosis is relatively low testosterone, compared to other women, during early in utero development. By this hypothesis, low prenatal testosterone programs the female HPG axis, resulting in an increased incidence of the major hallmarks of endometriosis including early menarche, low luteinizing hormone relative to follicle stimulating hormone, low antimüllerian hormone, low ovarian androgen levels, faster folliculogenesis and other alterations [7]. ...
... In endometriosis, the reduction of LH / FSH is associated with the reduction of AMH, indicating a lower ovarian reserve and lower ovarian testosterone hormone 30,92 . . Meanwhile, we found increased in TNF-α concentration in women with endometriosis. ...
... Due to the complex problems faced by people with ASD, it is important to conduct further research on this subject. However, despite the considerable progress made in the field of knowledge about therapy in ASD, there are still many systemic and organizational problems that need to be solved in order to improve the diagnosis and therapy of autism (43,44). ...
... This speaks to the considerable evolvability of the virus, making it an attractive case study for evolutionary epidemiology. Finally, while there has been quite a bit of work on molecular evolution in SARS-CoV-2 [61,81,94,99,114,123,124,131,133,148], given the strong selection potentially imposed by non-pharmaceutical interventions, there is growing interest in understanding how different selective pressures can drive phenotypic evolution in this system [2,25,28,47]. ...
... The ability of metformin to reduce the UPR (based on GRP94 and CHOP changes) was initially reported in renal tubular cell cultures, where the effect was independent of AMPK activation (Thériault et al., 2011). More recently, the abrogating effect of metformin against the UPR and its neuroprotection has been confirmed in STZ-induced diabetic Lawlor et al. (2018), Zhang et al. (2020), Crespi and Alcock (2021), and Cunningham et al. (2021) a See Figure 3 for details about molecular mechanisms (↓decrease or ↑increase UPR); b risk of hospitalization and mortality in diabetic patients with Covid-19; c long-term use in diabetes mellitus patients; d possible protection against the neural aggression of Sars-CoV-2; e Ca 2+ -channel blockers. ...
... This hypothesis is especially intriguing in the context of the divergent meta-analytic findings on the links between attachment patterns and internalizing symptoms across the lifespan for two reasons. First, the developmental mismatch hypothesis highlights the crucial role that stability and change in one's social/developmental environment play in the individual's mental health [95,96]. Second, the developmental mismatch hypothesis predicts that mismatch in either direction-that is, maturing from a harsh environment to a more favorable one, as well as from a normative (e.g., nonexcessively stressful) developmental environment into a difficult (e.g., interpersonally taxing) one-may expose individuals to mental health risks [93]. ...
... According to the diametric theory of genomic imprinting, people's mental strengths and weaknesses are shaped by a tug of war between their parents (see Bressan and Kramer, 2021 and references therein, including especially Crespi and Badcock, 2008;Badcock, 2009Badcock, , 2019Del Giudice et al., 2010;Crespi, 2020; see also Úbeda, 2008;Úbeda and Gardner, 2015;Mokkonen et al., 2018). As parents bestow their genes onto their children, some of these genes are turned on and others off. ...
... When comparing groups with ASD and SSD, one meta-analysis found equivalent levels of performance on measures of social cognition (Fernandes et al., 2018). Pinkham et al. (2020) also reported that groups with ASD and SSD had essentially equivalent scores on a broad range of social cognition tests, although Crespi (2020) has offered the caveat that similarities in performance do not rule out the possibility that the causes of social cognitive dysfunction in these groups differ. Conversely, suggesting some overlap in fundamental processes that comprise social cognition in ASD and SSD, Deste et al. (2020) have reported that the presence of symptoms of autism in schizophrenia predicts poorer social cognition. ...
... Yet, in many cases, it is difficult to control empathy in its natural setting without altering the variables of the target situation. In this regard, emotion induction tasks help to evoke the required affective experience in an experimental situation through various methods (e.g., images, sounds, or both, among others) [24,25]. In fact, these methods can be centered on one's own or another's affective state, enabling in situ characterization of empathy and gaining access to the natural study of other variables of interest, such as associated hormone levels [26]. ...