Bernard C K Choi's research while affiliated with University of Ottawa and other places

Publications (92)

Article
Purpose: To solve complex health issues, an innovative and multidisciplinary framework is necessary. The Clinical Public Health (CPH) Division was established at the University of Toronto (UofT), Canada to foster inte-gration of primary care, preventive medicine and public health in education, practice and research. To better understand how the co...
Conference Paper
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Executive Summary The Canadian Alliance for Regional Risk Factor Surveillance (CARRFS) is a network of public health stakeholders across Canada interested in working together to build and strengthen regional/local chronic disease risk factor surveillance. Since it’s inception in 2007, CARRFS has acted as a networking space for public health, academ...
Article
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Setting: This paper documents a participatory process of Health Portfolio staff in the design of a clock, and announces the 2020 Canadian Health Clock, with links to numerous online health calculators. The clock is part of the Health Portfolio's celebration activities in 2019 of "100 Years of Health", as the Department of Health was established in...
Article
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Objectives. To document the underlying science of how the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) adapted the Hanlon method, which prioritizes disease control programs, to its wider range of program areas and used it to implement the PAHO Strategic Plan 2014 – 2019. Methods. In 2014, PAHO established a Strategic Plan Advisory Group (SPAG) with repr...
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[This corrects the article DOI: 10.6064/2012/875253.].
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Introduction The objective of this study was to investigate whether morbidity in Canada, at the national and provincial levels, is compressing or expanding by tracking trends in life expectancy (LE) and health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE) from 1994 to 2010. “Compression” refers to a decrease in the proportion of life spent in an unhealthy state...
Article
Introduction Notre étude visait à examiner s’il y a eu une expansion ou une compression de la morbidité au Canada, à l’échelle tant nationale que provinciale, en suivantl’évolution de l’espérance de vie (EV) et de l’espérance de vie ajustée en fonction de la santé (EVAS) entre 1994 et 2010. Une « compression », qui correspond à une diminution de la...
Article
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Background Bicycle injuries are a leading cause of accidental death among children in the world, and bicycle-related injuries are also very common in China, thus to find out bicycle injury risk factors is imperative. This study aims to identify the cyclist-, bicycle- and road-related risk factors of bicycle injury, to develop health education progr...
Article
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Zhejiang province, China, has implemented a population based, real-time surveillance system that tracks acute cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) events since 2001. This study aimed to describe the system and report CVD incidence, mortality and case-fatality between urban and rural areas in Zhejiang in 2012. The surveillance system employs a stratified...
Conference Paper
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The objective of this concept paper is to describe non-traditional data sources for public health surveillance to enable early identification of health issues, track positive health, and improve responsiveness. This paper brings attention to the use of non-traditional data sources that could supplement traditional public health surveillance and ren...
Article
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Background: Bridging the gap between science and policy is an important task in evidence-informed policy making. The objective of this study is to prioritize ways to bridge the gap. Methods: The study was based on an online survey of high-ranking scientists and policy makers who have a senior position in universities and governments in the healt...
Poster
Environ 11% de la population canadienne de 15 ans et plus ont vécu un épisode dépressif au cours de leur vie (1). Cette situation est préoccupante puisque la dépression augmente les risques de décès prématurés, de maladies du cœur, de cancer et d’accidents vasculaires cérébraux (2)(3)(4). Bien que la dépression ait des conséquences connues sur la s...
Article
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This article provides insights into the future based on a review of the past and present of public health surveillance—the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health action. Public health surveillance dates back to the first recorded epi...
Article
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This paper provides a review of the past, present, and future of public health surveillance-the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health action. Public health surveillance dates back to the first recorded epidemic in 3180 B.C. in Egypt...
Article
The distinctive racial/ethnic and geographic distribution of multiple myeloma (MM) suggests that both family history and environmental factors may contribute to its development. A hospital-based case-control study consisting of 220 confirmed MM cases and 220 individually matched patient controls, by sex, age and hospital was carried out at 5 major...
Article
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This study compared patterns of occupational injuries in two different areas, coastal (industrial) and mountain (agricultural), in Southern China to provide information for development of occupational injury prevention measures in China. Descriptive epidemiological study. Data were obtained from the Hospital Injury Surveillance System based on hosp...
Article
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To better characterize the value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins as diagnostic markers in a clinical population of subacute encephalopathy patients with relatively low prevalence of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), we studied the diagnostic accuracies of several such markers (14-3-3, tau and S100B) in 1000 prospectively and sequenti...
Article
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Hypertension can lead to cardiovascular diseases and other chronic conditions. While the impact of hypertension on premature death and life expectancy has been published, the impact on health-adjusted life expectancy has not, and constitutes the research objective of this study. Health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE) is the number of expected years...
Article
The questionnaire is extensively used on the health care sector to collect information, and there has been discussion on the magnitude, extension and sources of the bias that could compromise the validity of the information; however, awareness is limited on the magnitude and diversity of this topic. This article present the most relevant health sec...
Article
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El cuestionario es ampliamente utilizado utilizado en el sector salud para recolectar información y se ha habido alguna discusión sobre la extensión y las fuentes de sesgos u errores que afectan la validez de la información obtenida, pero no hay una clara conciencia de la magnitud ni de la diversidad de los mismos. Se presentan y discuten los más r...
Article
Injury and poisoning are a growing public health concern in China due to rapid economic growth, which has resulted in many cases with an injury-prone environment, such as overcrowded traffic, booming construction, and work-related stress. This study investigates the distribution and trends of deaths from injury and poisoning in Tianjin, China, by a...
Conference Paper
Background Chronic diseases are now a major health problem in developing countries as well as the developed world. Although chronic diseases cannot be communicated from person to person, their risk factors (e.g. smoking, inactivity, dietary habits) are readily transferred around the world. With increasing human progress and technological advance,...
Article
In public health, it is desirable that scientists and policy makers communicate their knowledge effectively or run the risks of barriers in language and understanding. More incentives and opportunities to collaborate will help scientists and policy makers appreciate their different goals, career paths, attitudes towards information, and perception...
Article
This study surveyed 10 different geographical locations on Georgian Bay, Ontario, Canada, and compared the levels of water quality indicators throughout an 11-week period in the summer of 1994. Of the four indicator microorganisms studied (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, fecal streptococci, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), fecal coliforms/E. coli ap...
Article
Multiple disciplinary efforts are increasingly encouraged in health research, services, education and policy. This paper is the third in a series. The first discussed the definitions, objectives, and evidence of effectiveness of multiple disciplinary teamwork. The second examined the promoters, barriers, and ways to enhance such teamwork. This pape...
Article
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In public health, the generation, management, and transfer of knowledge all need major improvement. Problems in generating knowledge include an imbalance in research funding, publication bias, unnecessary studies, adherence to fashion, and undue interest in novel and immediate issues. Impaired generation of knowledge, combined with a dated and inad...
Article
Multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary teams are increasingly encouraged in health research, services, education and policy. This paper is the second in a series. The first discussed the definitions, objectives, and evidence of effectiveness of multiple disciplinary teamwork. This paper continues to examine the promotors, barrie...
Article
This review looks at ways to increase physical activity, by walking and other sports and home activities, to reach the daily 10,000 steps goal. It also looks at a number of issues associated with achieving the daily step goal, such as considerations in walking, step counting and physical activity. The review is based on MEDLINE (1982-2006) and Goog...
Article
Health experts recommend daily step goals of 10,000 steps for adults and 12,000 steps for youths to achieve a healthy active living. This article reports the findings of a Canadian family project to investigate whether the recommended daily step goals are achievable in a real life setting, and suggests ways to increase the daily steps to meet the g...
Article
Teamwork involving multiple disciplines is increasingly emphasized in health research, services, education and policy. The terms multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary are increasingly used in the literature, but are ambiguously defined and interchangeably used. This paper is the first of two in a series. It discusses the defini...
Article
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The Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3) is an important indicator when measuring the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and assessing the burden of disease, especially for chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus (DM). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the scores of HRQOL for respondents with DM to examine associations between...
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In recent years, two issues have emerged concerning the collection of public health information: the increasing popularity of mobile cellular telephones (cell phones), and the increasing interest of governments in protecting the privacy and confidentiality of their citizens’ health information. These issues have widespread, longlasting, and potenti...
Article
The objective of this study was to calculate the prevalence of multiple exposures to four modifiable risk factors (smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity and overweight) and to establish whether there are more Canadians with multiple risk factor exposures than those with singular ones. Weighted estimates of the prevalence of mutually exclusive risk...
Article
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The world has started to feel the impact of a global chronic disease epidemic, which is putting pressure on our health care systems. If uncurbed, a new generation of "diseases of comfort" (such as those chronic diseases caused by obesity and physical inactivity) will become a major public health problem in this and the next century. To describe the...
Article
This article presents a systematic framework of 12 essentials, or basic elements, of science-based policy. The 12 essentials are grouped into three categories, or areas, as follows: 1) knowledge generation, which includes credible design, accurate data, sound analysis, and comprehensive synthesis; 2) knowledge exchange, which includes relevant cont...
Article
An international comparison study of women's occupational health issues was carried out in 2000 for the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Canada, Hong Kong and Singapore. The study was funded by the Canadian International Development Agency's Southeast Asia Gender Equity Program. The objective was to compare the issues, risk factors, social determin...
Article
There are many factors leading to intrauterine infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). These factors include viral structure, HBV mutations, HBV DNA level, placenta barrier, immune status of the mother, and susceptibility of the fetus. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between intrauterine infection with and HBV...
Article
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This paper addresses a fundamental question in evidence based policy making--can scientists and policy makers work together? It first provides a scenario outlining the different mentalities and imperatives of scientists and policy makers, and then discusses various issues and solutions relating to whether and how scientists and policy makers can wo...
Chapter
This article provides an overview on bias. Bias is defined as the deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. The article also provides a catalogue of 109 biases at the following stages of research: literature review 4, study design 31, study execution 3, data collection 46, analysis 15, interpretation...
Article
Awareness of potential biases is important for both researchers and policy-makers in public health: for researchers when designing and conducting studies, and for policy-makers when reading study reports and making decisions. This paper explains the meaning and importance of epidemiologic bias in public health and discusses how it arises and what c...
Article
Previous studies reported that the HBV DNA level in maternal serum is an important risk factor for intrauterine infection. Two antiviral drugs, lamivudine (3TC) and interferon alpha (IFNalpha), are used extensively clinically to reduce maternal HBV DNA level, However, because of a lack of evidence on the efficacy and safety of these drugs during pr...
Article
We would like to thank Dr Harrow (1) for pointing out a flawed example in our paper (2). As he notes, the recommended question should be: How many cigarettes do you smoke per day? [ ] None [ ] 1–4 [ ] 5–24 [ ] 25 or more The previously recommended category “4 or less” was a typographical error.
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Existe la necesidad de reforzar la capacidad regional para la vigilancia de las enfermedades crónicas en las Américas. Los objetivos de este artículo son 1) ofrecer nuestro apoyo decidido a favor de la vigilancia de las enfermedades crónicas, 2) presentar una revisión descriptiva y un resumen de las actividades de vigilancia y los problemas en torn...
Article
Bias in questionnaires is an important issue in public health research. To collect the most accurate data from respondents, investigators must understand and be able to prevent or at least minimize bias in the design of their questionnaires. This paper identifies and categorizes 48 types of bias in questionnaires based on a review of the literature...
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Quality of life is an important indicator in assessing the burden of disease, especially for chronic conditions. The Health Utilities Index (HUI) is a recently developed system for measuring the overall health status and health-related quality of life (HRQL) of individuals, clinical groups, and general populations. Using the HUI (constructed based...
Article
This article describes methodological issues, challenges, and a vision for using computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) in a comprehensive public health surveillance system in the 21st century. Methodological issues include funding of surveys, survey frequency, sample size considerations, response rates, and types of bias to be considered...
Article
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This was an international study of women's health issues, based on an Official Study Tour in Southeast Asia (the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Hong Kong, and Singapore) and Canada. The objectives of the study were to identify and compare current gaps in surveillance, research, and programs and policies, and to predict trends of women's health is...
Article
This study analyzed the database of Canadian Accident Injury Reporting and Evaluation (CAIRE) for the injuries reported from January 1986 to March 1996 in seven provinces at children's or general hospitals in Canada. In order to describe the characteristics of injuries, we compared the different categories of injuries by sex and by age groups, iden...
Article
Intrauterine hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been suggested to be caused by transplacental transmission that cannot be blocked by hepatitis B vaccine. This would decrease the effectiveness of hepatitis B vaccine. This study examined the risk factors and mechanism of transplacental HBV transmission. A case-control study included 402 newborn in...
Article
This article presents a mathematical procedure to adjust for one component of the healthy worker effect (HWE), namely, the healthy hired effect, on diabetes in the case of firefighting and heart disease. Three examples from real studies are given to illustrate, step-by-step, the application of the mathematical procedure. The mathematical procedure...
Article
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An objective of the Workers' Health Program at the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) is to strengthen surveillance in workers' health in the Region of the Americas in order to implement prevention and control strategies. To date, four phases of projects have been organized to develop multinational workplace health and hazard surveillance in t...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism of intrauterine transmission of hepatitis B virus. Placental tissues from 158 pregnant women who tested positive for hepatitis B surface antigen were examined for hepatitis B virus markers, Fc gamma receptors, and hepatitis B surface antigen-anti-hepatitis B surface antigen in different layer...
Article
In 1999 a pilot project was conducted in the Durham health region (population of 500 000) in Canada, to test the concept and a prototype of a rapid risk factor surveillance system. This project was initiated because some health regions (there are 136 health regions across Canada) felt the need to have a rapid and flexible information system to supp...
Article
Within the ongoing strategy of the Workers' Health program at the Pan American Health Organization on strengthening surveillance in the field of workers' health in the Americas (the Region), a project was conducted in July 1999 in Washington, D.C. The objectives of the project were to discuss the problems found in the surveillance of workers' healt...
Article
This paper reviews some major epidemics in the past 5,000 years in human history and derives 12 lessons in the context of epidemiologic surveillance. The corresponding 12 challenges proposed in this paper could be used to guide us in building a better and more comprehensive surveillance system in the 21st century. This will be achieved by: continui...
Article
The healthy worker effect (HWE) is a bias that is believed to have strongly affected the validity of previous cohort mortality studies on the relationship between firefighting and heart disease. There is a strong healthy hired effect (a component of the HWE) among firefighters, owing particularly to the recruitment of nondiabetic candidates. This i...
Article
This paper presents a mathematical model to show the conditions in which age standardization can be used to summarize age-specific rates for comparison purposes over calendar time. It shows that the conditions for valid comparison depend on the type of measure used for comparison, that is, difference, ratio, or percent change. If the measure for co...
Article
This paper clarifies two important concepts in clinical epidemiology: the slope of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the likelihood ratio. It points out that there are three types of slopes in an ROC curve--the tangent at a point on the curve, the slope between the origin and a point on the curve, and the slope between two points...
Article
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate, by causal modeling, whether the sensitivity and specificity of a test are constant, or whether they change with prevalence. I use three assumptions, diagnostic, predictive, and correlational, in three sets of mathematical models. A diagnostic test measures an outcome of a disease and is based on the as...
Article
An International Labour Organization (ILO) project was conducted in July and August 1995 in Thailand to assist with the development of an information system on occupational accidents and diseases for the Workmen's Compensation Fund (WCF). The WCF provides cash benefits and medical care to insured workers who suffer employment injuries. The project...
Article
This study presents the results of analyses performed to generate hypotheses concerning the general patterns of risk factors for occupational sprains and strains, using Ontario workers' compensation data housed in the Workplace Health and Safety Agency (WHSA) data base. Historically, the largest percentage of lost-time injuries in Ontario, Canada,...
Article
Epidemiological studies of cancer among migrant groups are beneficial in that they can provide insight into genetic and environmental factors in disease aetiology. Seven studies in the epidemiological literature have examined cancer mortality in migrants from China; methodological features and findings, which display remarkable consistencies betwee...
Article
The objectives of this biochemical epidemiologic case-control study were to evaluate urinary mutagen testing for occupational exposure assessment, and for possible screening for bladder cancer in the workplace. Thirty-seven patients (19 bladder cancer cases and 18 controls) completed a questionnaire. Two urine samples, i.e. a work sample taken whil...
Article
The objectives of this study were to develop and test surname lists for identifying Chinese ancestry. The Ontario all-cause mortality database for the period 1982-1989 was randomly split into source and test data sets. Frequencies by birthplace were compiled for each surname in the source data set, by sex, and the surnames were weighted based on th...
Article
A diagnostic test is put into routine use by being applied to a population with unknown test status and unknown disease status. All subjects with a positive test are then referred to a "gold standard" assessment for the disease. Subjects with a negative test are normally not referred to the "gold standard" assessment. In some cases, the investigato...
Article
We describe an extension of an existing framework used by several investigators for classifying various types of bias. The framework consists of three categories of bias: selection, information, and confounding. The existing framework is expanded to include subclassification according to the type of study design: cross-sectional, case-control, retr...
Article
Jiashan county is a rural area in China with very high incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer. From 1980 to 1984, we conducted a mass screening for rectal neoplasm in the 11 people's communes in this county. Of the 72,879 individuals who were eligible for screening, 60,496 participated, representing an overall participation rate of 83.0...
Article
We conducted a pilot study to determine the most efficient mailing strategy for a postal questionnaire study among nurses in Ontario, Canada. Five mailing strategies involving types of stamps on the return envelopes were considered: no stamp, business-reply stamp, metered stamp, small regular stamp, and large commemorative stamp. We found that pape...
Article
A cohort of 501 workers in a steel mill in Ontario, Canada was followed up from 1974 to 1986 for 13 years. Results indicate that the 13-year cumulative incidence of urological diseases among workers who had a positive urinalysis result of microscopic haematuria at the beginning of the follow-up period (1974) was 1.3 times that of those who had a ne...