Barry Nakazono's research while affiliated with California Institute of Technology and other places

Publications (32)

Conference Paper
A notional Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV), that could help with potential Mars Sample Return (MSR) is a very unique challenge and has been the focus of technology development and design efforts at JPL for the several years. Trajectory studies, for the current range of potential MAV payloads, evaluated performance using propulsion systems in the 2.5 kN t...
Conference Paper
The NASA Dawn spacecraft mission is studying conditions and processes of the solar system’s earliest epoch by investigating two protoplanets remaining intact since their formations, Ceres and Vesta. Launch was in 2007. Ion propulsion is used to fly to and enter orbit around Vesta, depart Vesta and fly to Ceres, and enter orbit around Ceres. A conve...
Conference Paper
Hybrid propulsion could be a potential game changing technology for several Mars applications, such as Mars Sample Return (MSR) and human exploration. A flexible hybrid test facility has been built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to provide data relevant to the design of such systems. This paper presents the motivations for such a system and its d...
Conference Paper
All of the Dawn ion propulsion system (IPS) components have been fabricated and all have passed acceptance testing. The entire xenon feed system, both digital control and interface units (DCIUs), two of the three thruster gimbal assemblies (TGAs), and both power processor units (PPUs) have been integrated with the spacecraft. Both PPUs recently com...
Conference Paper
Dawn will be the first use of ion propulsion on a full-up NASA science mission. The ion propulsion system for Dawn is based on that demonstrated on Deep Space 1 with modifications necessary to accommodate multiple thrusters, to make the system single fault tolerant, to reduce the mass of the mechanical gimbals, and to accommodate a much larger prop...
Article
Full-text available
Summary The Dawn mission will be the first use of ion propulsion on a full up science mission for NASA. The ion propulsion system for Dawn is based on that demonstrated on Deep Space 1 with modifications necessary to accommodate multiple thrusters, to make the system single fault tolerant, to reduce the mass of the mechanical gimbals, and to accomm...
Conference Paper
A method for propagating and mitigating the effect of uncertainty in conceptual level design via probabilistic methods is described. This method provides a rigorous foundation for determining design margins in complex multidisciplinary systems. As an example application, the investigated method is applied to the conceptual design and development of...
Article
Full-text available
Dawn will be the first use of ion propulsion on a full-up NASA science mission. The ion propulsion system for Dawn is based on that demonstrated on Deep Space 1 with modifications necessary to accommodate multiple thrusters, to make the system single fault tolerant, to reduce the mass of the mechanical gimbals, and to accommodate a much larger prop...

Citations

... This is an important reason why nowadays hybrids are facing different obstacles to their widespread application in the space community. In fact, the high and often hardly predictable nozzle erosion rate is one of the main reasons for the lower technology readiness level of hybrid rocket engines (HREs) than SRMs [13]. Hence, the need to correctly predict and reduce nozzle throat erosion for hybrid rocket applications has generated a renewed interest in experimental testing [14][15][16][17] and numerical investigation [18,19]. ...
... Hybrid propulsion has been proposed and studied for the emerging smallsat and cubesat market, boasting higher ISP values and denser fuel, allowing these satellites to successfully achieve required ΔV values and perform orbital insertion maneuvers [1]. Most recently, a hybrid design competed against a solid rocket booster as a viable option for the upcoming Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) mission, demonstrating improved fuel performance on a Martian surface and the ability to restart its motor [2]. However, conventional propulsion system heritage overshadows hybrid rocket consideration for many of these applications -NASA greenlit the solid rocket booster MAV design as solid propulsion technology already operates at a higher technological readiness level (TRL) and has been used successfully in space missions in the past. ...
... A preliminary review was held by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Concepts Office, see reference [5]. That study led to a larger vehicle study, called a Preliminary Architecture Assessment (PAA), between a two stage to orbit solid [6,7] and the single stage hybrid [8,9] propulsion systems. A down selection between the solid and hybrid concepts occurred in December of 2019. ...
... Rather, the primary goal of these tests was to make a first demonstration of laser ignition in vacuum. Additional details regarding this motor can be found in Ref. [19]. ...
... Since the maiden flight of SpaceShipOne, hybrid rockets have become the core technology of at least seven Earth-launch vehicle developers: Rocket Crafters/Vaya Space (since 2010, USA [5,6]), Gilmour Space Technologies (since 2012, Australia [7,8]), TiSPACE (since 2016, Taiwan [9,10]), Nammo (Nucleus project since 2017 [8,11]), HyImpulse (since 2018, Germany [12,13]), Firehawk (since 2018, USA [5,14]), and SpaceForest (SIR project since 2018, Poland [15,16]); at least four new satellite thruster developers: T4i (since 2014, Italy [17]), Utah State University (since 2014, USA [18,19]), NASA (Kick Motor project since 2016, USA [20,21]), and Hokkaido University (Kick Motor project since 2017, Japan [22,23]); and at least one planetary ascent vehicle developer: NASA (MAV project since 2016, USA [24,25]). In recent years, the Hokkaido University kick motor has become the focus for the authors' work. ...
... interplanetary exploration missions [1][2][3][4][5]. Despite interest from the aerospace sector, the maturation of hybrid rocket technology has been hindered by significant obstacles, a crucial one of which is sub-optimal combustion performance from low-regression-rate, polymer-based fuels [6,7]. ...
... This particular manufacturing process can easily produce geometries in the combustion ports; in contrast, these geometries are difficult or time consuming to produce by traditional casting methods. Additionally, the ABS can provide a significant advantage by improving regression rates in hybrid rocket engines, reduces the variability in the performance of hybrid motors because it offers greater structural homogeneity offering availability solutions in countries with restrictions on the use of controlled substances of this nature [5,13]. ...
... Hybrid rockets (typically involving a solid fuel and liquid or gaseous oxidizer) have received increased interest by industry and government agencies in recent years due to potential advantages in safety, performance, and cost over traditional liquid or solid rocket propulsion systems (Mazzetti et al. 2016). More pointedly, several technology development programs have been initiated to prove the feasibility of hybrid propulsion systems for future interplanetary exploration missions Chen and Wu 2018;Jens et al. 2018;Conversano et al. 2019). Despite well-known theoretical advantages over solid-or liquid-propellant combustion systems, notable challenges remain to mature hybrid rocket technology. ...
... 69 Many hypergolic ignition studies have been then carried out by Purdue and Penn State universities which drop tested different additives with mixed oxides of nitrogen (MON), being MON30 the envisaged MAV oxidizer. 70 The best options, based on ignition delay criteria, have been also firing tested, in combination with SP7, by Purdue University, which also performed several SP7 firing tests (with MON3 instead of MON30) into an optically accessible quartz sub-scale combustion chamber. An intensive sub-scale test campaign has been also performed by SPG, which completed 32 and 8 successful firings with N 2 O and MON3, respectively. ...
... In addition, aerial platforms that follow the wind would naturally find themselves in a direction preferred by acoustic waves traversing an atmospheric duct. Thus, the detection of volcanic activity through seismic and infrasound monitoring on the surface on a long-lived lander (Kremic et al., 2017), in its atmosphere on a balloon (Brissaud et al., 2021;Krishnamoorthy et al., 2019Krishnamoorthy et al., , 2020, or on an airglow-monitoring orbiter such as the Venus Airglow Measurements and Orbiter for Seismicity (VAMOS) concept (Sutin et al., 2018), are all complementary methods by which ongoing or fresh eruption events might be detected and characterized. ...