Barbara Griefahn's research while affiliated with Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors and other places

Publications (135)

Article
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Objectives: Air, road, and railway traffic, the three major sources of traffic noise, have been reported to differently impact on annoyance. However, these findings may not be transferable to physiological reactions during sleep which are considered to decrease nighttime recovery and might mediate long-term negative health effects. Studies on awak...
Article
We studied the influence of correlated color temperature (CCT) of 7 polychromatic white light illuminations (1600 K–14,000 K, 200 lx) in two experiments. Visual performance was tested in 17 students (8 men) during daytime. Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and sleepiness did not vary with illuminations but polychromatic white light of <2000 K im...
Article
http://www.omfi.hu/cejoem/Volume22/Vol22No1-2/CE16_1-2-02.html The hormone melatonin, which is exclusively produced in the dark of night, is a most versatile hormone. It conveys the information about environmental light into the organism. It inhibits the growth of breast cancer and is believed to play a significant role for immunologic, thermophys...
Article
This research is part of a FP7 project supported by the European Commission called "Community oriented solutions to minimize aircraft noise annoyance" (COSMA). The present paper focuses on the development and the application of a methodology for the assessment of changes in airport noise exposure in homelike environments, particularly the design of...
Conference Paper
Reducing aircraft noise annoyance acoustically usually concentrates on lowering noise emissions for single aircraft components such as engines and high lift devices or optimizing noise abatement flight procedures. Although the overall sound pressure level of the aircraft contributes most to the acoustically related portion of annoyance, sound quali...
Article
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Purpose: The present study examined whether the relationship between light exposure and cognitive functioning is mediated by psychological well-being in elderly persons working night shifts. The role of psychological well-being has been neglected so far in the relationship between bright light and cognitive performance. Sleepiness and mood were ap...
Article
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Night shift workers show a decline in performance during working time. Due to demographic change, the labour market requires more elderly people to work at night. Ageing is accompanied by a decrease in cognitive abilities, in the capabilities of the visual system and in coping with night work from the age of 40 onwards. This investigation focuses o...
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Night work is associated with reduced levels of performance. Due to demographic change, the ability of over 50-year-olds to work at night is important for the employment market. Ageing is associated with decrements in both cognitive abilities and the capabilities of the visual system. This study focuses on the effects of exposure to bright light at...
Article
Cortisol awakening responses (CAR) are often blunted or even extinguished when saliva samplings are delayed. The literature suggests that delays of 10 or 15 min are tolerable. Delays of 15 min were analysed with 510 CARs with the first sample taken within 3 min post-awakening followed by 4 samples taken 15, 30, 45, and 60 min later. Varying delays...
Article
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The study objective was to assess longitudinal associations between melatonin secretion and reported sleep duration from childhood to early adulthood. In the frame of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study, 24-hour melatonin secretion and average daily sleep duration were determined once during childhood...
Article
This study tested the hypothesis that the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the cortisol shift profile normalize with successive night shifts due to the shift of the circadian system. 18 students (9 women, 9 men, 19-29 years), worked first four consecutive morning- and then four consecutive night shifts. Each work shift was preceded by an 8-h s...
Article
In built-up areas, an increasing number of persons are affected by road traffic noise while performing mental work. This experimental study focused on annoyance and mental strain due to various noise scenarios. A total of 102 healthy, young persons (51 women, 51 men, aged 18–31 years) were randomly assigned to one of five experimental conditions de...
Article
A new semantic differential (SD) was developed in order to measure the quality of aircraft sounds. The SD consists of 10 items which have relation to the emitted noise of different engine components and the airframe. The items refer to technical components of an engine. The reliability of an evaluation of one sound falls below the minimum value of...
Conference Paper
Environmental noise disturbs sleep and may impair well-being, performance and health. The European Union Directive 2002/49/EC (END) requires member states to generate noise maps and action plans to mitigate traffic noise effects on the population. However, practical guidance for the generation of action plans, i.e. for assessing the effects of traf...
Article
Cortisol awakening response (CAR), a considerable increase in cortisol concentrations post-awakening, is considered a reliable indicator of the reactivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). As noise has been shown to activate the HPA-axis, this analysis focuses on CAR as a possible indicator of noise-induced sleep disturbances. This...
Article
There is an ample number of laboratory and field studies which provide sufficient evidence that aircraft noise disturbs sleep and, depending on traffic volume and noise levels, may impair behavior and well-being during the day. Although clinical sleep disorders have been shown to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, only li...
Article
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One hundred and ninety residents around Frankfurt Airport (46% female; 17-80 years) were interviewed concerning noise annoyance due to transportation noise (aircraft, road traffic), perceived mental and physical health, perceived environmental quality, and noise sensitivity. The aim of the analyses was to test whether noise sensitivity reflects par...
Article
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The heat transferred through protective clothing under long wave radiation compared to a reference condition without radiant stress was determined in thermal manikin experiments. The influence of clothing insulation and reflectivity, and the interaction with wind and wet underclothing were considered. Garments with different outer materials and col...
Article
Acclimation as an adaptive response of the human body to repeatedly occurring heat stress causes a reduction of core temperature ( co) and heart rate (HR) at the end of heat exposure. The analysis of three acclimation series (WBGT =33.5°C) showed that the lowering of Tco and HR occurred already in the resting period preceding heat stress. The lower...
Article
A previous study where the delay of the circadian system was induced by bright light that was adjusted to the individual melatonin onset revealed concomitant alterations of the cortisol quiescent period that correlated inversely with morningness. This meta-analysis focuses on the question whether this applies to experimental shift work with fixed l...
Article
This analysis is on the hypothesis that nocturnal traffic noise affects sleep quality whereas performance decrement is avoided by increased effort expressed by a decrease in blink rates (BRs) during a visual task. Twenty-four persons (12 women, 12 men; 19-28 years, 23.56+/-2.49 years) slept during three consecutive weeks in the laboratory while exp...
Article
The increasing air traffic in the past has led to the fact that and more and more people were affected by aircraft noise. Since the potential of reducing noise level of current aircraft will be limited in the future after recent developed techniques have been realized in practice.Therefore, additional efforts are necessary to improve the sound qual...
Article
There is no information of mental strain in noise sensitive persons working under moderate levels of noise. The aim of the study was to determine relevant dimensions of impairing effects differentiating between noise sensitive and insensitive persons. 56 participants (27 men, 29 women; 18-31 years old) were classified into 28 low and 28 high noise...
Article
Polysomnography is the gold standard for investigating noise effects on sleep, but data collection and analysis are sumptuous and expensive. We recently developed an algorithm for the automatic identification of cardiac activations associated with cortical arousals, which uses heart rate information derived from a single electrocardiogram (ECG) cha...
Article
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In order to assess the non-evaporative components of the reduced thermal insulation of wet clothing, experiments were performed with a manikin and with human subjects in which two layers of underwear separated by an impermeable barrier were worn under an impermeable overgarment at 20 degrees C, 80% RH and 0.5 ms(-1) air velocity. By comparing manik...
Article
This study concerned the possible influence of experimental shift work, morningness and sleep length on the cortisol awakening response (CAR). Eight morning-oriented (MT) and eight evening-oriented (ET) healthy young men (19-27 years) slept after three consecutive day shifts during the night and after three consecutive night shifts during the day i...
Article
The present study focused on the relationship between normal variations of sleep and inhibitory functions as reflected in event-related potentials. For this reason one night of 21 healthy participants was analysed. After waking up all participants completed a visual Go/Nogo task. On the basis of a sleep disturbance index (SDI) the participants were...
Conference Paper
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SUMMARY Sleep disturbances caused by noise and other environmental influences are usually rather moderate but have a rather typical pattern with reduced times in slow-wave- sleep (SWS) and in REM-sleep, with delays of sleep onset and of the first occurrence of SWS, with prolonged wakefulness after sleep onset and sleep stage S1 as well as an increa...
Article
Acute annoyance due to noise from trams and buses was ascertained and compared in two experimental studies. First, 22 healthy young persons (19–22 years) using a standardised scale, rated their annoyance caused by noise from trams, buses and trucks, which were each presented at seven sound levels. The noise of a tram was judged to be equally annoyi...
Article
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The Sleep Disturbance Index (SDI) is a novel index based on polysomnography describing sleep quality in a single score. It was developed and tested with young subjects in the context of research on the effects of noise on sleep. In this study, it is applied in a clinical setting for the first time. A total of 79 patients with suspected sleep apnea...
Article
This analysis was aimed at the development of a sleep disturbance index (SDI) which allows a reliable estimate of physiological sleep disturbances due to environmental influences such as noise. Seven variables, repeatedly reported to change during noise exposure, were derived from polysomnograms of a reference sample of 38 men and 28 women (19–34 y...
Article
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The effects of aircraft noise on sleep macrostructure (Rechtschaffen and Kales) and microstructure (American Sleep Disorders Association [ASDA] arousal criteria) were investigated. For each of 10 subjects (mean age 35.3 years, 5 males), a baseline night without aircraft noise (control), and two nights with exposure to 64 noise events with a maximum...
Article
Aim of the study To identify a time frame for traffic curfews to prevent noise induced sleep disturbances. Hypotheses Curfews at the end of nights provide the best protection and persons with corresponding bed times profit most. Subjects and methods 24 students (12 women, 12 men, 21–27 yrs) slept two consecutive weeks four nights each in the labora...
Article
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Recently, several attempts to use speed bumps as a noise reduction method have been made. Objective analyses of the effect of speed bumps on noise have been shown to result in a rather small reduction of noise. In the present paper the influence of speed bumps on perceived annoyance is investigated. The annoyance rating of a situation in which a pa...
Article
The Noise Sensitivity Questionnaire (NoiSeQ), that determines noise sensitivity as a moderator of annoyance globally and separately for different everyday activities is with 35 items too long for extended social surveys. This study aimed at the development of a shorter version. Using 429 questionnaires (266 women, 163 men, 16-74 yrs) three factor a...
Article
To analyze the heart rate (HR) response to traffic noise during sleep and the influence of acoustic parameters, time of night, and momentary sleep stage on these responses. Twelve women and 12 men (19-28 years). The participants slept in the laboratory for 4 consecutive nights in each of 3 consecutive weeks and were exposed to aircraft, road, or ra...
Article
Question of the study: To investigate inter-rater agree- ment between scorers from three centers with clinical (Marburg University, UMA) or research (German Aerospace Center, DLR and Dortmund University, UDO) backgrounds. Additionally, sleep scoring rules of the new AASM manual for the scoring of sleep and associated events were reviewed regarding...
Article
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The melatonin rhythm is arguably the best marker for the phase of the endogenous "biological clock." Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) is known to catalyze the acetylation of serotonin, a rate-limiting process in melatonin synthesis. Different single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the AANAT gene were identified recently in the Japanese...
Article
The decrease in resting core temperature (T co) and its relation to the reduced physiological strain during heat acclimation was analysed with rectal temperature data measured in three groups of eight semi-nude persons (6 males, 2 females) who were acclimated for 15 consecutive days to dry, humid and radiant heat, respectively, with equivalent WBGT...
Article
The present study focussed on awakenings caused by nocturnal noises emitted from aircraft, road and rail vehicles with maximum levels ranging from 40 to 76 dBA. A laboratory study with 24 participants (12 male, 12 female, 19-28 years) was performed with polysomnographic recordings during 13 nights (including a preceding habituation night). Multivar...
Article
Comparison of an incoming stimulus with a memory template and the inhibition of an irrelevant response representation assumes these are separable processes differently affected by practice. Practice effects were studied in a visual Go-Nogo task which contained stimuli either compatible or incompatible with a response. Eight participants (19-28 year...
Article
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EEG arousals are associated with autonomic activations. Visual EEG arousal scoring is time consuming and suffers from low interobserver agreement. We hypothesized that information on changes in heart rate alone suffice to predict the occurrence of cortical arousal. Two visual AASM EEG arousal scorings of 56 healthy subject nights (mean age 37.0 +/-...
Article
The Noise Sensitivity Questionnaire (NoiSeQ) aims at the measurement of global noise sensitivity as well as the sensitivity for five domains of everyday life namely 'Leisure', 'Work', 'Habitation', 'Communication' and 'Sleep'. The present investigation examined the factorial validity of the NoiSeQ to determine whether the items of the NoiSeQ cover...
Conference Paper
Hypothesis: It was expected that clustered traffic and road noise scenarios with a high amount of heavy vehicles annoy more and degrade performance more than even traffic and noise scenarios with a lower amount of heavy vehicles. Noise load. Four road noise scenarios with a duration of two hours each, a traffic density of 12 vehicles per minute and...
Conference Paper
The annoyance rating of nine different rail noises presented at five equivalent sound pressure levels was evaluated in a psychoacoustic experiment. For some noises presented at the same LAeqT there are significant differences in annoyance ratings. However, these differences cannot be explained by the different values of calculated loudness, sharpne...
Article
This paper concerns the applicability of the cross-correlation technique for the assessment of shifts of the circadian system (e.g., caused by night work). Melatonin and cortisol profiles of 52 healthy young men were ascertained during two 24 h phase assessment procedures. The first was performed after three consecutive day shifts, and the second w...
Article
Aftereffects of noise-induced sleep disturbance on executive functions were investigated with motivational traits as mediating variables. Thirty-two healthy young subjects performed a visual Go/Nogo task with simultaneous EEG recording after a quiet night and after 3 nights with railway noise at different noise levels. As motivational traits, the "...
Article
The existing questionnaires for determining the noise sensitivity of individuals provide information only about global noise sensitivity, although empirical data suggest that measuring noise sensitivity for different situations in daily life might be more logical. Therefore, the "Noise-Sensitivity-Questionnaire" (NoiSeQ) was developed to measure gl...
Article
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Noise sensitivity is regarded as a relevant predictor for annoyance reactions. Since many studies have focused on noise sensitivity at an international level, the present analysis was conducted to detect national peculiarities concerning noise sensitivity. Using the approach of the generalizability theory, reliability of the noise sensitivity quest...
Conference Paper
AIM: To test the hypothesis that aircraft noise causes more awakenings and alterations of sleep structure than rail and road traffic noise. METHODS: 12 women and 12 men (19-28 years) slept, following a habituation night, 4 nights each during 3 consecutive weeks in the laboratory. They were exposed with weekly changes to road-, rail-, or aircraft no...
Article
Infrared radiation presented in the early night was expected to delay the circadian rhythm via suppression of melatonin synthesis. Seven healthy men (16-22 yrs) had completed a constant routine (24-h bedrest, <30 lux, 18°C) and 2 experimental sessions where bright light (BL, 1 500 lux) or infrared radiation (IR, 65°C) was applied from 1700 to 0100...
Article
This study compared the effects of road, rail, and aircraft noise and tested the applicability of the equivalent noise level for the evaluation of sleep disturbances. Sixteen women and 16 men (19–28 years) slept during 3 consecutive weeks in the laboratory. Eight persons slept in quiet throughout. Twenty-four persons were exposed to road, rail, or...
Article
The after-effects of nocturnal traffic noise on cognitive performance and inhibitory brain activity were investigated. Twenty participants (18-30 years) performed an easy and a difficult visual Go/Nogo task with simultaneous EEG recording after a quiet night and then during three nights when aircraft noise was presented with equivalent noise levels...
Article
The study focuses on possible after effects of noise-induced sleep disturbances on inhibitory brain processes reflecting in performance changes and alternations of inhibition-related components of event-related potentials (ERPs). Following a quiet night and three nights, in which railway noise was presented with different levels, twelve women and t...
Article
If applied during corresponding times of the individual melatonin profiles, bright light shifts the circadian phase equally, irrespective of diurnal type. We examined 32 young men: 10 morning types, 11 evening types, and 11 with no predisposition; 16 with high and 16 with low melatonin production. Each completed a 40 h session that included two con...
Article
Question of the study This study tested the assumption that rail noise impaires sleep, subjective sleep quality, and performance. Methods Thirty-two participants (16 women, 16 men, 19–28 years) slept from 23.00 to 07.00 hours during 4 consecutive nights of 3 consecutive weeks in the laboratory. Eight participants slept in quiet during all nights. T...
Article
AIM: This study compared sleep disturbances due to road-, rail-, and aircraft noise. METHODS: 12 women and 12 men (19-28 years) slept 3 consecutive weeks in the laboratory where they were exposed with weekly changes to road-, rail-, or aircraft noise, respectively. Each week consisted of a random sequence of a quiet night (32 dBA) and 3 nights with...
Article
A cross-sectional study on urinary excretion of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT.6S) in young adults suggests a relation between melatonin production and body size at birth. As individual melatonin production remains stable during childhood and adolescence, this melatonin-birth size relation should also exist in children. Daily urinary output of aMT.6S of...
Article
The analysis was performed to support the assumption that in inter-individual variations melatonin production is determined genetically. Sixty-six siblings from 31 families (27 girls, 39 boys, 3-18 years) contributed to this study with 3 to 15 urine samples collected once a year over 24 h. The samples were stored at -20 degrees C and analyzed for t...
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Melatonin synthesis occurs earlier in the morning than in the evening types who strictly adhere to their individual time schedule. This study tested whether melatonin profiles still separate between diurnal types who vary their individual rhythm or who are submitted to prescribed time schedules. Male and female students were observed during a const...
Article
Based on extensive and detailed reviews the present paper suggests evaluation limits for aircraft noise for the prediction of noise effects and for the protection of residents living in the vicinity of (newly constructed or extended) civil airports. The protection concept provides graded assessment values: Critical Limits indicate noise loads that...
Article
A self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) with an innovative rucksack shape that provides a better distribution of its weight over the middle and lower parts of the back (device C: 6l, 13.7 kg) was compared with two conventional SCBA which differed from each other in volume and weight (A: 6l, 15 kg, B: 6.8l, 11.7 kg). Twelve fire-fighters (27-49...
Article
Cross-sectional data on urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (6-OHMS) excretion in children suggest a constant melatonin secretion during growth. The present longitudinal study concerned, accordingly, the intra-individual stability of melatonin production during childhood and adolescence. Urine samples collected during a longitudinal investigation of...
Article
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Electromagnetic spectra reduce melatonin production and delay the nadirs of rectal temperature and heart rate. Seven healthy men (16-22 yrs) completed 4 permuted sessions. The control session consisted of a 24-hours bedrest at < 30 lux, 18 degrees C, and < 50 dBA. In the experimental sessions, either light (1500 lux), magnetic field (16.7 Hz, 0.2 m...
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of the recently proposed predicted heat strain (PHS) model with respect to gender, particularly in relation to the estimation of admissible exposure durations for work in hot environments. Two experiments addressing the effects of the climatic conditions inside vehicles during summer with altogethe...
Article
The present study tested the assumption that the temporal parameters of melatonin synthesis indicate the individual circadian phase position better than the minimum of rectal temperature. Thirty-four men and 17 women (16-32 yr, 14 morning, 14 neither, 23 evening types) completed a constant routine (24-26 h bedrest, <30 lux, 18-20 degrees C, hourly...
Article
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Der Chronotyp ist mit der Bewältigung zur Schichtarbeit assoziiert, die Bestimmung des Melatoninprofils kann bei der Zuweisung eins Schichtarbeitsplatzes beitragen.
Article
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The present experiments concerned the hypothesis that an intermittent, strong and extremely low frequency magnetic field reduces salivary melatonin levels and delays consecutively the nadirs of rectal temperature and heart rate. Twelve healthy young men (18-25 years) participated in three randomly permuted sessions, which were performed as constant...
Article
The permanently open auditory channel and the ability of the brain to process incoming acoustical stimuli even while asleep and to respond adequately is the essential precondition for noise-induced sleep disturbances which are regarded as the most deleterious effects of noise. In the past, research was mainly focused on the detection and descriptio...
Article
During 826, 1-h sessions 107 participants (33 women, 74 men, 18-51 years of age) were exposed to defined draughts where air velocity (0.1 < or = V(a) < or = 0.4 m s(-1)), turbulence intensity (< 30, approximately equal to 50, > 70%), draught direction (horizontal, vertical, diagonal), air temperature (11 < or = t(a) < or = 23 degrees C), and metabo...
Article
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The annoyance-reaction is one of the central variables in noise research. After an introduction to different concepts and definitions of noise annoyance different scales of how noise annoyance can be measured are shown. The question is discussed whether disturbance effects of noise at different times of day are given. To clarify this problem, the r...
Article
The present study investigated the hypothesis that a strong extremely low frequency magnetic field partially suppresses the synthesis of melatonin and subsequently elevates the core body temperature. Seven healthy young men (16-22 years) took part in a control and in an exposure session. Three men experienced first the control and then the exposure...