B Rosner's research while affiliated with Harvard Medical School and other places

Publications (174)

Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a 61-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire used in a large prospective study among women. This form W88 administered twice to 173 particIpants at an interval of approximate'y one year (1980-1981), and four one-week diet records for each subject were collected dur...
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Obesity is well established as a cause of postmenopausal breast cancer incidence and mortality. In contrast, adiposity in early life is inversely related to breast cancer incidence. To better integrate understanding of these relations, we assess adiposity in childhood, in late adolescence, and in adult years, as well as change in weight in relation...
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Background: Male pattern baldness is positively associated with androgens as well as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin, all of which are implicated in pathogenesis of colorectal neoplasia. Methods: From 1992 through 2010, we prospectively followed participants in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Hair pattern at age 45 yea...
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Few prospective studies have investigated the relationship between pre-diagnostic obesity, smoking and prostate cancer (PCa) survival by timing of measurement, by age at diagnosis, and evaluated the interaction between obesity and smoking. We conducted a multinational survival analysis among 10,106 PCa cases (1,007 PCa deaths and 2,893 total deaths...
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10518 Background: Although current use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is associated with a greater risk of breast cancer than past use, the effects of longer term past use of HRT are not well quantified. Methods: We examined the relationship between past HRT use and invasive breast cancer risk within the Nurses’ Health Study, a prospective co...
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Errors in the measurement of exposure that are independent of disease status tend to bias relative risk estimates and other measures of effect in epidemiologic studies toward the null value. Two methods are provided to correct relative risk estimates obtained from logistic regression models for measurement errors in continuous exposures within coho...
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585 Background: Although breast cancers categorized by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status are recognized to differ in their associations with standard breast cancer risk factors, little data exist on differences by HER2/neu status. Methods: The Nurses’ Health Study is a prospective cohort study of 121,700 registered nurses...
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Alcohol consumption is a well-established risk factor for breast cancer. Some studies have suggested that the risk of breast cancer associated with alcohol consumption is greater for women with a history of benign breast disease (BBD). We hypothesized that among women with biopsy-confirmed BBD, recent alcohol consumption would increase the risk of...
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To assess whether intake of snack foods was associated with weight change among children and adolescents. Prospective study of 8,203 girls and 6,774 boys, 9-14 y of age in 1996, in an ongoing cohort study who completed at least two questionnaires between 1996 and 1999. Intake of snack foods was assessed in 1996-1998 with a validated food frequency...
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To assess whether intake of fruits and vegetables was associated with change in body mass index (BMI) among a large sample of children and adolescents in the United States. Prospective cohort study of children and adolescent who were 9-14 y of age in 1996, when the study began. The subjects included 8203 girls and 6715 boys in an ongoing cohort stu...
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Obesity may influence several physiologic processes involved in cataract formation such as oxidative stress, glycosylation and osmotic stress. To examine the association between increased body mass index (BMI) and the incidence of cataract extraction. The Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, both prospective cohort stu...
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To evaluate the relationship between intake of total and specific types of fat and risk for advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of irreversible blindness in adults. A multicenter eye disease case-control study. Five US clinical ophthalmology centers. Case subjects included 349 individuals (age range, 55-80 years) with...
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Many constituents of fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk for coronary heart disease, but data on the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and risk for coronary heart disease are sparse. To evaluate the association of fruit and vegetable consumption with risk for coronary heart disease. Prospective cohort study. The Nurses' Hea...
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Because of the temporal relations between reproductive risk factors and incidence of breast cancer, the authors developed a nonlinear Poisson regression that accounts for time and summarizes risk to age 70 years. Reproductive risk factors, benign breast disease, use of postmenopausal hormones, weight, and alcohol intake were evaluated as risk facto...
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This study examined prospectively the associations of waist circumference and waist:hip circumference ratio with risk of breast cancer. A total of 47,382 US registered nurses who reported their waist and hip circumferences in 1986 were followed up through May 1994 for identification of incident cases of breast cancer. During 333,097 person-years of...
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Although substantial evidence suggests that higher intake of fruits and vegetables can reduce the adverse impact of smoking on lung cancer risk, great uncertainty exists regarding the specific foods and their constituents that are protective. We therefore examine prospectively the relation between cigarette smoking and lung cancer incidence among w...
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Severe alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is the only proven genetic risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We have assembled a cohort of 44 probands with severe, early-onset COPD, who do not have severe alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. A surprisingly high prevalence of females (79.6%) was found. Assessment of the risk to relative...
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Obesity increases the risk for hypertension, but the effects of modest long-term weight changes have not been precisely quantified. To investigate body mass index (BMI) and weight change in relation to risk for hypertension. Cohort study. General community. Cohort of 82,473 U.S. female nurses 30 to 55 years of age followed every 2 years since 1976....
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Breast cancer is a major cause of mortality among women. It is important to identify modifiable risk factors for this disease. To examine body mass index (BMI) at the age of 18 years and at midlife and adult weight change in relation to breast cancer incidence and mortality. Cohort study. A cohort of 95256 US female nurses aged 30 to 55 years who w...
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Objective: To provide a firmer basis for preventing high blood pressure (BP), we tested interventions to promote weight loss, dietary sodium reduction, and their combination for lowering diastolic BP, systolic BP, and the incidence of hypertension during a 3- to 4-year period. Methods: We conducted a randomized, 2x2 factorial, clinical trial, with...
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This follow-up report from the Nurses' Health Study evaluated women age 30-55 for the effects of hormone replacement therapy on the occurrence of myocardial infarction or death from coronary disease and cerebral vascular accidents. From 1976 to 1992, 770 cases of myocardial infarction or death and 572 strokes were identified. A marked decrese in th...
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To explore the roles of reproductive factors and oral contraceptive use in the etiology of colorectal cancer, we examined incident cases of colorectal cancer (n = 501) that occurred during 1,012,280 person-years of follow-up between 1980 and 1992 in the Nurses' Health Study. The women completed mailed, self-administered questionnaires every 2 years...
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We studied the biological variability and responsiveness to dietary fat of plasma lipoprotein cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations. Ten normal persons were studied on 3 consecutive days while they were eating their unrestricted usual diets and after 8, 9, and 10 d of eating a constant high-fat and low-fat diet administered in a crossover...
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We prospectively evaluated the association of hormone replacement therapy and asthma incidence in a cohort of pre- and postmenopausal women 34 to 68 yr of age. During 582, 135 person-years of follow-up between 1980 and 1990, 726 new cases of asthma were documented. Postmenopausal women who were never users of replacement hormones had a significantl...
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Angiographic trials of coronary atherosclerosis treatment have demonstrated that lowering low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations improves coronary artery stenosis. Most patients in previous trials have had at least mildly elevated LDL. Recently, however, the Harvard Atherosclerosis Reversibility Project (HARP) did not find such be...
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Parity and long term use of oral contraceptives have been associated consistently with a decreased risk of ovarian cancer. However, previous reports of the relationship of other reproductive factors (time since first use or last use of oral contraceptives, age at menarche or menopause, age at first birth) with ovarian cancer have been inconsistent....
Article
A role for diet in the pathophysiology of asthma may be mediated by altered immune or antioxidant activity with consequent effects on airway inflammation. We evaluated associations between several dietary factors assessed by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and incidence of asthma over a 10-yr period in 77,866 women 34 to 68 yr of a...
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An increased level of airway responsiveness has been proposed as a risk factor associated with the onset and prognosis of chronic airway obstruction. To determine this, longitudinal studies are necessary, with measurement of both the level of airway responsiveness and of additional risk factors, such as cigarette smoking, made before measurement of...
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Many studies of blood pressure in the elderly have found higher death rates in groups with the lowest blood pressure than in those with intermediate values. In a large community study, we examined whether these findings are real or artifacts of short follow-up, co-morbidity, or low blood pressure in people near death. In 1982-83, we assessed drug u...
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OBJECTIVE--To assess the validity of the 1990 US weight guidelines for women that support a substantial gain in weight at approximately 35 years of age and recommend a range of body mass index (BMI) (defined as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) from 21 to 27 kg/m2, in terms of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in women....
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In an open trial in 9 patients, we found that the ingestion of 500 mg of cysteine twice a day could prevent or lessen the photosensitivity associated with erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP). We report here the results of a double-blind cross-over design trial in 16 patients. Patients with EPP were randomized into two groups, one that received 500...
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Lipid-lowering therapy ameliorates coronary atherosclerosis in patients with raised concentrations of low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. We have investigated whether a similar benefit can be obtained in normocholesterolaemic patients. We studied 79 normocholesterolaemic patients with coronary heart disease (70 male, 9 female), mean age 58 y...
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A modification of the model of Pike et al. (Nature 1983;303: 767-70) was applied to 91,523 women in the Nurses' Health Study who did not report prevalent cancer initially and who were followed for 14 years (1,212,855 person-years and 2,341 incident breast cancers). The model took into account current age, age at all births, age at menopause, and ag...
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Increasing nonspecific airway responsiveness during aging may precede and predispose to the development of asthma in later life. Characteristics potentially related to longitudinal change in methacholine airway responsiveness were examined over a 3-yr follow-up interval among 435 middle-aged and older men. Initial and follow-up evaluation included...
Article
To assess whether tubal ligation and hysterectomy affect subsequent risk of ovarian cancer. Prospective cohort study with 12 years of follow-up. United States, multistate. A total of 121,700 female registered nurses who were 30 to 55 years of age in 1976; the follow-up rate was 90% as of 1988. Ovarian cancer of epithelial origin confirmed by medica...
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To examine the temporal relationship between stopping smoking and total mortality rates among middle-aged women. Prospective cohort study with 12 years of follow-up. Registered nurses residing in the United States. 117,001 female registered nurses, ages 30 to 55 years, who were free of manifest coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer (except non...
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In a meta-analysis of 31 placebo-controlled trials on 1356 subjects, we examined the effect of omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil on blood pressure by grouping studies that were similar in fish oil dose, length of treatment, health of the subjects, or study design. The mean reduction in blood pressure caused by fish oil for the 31 studies was -3.0/-1....
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Previous studies of the natural history of coronary disease generally relied on estimates of percent stenosis derived from visual assessment of the coronary angiogram. In a study of 26 patients, serial quantitative angiography was performed 3 years apart to determine changes in both absolute measurements of the luminal diameter and relative percent...
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Since many restenosis trials include patients in whom more than one lesion is treated, analysis of the angiographic data on a "per lesion" basis might be confounded by potential correlations of restenosis among multiple treated lesions within each patient. The goals of this study were: 1) to determine whether there was any correlation in the rate o...
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Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is prevalent in more than 12 million Americans. A voluminous amount of data demonstrates that cigarette smoking is an important cause of cancer and coronary heart disease. However, the association between cigarette smoking and the risk of diabetes is virtually u...