August Österle's research while affiliated with Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien and other places

Publications (46)

Article
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Approaches to design comprehensive support systems for people in need of long-term care (LTC) have appeared on the policy agenda of European countries from the 1990ies. Austria was one of the first to implement such a system separate from health care. In this last significant expansion of its social protection system, the country established a univ...
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This chapter explores the experiences and practices of intra-EU migrant care workers with formal social protection. It studies whether and how self-employed, live-in migrant care workers make use of the provisions determined by EU social security coordination and national regulations. The analysis focuses on Austria as destination and Central and E...
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After a series of ECJ rulings, Directive 2011/24/EU was finally adopted to regulate access and reimbursement of planned health care in another member state. Several studies have analysed the Directive's implementation and impact on national health care systems around the time of the transposition. The case of Austria is particularly interesting. Al...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is twofold: First, it analyzes demand and supply-side factors that influence patient flows to and from Austria. Second, building on the empirical research and existing conceptualizations, the study offers a general extended framework to guide future comparative analysis. Design/methodology/approach The paper draws...
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This article analyses the new market for live-in migrant care work in Germany and Austria, focusing on brokering agencies as intermediary actors. The analysis presents unique data on the field by combining an online survey of brokerage agencies with semi-structured qualitative expert interviews. We show that the sector is growing swiftly and domina...
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Abstract Turkey hosts more refugees than any other country in the world. Incoming numbers have increased steadily since the outbreak of the Syrian war in 2011. This raises enormous challenges for the host country, not least with regard to the provision of healthcare. This article examines the developments in the light of stratified membership theor...
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China's population is aging rapidly, while the traditional long‐term care (LTC) system that heavily relies on families is eroding. In response, China has embarked on a journey of policy experimentation for long‐term care insurance (LTCI) since 2016, launching LTCI pilots in 15 pioneer cities. These pilots have a great diversity in participation, el...
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This paper investigates the potential trade‐offs between extension of coverage and adequate generosity in cash‐for‐care (CfC) programmes in six European countries (Austria, Germany, France, Great Britain, Italy, and Spain), which are characterised by different configurations of CfC programmes. Building on an empirical analysis of the eligibility ru...
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Background: Addressing the growing burden of mental diseases is a public health priority. Nevertheless, many countries lack reliable estimates of the proportion of the population affected, which are crucial for health and social policy planning. This study aimed to collect existing evidence on the prevalence of mental diseases in Austria. Methods...
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This article studies rural-urban disparities in unmet long-term care (LTC) needs in China. Firstly, it investigates the prevalence of unmet LTC needs for three populations which differ according to the extent of LTC needs. Secondly, it examines the impact of having rural or urban hukou registration status and rural or urban residence. The analysis...
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Background: Many women in mid or later life from Central and Eastern Europe commute for live-in 24-hour care work to Austria. In addition to paid care work abroad, the majority of women in this age group is confronted with informal (family) care obligations towards children, towards older relatives or towards grandchildren. Objective: This study...
Chapter
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Across Europe, the economic and fiscal crisis has deeply shaken the economy and created enormous challenges lasting up until today. Austria is no exception, but that did not lead to fundamental changes in social policies. The development of the Austrian welfare system in the past two decades is characterised by continuity rather than paradigmatic c...
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This chapter analyses the development of cash-for-care programs across OECD countries, their effects and their future perspectives. A major commonality of these programs is that they emphasize choice for users, a concept that can be variously declined. With regard to the choice idea behind cash-for-care programs, the chapter distinguishes among thr...
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Background: Equitable access to essential medicines is a major challenge for policy-makers world-wide, including Central and Eastern European countries. Member States of the European Union situated in Central and Eastern Europe have publicly funded pharmaceutical reimbursement systems that should promote accessibility and affordability of, at leas...
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Background: Equitable access to essential medicines is a major challenge for policy-makers worldwide , including Central and Eastern European countries. Member States of the European Union situated in Central and Eastern Europe have publicly funded pharmaceutical reimbursement systems that should promote accessibility and affordability of, at least...
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Transnationalisation in social care involves different dimensions: family members providing care across borders, care users travelling across borders for receiving care, and care providers travelling across borders for the delivery of care (Baldassar et al., 2007; Yeates, 2009; Zechner, 2008). The migration of care workers, more specifically worker...
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An important feature of care regimes in many European countries is the provision of care by migrant workers in private households, be it domestic work, childcare or care for older and disabled people. However, the arrangements for migrant domestic care work and the status of workers vary largely across countries and even within countries across dif...
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This chapter analyses the reform developments that took place in Austria in the long-term care (LTC) sector over the last two decades. The first section provides a brief overview of the history of LTC policies (culture, values, actors, policies) and a description of the field of LTC as it has been institutionally defined in Austria. In the second s...
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This chapter provides an overview of long-term care policies in CEE. The central–eastern European region has seen major social policy reforms over the past 2 decades. Yet, in contrast with major policy reform in other welfare areas, long-term care did not play any prominent role in social policy debates in CEE in the 1990s and into the 2000s. Polic...
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Many European countries are experiencing a redistribution of care work from family members to paid migrant workers in private households. This involves not only a commodification of the practical tasks of care work, but also a redistribution of the emotional element of care. This study explores the emotional experiences of migrant care workers from...
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The Central Eastern European (CEE) region is no exception to the major challenges European countries are facing in the field of long-term care (LTC). Ageing societies and growing LTC needs, changes in the socio-economic context and their consequences for traditional modes of caregiving will further increase the pressure for ensuring sustainable fun...
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This article discusses the development of the home care sector in Austria. It analyses what impacts the interplay of the traditional family orientation to care, a universal cash-for-care scheme (reaching about 5% of the population) and a growing migrant care sector have on formal home care in Austria. The article is based on an analysis of research...
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Heart failure management programmes have been shown to reduce re-hospitalizations. We recently investigated a new disease management programme comparing usual care (UC) to home-based nurse care (HNC) and a HNC group in which decision-making was based on NT-proBNP levels (BNC). As re-hospitalization is the main contributing economic factor in heart...
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Long-term care in Central and South-Eastern Europe (CSEE) has to date been largely neglected in the social policy literature. This article provides an examination of the context and the sources of reform of long-term care in CSEE, particularly Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia and Slovenia. It focuses on studying devel...
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IntroductionLong-term Care as a Social RiskCash-for-Care Schemes in Italy, Austria and FranceCash for Care and Care Work ArrangementsConclusion: Different Paces or Different Paths?NotesReferences
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High quality elective dental care for foreign patients was not exceptional in Hungary before the collapse of the old regime in 1989. Nevertheless, it became business as usual only in the new era thanks to the open state borders and the international competitive market environment. Unfortunately, no scientific study concerning this phenomenon has be...
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Die europäischen Wohlfahrtsstaaten stehen vor gro\en sozialen, ökonomischen und politischen Herausforderungen. österreich stellt dabei keine Ausnahme dar. Im Hinblick auf das Ausgabenvolumen ist der österreichische Wohlfahrtsstaat vergleichsweise gro\zügig dimensioniert. österreich rangiert bei den Sozialausgaben als Anteil am Bruttoinlandsprodukt...
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Cash benefit provisions have been at the core of many recent reforms in the long-term care sector in Europe. The respective schemes, however, vary widely in terms of the definition of entitlements, the level of benefits, and the ways in which benefits can be used by recipients. This article investigates cash-for-care schemes in three European socia...
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In the European Union, a growing body of regulations and decisions attempt to facilitate cross-border health treatments. These focus on coordinating social protection for those migrating or travelling within Europe, and increasingly those travelling specifically for health treatments abroad. With EU enlargement, the framework became effective for a...
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More than a century ago national governments in Europe started assuming responsibility on a broader scale for safeguarding the population against major risks of life, such as sickness and old-age poverty, thus transcending the boundaries of a regulatory minimum state. The second half of the twentieth century witnessed the expansion and maturation o...
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Although mental health care has undergone substantial re-structuring processes, little attention has been paid to financing issues during these processes. In this paper the authors seek to examine distributional effects of systems of mental health care financing in the UK, Germany and Austria against the backdrop of ongoing reforms and broader welf...
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In Austria, financing health care -and even more so mental health care- is characterized by a mix of federal and provincial responsibilities, lack of uniformity in service provision and service providers, and diverse funding arrangements. The division between financing structures for health care and social care makes the situation even more complex...
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This article proposes a framework for the systematic comparative analysis of equity in social policy design. Equity research concentrates on theories of justice, on empirical studies on equity beliefs or on testing specific equity interpretations. Less attention is paid to the range of equity objectives and how equity concerns are translated into s...
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Full-text available
Mental health care in Europe includes a wide range of services. Financing of those services is characterised by a complex system of sources of funding, resource allocation and reimbursement methods. This raises important distributional questions, the more so, as financing is currently affected by overall welfare state restructuring processes. Recen...

Citations

... Building on feminist conceptualisations of neoliberalism, they have investigated how 'the social-reproductive contradictions of financialised capitalism' (Fraser, 2016, p. 99) have diminished the resources to meet people's care needs and increased the pressure on those providing care, whether paid or unpaid (McDowell et al., 2005). This is particularly true for senior care in countries where austerity measures in the public sector continue to degrade the quality and reduce the availability of care, and where care services are increasingly commodified and marketised (Farris & Marchetti, 2017;Leiber et al., 2020;Pelzelmayer, 2018;Schwiter et al., 2018). In this context, scholars have also investigated why and how the care infrastructure keeps functioning despite its constant underfunding. ...
... First, the participants did not know much about the LTCI policy in terms of its limited coverage (7,9). Second, they were not satisfied with the policy terms because of unequal access to LTCI (53). Third, the policy clauses and payment procedures were too complicated and difficult for people to understand. ...
... First, a system of universal LTC allowances paid to those in need of care was established. From an international comparative perspective, this system of LTC allowances is generous regarding benefits and personal coverage (Ranci, Österle, Arlotti & Parma, 2019). Second, the reform also created an agreement between the national and provincial (Laender) levels to extend existing structures of residential and home care services. ...
... One factor is the reliability of the measurement and the different thresholds regarding the epidemiology of diseases [2,3]. Even minor changes in definitions may cause considerable variation in the estimation of disease prevalence and service utilization [4,5]. Another factor is that although the economic burden of mental diseases in regards to costs is thought to be massive [6], resulting in doubled total costs for persons with mental diseases compared to those without [7], calculating exact costs is complicated [8,9]. ...
... It is rather surprising, then, that studies of unmet needs do not show education level playing an actual role in care poverty. For the analyses of absolute personal care poverty, Zhu and Österle (2017) are the lone study to recognise educational level as a significant factor (Table 5.1). In the case of relative personal care poverty, Desai et al. (2001) in the United States and Rogero-García and Ahmed-Mohamed (2014) in Spain reported a correlation between educational level and unmet needs ( Table 5.2). ...
... In the literature into welfare states from a comparative perspective, Austria is characterized as a corporatist and conservative welfare state where access to social rights is closely linked to employment status and family status (Österle and Heitzmann, 2016). The social insurance principle applies to pension, accident, health and unemployment policies. ...
... The specific employment regulation that directly excludes domestic workers, many of whom provide LTC services, from much of the social and employment protection that covers other workers is an example of gendered Sara Charlesworth and Jennifer Malone exceptionalism in a country where the employment and social rights of part-time workers have historically been well-protected (van Hooren, 2018). Nevertheless, the regulation and relatively strict monitoring of personal budgets have discouraged a low-paid unregulated LTC workforce, unlike in the UK where the price of services can be negotiated between user and worker favouring a 'grey market' (Da Roit et al., 2015). Because of the ongoing restructuring of homecare services in the Netherlands, a small market for live-in migrant carers supported by personal budgets has grown as well as a market for commercial cleaning companies providing both domestic and personal care support outside the formal LTC system (da Roit and van Bochove, 2017). ...
... Usually, these live-in care workers go in turns with a colleague to ensure care throughout (Österle, 2018). Despite the official legalization of this LTC model, there is still a deficit in regulation and little social security for the live-in workers (Gendera, 2011;Bauer, Haidinger and Österle, 2014;Österle, 2018). ...
... For live-in workers, the share of women is even higher with 95% in 2020 (Leiblfinger and Prieler, 2020). While the live-in LTC sector in Austria is dominated by migrant workers, the share of care workers with a foreign nationality is lower for residential facilities and community services (Österle, 2014;Bauer et al., 2018). Overall, about one in three Austrian care workers is estimated to have a migrant background (Simmons, Rodrigues and Szebehely, 2021). ...