Attilio Giacosa's research while affiliated with Centro Diagnostico Italiano and other places

Publications (236)

Article
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Acute diarrhea is a frequent problem worldwide, mostly due to gastrointestinal infections or food poisoning. Boswellia serrata could be active in the treatment of acute diarrhea due to its anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, and antimicrobial activity. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, 49 adults with acute diarrhea...
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Fish is among the foods exerting favourable effects on colorectal cancer (CRC), but the possible role of canned fish has been insufficiently investigated. We aimed to investigate the relationship between canned fish consumption and CRC risk. We analysed data from two case–control studies conducted between 1992 and 2010 in several Italian areas, com...
Article
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Bloating is a symptom frequently reported by subjects with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and small bowel dysbiosis, and Low FODMAP’s diet (LFD) has been used to treat them. Extracts of Curcumalonga and Boswelliaserrata share anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects that could be useful in the management of these clinical conditions. The aim of...
Article
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Botanicals are natural alternatives to pharmacological therapies that aim at reducing hypercholesterolemia. In this context, despite bergamot being effective in modulating lipid profile, some subjects failed to achieve a satisfactory response to supplementation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the association of 600 mg of bergamot phy...
Article
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Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent endocrine disease in females of reproductive age and is characterized by multifactorial unhealthy conditions related to hormonal unbalance and also to dysmetabolism and inflammation. Recently, increasing evidence has shown that natural plant-based products may play a role in PCOS management. The...
Article
Objective: Diabetes and insulin levels may increase the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. In the present investigation, we aimed at evaluating whether adherence to a diabetes risk reduction diet (DRRD) lowers the risk of breast cancer. Methods: We used data from an Italian, multicentric case-control study (1991-1994) including 2569 incident...
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The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the effectiveness of pro-biotics in inducing body weight loss in patients with overweight or obesity with related metabolic diseases. The research was carried out on PubMed and Scopus, focusing on studies reporting the effect on anthropometric measures (weight, body mass Index (BMI),...
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Rice germ (RG) may be a safe and effective dietary supplement for obesity in menopause, considering its high protein content and considerable amounts of essential amino acids, good fatty acids, and fiber. This pilot randomized, blinded, parallel-group, placebo-controlled pilot trial investigated the effectiveness of 4-weeks RG supplementation (25 g...
Article
Background: The treatment of symptomatic uncomplicated colonic diverticular disease (SUDD) is still under debate, and new data show a pathogenic role of dysbiosis and low-grade inflammation in intestinal mucosa. Recent research has highlighted the anti-inflammatory effects of botanical extracts such as Curcuma longa L. and Boswellia serrata Roxb....
Article
An adequate intake of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) is required for protein synthesis and metabolic functions, including insulin metabolism. Emerging studies found positive associations between BCAAs and the risk of various diseases sharing etiological aspects with colorectal cancer (CRC), including type 2 diabetes, obesity, and pancreatic can...
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The World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) introduced in 2007, and updated in 2018, nutrition-related recommendations for cancer prevention. Previous studies generally reported inverse associations of breast cancer with the 2007 recommendations, while no study has yet evaluated the association with the 2018 gu...
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The Mediterranean diet has been related to a reduced risk of several common cancers but its role on breast cancer has not been quantified yet. We investigated the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and breast cancer risk by means of a hospital-based case-control study conducted in Italy and Switzerland. 3034 breast cancer cases...
Article
Background: The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) released in 2007 eight recommendations for cancer prevention on body fatness, diet and physical activity. Our aim is to evaluate the relation between adherence to these recommendations and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Methods: We pooled data...
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The scientific literature has demonstrated that probiotics have a broad spectrum of activity, although often the results are contradictory. This study provides a critical overview of the current meta-analyses that have evaluated the efficacy of probiotics in physiological and pathological conditions, such as metabolic disease, antibiotic-associated...
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Hazelnuts are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant bioactive substances: their consumption has been associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease events. A systematic review and a meta-analysis was performed to combine the results from several trials and to estimate the pooled (overall) effect of hazelnuts on blood lipid...
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Background: Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with a reduced risk of several cancers. However, studies conducted in Mediterranean regions are scanty. Methods: To investigate the relation between MD and colorectal cancer risk in Italy, we pooled data from three case-control studies, including a total of 3745 colorectal cancer...
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Background . High HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) values are negatively correlated with cardiovascular diseases. This review analyses the effect of the supplementation with various Mediterranean diet products (artichoke, bergamot, and olive oil) and Asian diet products (red yeast rice) on the HDL-C value in dyslipidemic subjects. Methods . A systematic rev...
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Objective. Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a frequent clinical finding in western world. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of a ginger and artichoke supplementation versus placebo in the treatment of FD. Methods. A prospective multicentre, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled, parallel-group comparison of the supplement and plac...
Article
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Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a spice traditionally used to treat indigestion, nausea and vomiting. Ginger extracts accelerate gastric emptying and stimulate gastric antral contractions. These effects are mainly due to the presence of gingerols and shogaols and their activity on cholinergic M receptors and serotonergic 5-HT and 5-HT receptors. Va...
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The aim of the present systematic review is to summarize the existing knowledge about the human microbiota in the elderly and the effects of probiotics in elderly population. The elderly subjects, compared to adult population, show a reduction in the diversity of the microbiota, characterized by a large interindividual variability, with lower numbe...
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ABSTRACT The relation between alcohol consumption and mortality is a J-shaped curve in most of the many studies published on this topic. The Copenhagen Prospective Population Studies demonstrated in the year 2000 that wine intake may have a beneficial effect on all cause mortality that is additive to that of alcohol. Wine contains various polipheno...
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Selenium food fortification could be a cost-effective strategy to counteract the inadequacy of selenium intake among the Italian population. In this study, the effect of foliar fertilization with sodium selenate of an Italian rice cultivar and the increase of serum selenium and of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity after intake of fo...
Article
The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a dietary supplementation with an extract from Cynara scolymus (Cs) on the glucose pattern in a group of patients with naïve impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial has been performed in 55 overweight subjects with IFG (fasting blood glucose [FBG]: 6...
Article
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Background and aim Recurrence of diverticulitis is frequent within 5 years from the uncomplicated first attack, and its prophylaxis is still unclear. We have undertaken a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study in order to evaluate the role of mesalazine in preventing diverticulitis recurrence as well as its effects on...
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Background Depression is one of the most frequently missed diagnoses in elderly people, with obvious negative effects on quality of life. Various studies have shown that long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) may be useful in its management. Our objective was to evaluate whether a supplement containing n-3 PUFA improves depressiv...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of artichoke leaf extract (ALE) supplementation (250 mg, 2 b.i.d.) on the lipid pattern. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 92 overweight subjects with primary mild hypercholesterolaemia for 8 weeks. Forty-six subjects were randomized to supplementation (a...
Article
In the coming years, European death rates because of cancer will further decline, but the overall number of cases will increase, mostly as a consequence of the ageing of the population. The target for cancer prevention in Europe will remain a healthy diet and control of obesity in addition to a decrease in smoking. A healthy diet model in European...
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Specific bacterial infections or alterations of the gut microbiota likely trigger immuno-pathological phenomena associated with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis is a candidate etiological agent of Crohn's disease. Definitive causal connection between Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculo...
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The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recently published dietary guidelines for the intakes of carbohydrates, fiber, fats and water. We evaluated their role on the risk of a specific disease, known to be related to diet. We used data from an Italian case-control study including 1953 colorectal cancer (CRC) cases and 4154 controls. We developed...
Article
Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with increased overall mortality, cancer, liver, and cardiovascular diseases; but low doses of alcohol (up to one drink per day) are not associated with the risk of any cancer site with the exception of breast cancer and possibly of oral and pharyngeal cancers. Moreover, recent evidence indicates that moderat...
Article
In recent decades, the American diet has emerged in our country as a reference model food, particularly among young people, to the detriment of the Mediterranean diet, an healthy eating pattern rich in fruits and vegetables, olive oil, whole grains and fish. Even in Europe, North American habits are widespread at the expense of traditional northern...
Conference Paper
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Clinical evidences accumulated so far demonstrated that SAMITAL ® has good tolerability and good efficacy. The effects were particularly relevant in term of reduction of mucositis and pain, recovery of swallowing and nutritional impairment. SAMITAL ® formulation in granules for suspension improved patients compliance. Moreover, enhancement of life...
Conference Paper
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An Italian-Chilean case report collection investigated the efficacy of SAMITAL ® for treatment of CT/RT-induced mucositis in patients affected by head/neck cancers. A total of 28 patients were enrolled. Seven Italian patients were initially treated with SAMITAL ® tablets (4 times/day). Then a revised formulation (granules for oral suspension in sac...
Article
Background and aim Recurrence of diverticulitis is frequent within 5 years from the uncomplicated first attack, and its prophylaxis is still unclear. We have undertaken a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study in order to evaluate the role of mesalazine in preventing diver-ticulitis recurrence as well as its effects o...
Article
Only a few small studies investigated the association between postmenopausal breast cancer and metabolic syndrome (MetS) as a single entity. We analyzed the data of two Italian and Swiss case-control studies conducted between 1983 and 2007, including 3869 postmenopausal women with incident breast cancer and 4082 postmenopausal controls admitted to...
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ObjectiveRecent observations showed that long chain omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) could represent a potential treatment for elderly depression. To determine if a n-3 LCPUFA containing supplement improves depressive symptoms, changes phospholipids acids profile and ameliorates Health related quality of life (HRQoL) in depressed el...
Article
The management of overweight may include the use of dietary supplements targeted to favour the increase of the satiation associated with a decrease in blood glucose and lipid levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a dietary supplementation with an extract from Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus, on satiation, the glucose...
Article
Full-text available
Recent observations showed that long chain omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) could represent a potential treatment for elderly depression. To determine if a n-3 LCPUFA containing supplement improves depressive symptoms, changes phospholipids acids profile and ameliorates Health related quality of life (HRQoL) in depressed elderly pat...
Article
The role of diet on colorectal cancer has been considered in terms of single foods and nutrients, but less frequently in terms of dietary patterns. Data were derived from an Italian case-control study, including 1,225 subjects with cancer of the colon, 728 subjects with rectal cancer, and 4,154 hospital controls. We identified dietary patterns on a...
Article
The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a clustering of hyperglycemia/insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, overweight and hypertension. MS identifies patients who are at high risk of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Based on current data dietary fibre intake from whole foods or supplements may lower blood press...
Article
We assessed the relation between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components and colorectal cancer. We analysed data from a multicentre case-control study conducted in Italy and Switzerland, including 1378 cases of colon cancer, 878 cases of rectal cancer and 4661 controls. All cases were incident and histologically confirmed. Controls were subjec...
Article
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In elderly individuals, depression is one of the most frequently missed diagnoses with negative effects on quality of life. The authors investigated whether a supplement containing long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) improves depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in depressed elderly patients. Eight-...
Article
Proanthocyanidins are a group of polymers of flavanols. Animal and in vitro studies suggest they decrease cancer risk, particularly of colorectal cancer. We used data from an Italian case-control study to investigate whether proanthocyanidins are related to colorectal cancer risk. Cases were 1,953 patients with incident, histologically confirmed co...
Article
Citrus fruit has shown a favorable effect against various cancers. To better understand their role in cancer risk, we analyzed data from a series of case-control studies conducted in Italy and Switzerland. The studies included 955 patients with oral and pharyngeal cancer, 395 with esophageal, 999 with stomach, 3,634 with large bowel, 527 with laryn...
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Epidemiologic evidence indicates that vitamin D is inversely associated with risk of colon or rectal cancer or both. Using data from a case-control study conducted in Italy between 1992 and 1996, we examined the relation between dietary intake of vitamin D and colon and rectal cancer risk. The study population comprised patients with incident colon...
Article
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Vitamin D has been suggested to play a protective role against several cancers, including breast cancer. We used data from a case-control study conducted in Italy from 1991 to 1994 to study the relation between dietary intake of vitamin D and breast cancer risk. Subjects were 2569 women with incident, histologically confirmed breast cancer and 2588...
Article
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Cancer cachexia is a syndrome characterized by high prevalence and multifactorial etiology. The pathophysiology of cancer-induced weight loss is mainly due to failure of food intake and to various metabolic abnormalities, including hypermetabolism. Multiple biologic pathways are involved in this process, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, neuroe...
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The Mediterranean diet is rich in fat and starch, and hence may be related to overweight. We therefore investigated the relationship between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Data were obtained from the control group of a network of case-control studies on cancer conducted in major teaching an...
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To analyse the association between macronutrient intake and body mass index (BMI). A series of hospital-based case-control studies. Selected teaching and general hospitals in several Italian regions. A total of 6619 subjects from the comparison groups of the case-control studies were included in the analysis. We obtained data from a validated 78-it...
Article
In the gut, 5-HT acts as a paracrine signalling molecule released by enterochromaffin cells and as a transmitter released by some descending serotonergic interneurons. It has a prominent role in the regulation of motility, vascular tone, secretion and perception both in normal and under certain pathophysiological conditions, such as the carcinoid s...
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Interest in the potential benefits of allium vegetables, in particular, onion (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum), has its origin in antiquity, but the details of these benefits are still open to discussion. We investigated the role of allium vegetables in the etiology of various neoplasms. Previous data are scanty and are based mainly on Chi...
Article
Benign ovarian cysts have been suggested to influence breast cancer risk. To provide a comprehensive picture of the relation between ovarian cysts and breast cancer, we analyzed the data of 3 case-control studies conducted in northern Italy and the Swiss Canton of Vaud between 1983 and 2001. These studies included 6,315 incident, histologically con...
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Because of their several biological activities, flavonoids may have an important role in explaining the protective effects of vegetables, fruit, and, possibly, tea against cancer. The potential relation between flavonoids and colorectal cancer risk was investigated using data from a multicentric Italian case-control study, including 1,953 cases of...
Article
Spouses share the home environment, and dietary and other lifestyle habits. Furthermore, a cancer diagnosis in the husband is a stressful event for the wife also. Thus, a history of cancer in the husband may be an indicator of breast cancer risk. We investigated the issue in a large Italian multicentric case-control study on 2,588 women with incide...
Article
Inconclusive information is available on the potential role of milk and dairy products on the risk of cancer at several sites. We analyzed data from a large and integrated network of hospital-based case-control studies in Italy on cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx (598 cases, 1491 controls), oesophagus (304 cases, 743 controls), colorectum (19...
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Pizza has been favourably related to the risk of prostate cancer in North America. Scanty information, however, is available on sex hormone-related cancer sites. We therefore studied the role of pizza consumption on the risk of breast, ovarian and prostate cancers using data from three hospital-based case-control studies conducted in Italy between...
Article
Low levels of acrylamide have been found in several foods cooked at high temperatures. While there is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of acrylamide in experimental animals, the few epidemiologic studies conducted to date on occupational and dietary exposure to acrylamide have found no consistent evidence of association with human cancer...
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Cancer-induced Weight Loss Wide alterations in carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism in the tumour-bearing host have been previously documented. Cancer anorexia/cachexia is characterised by a shift in nutrient use from the growth and maintenance of muscle mass to processes that support the immune response and affect disease resistance.¹ These...