Arto Pakarinen's research while affiliated with University of Oulu and other places

Publications (50)

Article
The effects of heavy resistance exercise on skeletal muscle androgen receptor (AR) protein concentration and mRNAs of AR, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF)-IEa, and mechano growth factor (MGF) expression were examined from biopsies of vastus lateralis (VL) muscle before and 48 hours after heavy resistance exercise (5 × 10 repetition maximum [RM] l...
Article
Effects of heavy resistance exercise on serum testosterone and skeletal muscle androgen receptor (AR) concentrations were examined before and after a 21-week resistance training period. Seven healthy untrained young adult men (YT) and ten controls (YC) as well as ten older men (OT) and eight controls (OC) volunteered as subjects. Heavy resistance e...
Article
Full-text available
Customer orientation has gained increasing attention in healthcare. A customer satisfaction survey is one way to raise areas and topics for quality improvement. However, it seems that customer satisfaction surveys have not resulted in quality improvement in healthcare. This article reports how the authors' university hospital laboratory has used cu...
Article
The purpose of the analysis described here was to assess reproductive endocrine disorders in 148 women with epilepsy (WWE) by epilepsy type and antiepileptic drug use. Women with idiopathic generalized epilepsy had a higher prevalence of reproductive endocrine disorders than control subjects. In addition, hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and p...
Article
Valproate (VPA) treatment has been reported to be associated with obesity and high fasting serum insulin concentrations in parallel with an unfavorable serum lipid profile and hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries in women. The pathogenetic mechanism underlying these changes has remained unknown, although several mechanisms have been implicated....
Article
The aim of the study was to compare the effects of carbamazepine (CBZ) and oxcarbazepine (OXC) on the reproductive endocrine function in women with epilepsy. OXC is a novel antiepileptic drug (AED), and the occurrence of reproductive dysfunction in women treated with OXC monotherapy for epilepsy has not been studied previously. Thirty-five women wi...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the effects of strength training and diet on serum basal hormone concentrations and muscle mass in aging women. Fifty-one women age 49 to 74 y were divided into two groups: strength training and nutritional counseling (n = 25), and strength training (n = 26). Both groups performed strength training twice a week for 21 wk. Nutrit...
Article
Weight gain is a known side effect of valproate (VPA) therapy, which is associated with hyperinsulinemia and polycystic ovary-like syndrome and unfavorable lipid changes in women. Hyperinsulinemia has also been observed in male and lean subjects as well. Hyperinsulinemia is associated with several health risks, such as cardiovascular diseases and t...
Article
Effects of strength training (ST) and nutritional counseling (NC) on metabolic health indicators were examined in 50 aging women. Subjects performed ST for 21 weeks. NC was given to obtain sufficient energy and protein intake, and recommended intake of fat and fiber. NC increased intake of protein and polyunsaturated fat by 4.5% and 10.7% and decre...
Article
Acute and long-term hormonal and neuromuscular adaptations to hypertrophic strength training were studied in 13 recreationally strength-trained men. The experimental design comprised a 6-month hypertrophic strength-training period including 2 separate 3-month training periods with the crossover design, a training protocol of short rest (SR, 2 minut...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine acute hormonal and neuromuscular responses in men and women to 3 heavy resistance but clearly different exercise protocols: (a) submaximal heavy resistance exercise (SME), (b) maximal heavy resistance exercise (HRE), and (c) maximal explosive resistance exercise (EE). HRE included 5 sets of 10 repetition max...
Article
Acute and long-term hormonal and neuromuscular adaptations to hypertrophic strength training were studied in 13 recreationally strength-trained men. The experimental design comprised a 6-month hypertrophic strength-training period including 2 separate 3-month training periods with the crossover design, a training protocol of short rest (SR, 2 minut...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to investigate acute hormonal and neuromuscular responses and recovery in strength athletes versus nonathletes during heavy resistance exercise performed with the forced and maximum repetitions training protocol. Eight male strength athletes (SA) with several years of continuous resistance training experience and 8...
Article
Full-text available
Hormonal and neuromuscular adaptations to strength training were studied in eight male strength athletes (SA) and eight non-strength athletes (NA). The experimental design comprised a 21-week strength-training period. Basal hormonal concentrations of serum total testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT) and cortisol (C) and maximal isometric strengt...
Article
The aim of this study was to analyse, tooth by tooth, the timing of caries attacks leading to dental restoration in girls with epilepsy. The series comprised 60 girls with epilepsy, 8-18 years old, treated in the Departments of Paediatrics or Neurology of the Oulu University Hospital. A group of healthy age matched girls served as control. A tooth...
Article
Hormonal responses to an unaccustomed knee-extension exercise (E1; 5 times 10 repetitions with 40% load of 1RM [1 repetition maximum] followed by 2 sets until exhaustion) were compared in 6 men with the corresponding responses to an identical exercise performed 2 days later under the influence of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) (E2). Both exer...
Article
Weight gain is an important adverse effect of valproate (VPA) therapy, and it is associated with hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism in women with epilepsy. Leptin is considered a signaling factor regulating body weight and energy metabolism. In human subjects, obesity is in general associated with elevated serum leptin levels, suggesting decreas...
Article
Eleven women (TRW; 64 +/- 4 yrs) and ten men (TRM; 65 +/- 5 yrs) participated in the strength/power training twice a week for 24 weeks. Basal concentrations of serum total and free testosterone, growth hormone (GH), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), cortisol and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) as well as acute responses of serum total and...
Article
To examine the effects of strength training on basal concentrations and acute responses of serum hormones, and their possible interrelationships with training induced muscle hypertrophy and strength gains of the knee extensor muscles in women with fibromyalgia (FM) and healthy controls. Twenty-one premenopausal women with FM were randomized to 21 w...
Article
This study was designed to investigate the acute plasma catecholamine (CA) response to resistance exercise and its association with serum testosterone (TES), cortisol (COR), and growth hormone (GH) concentration changes. Six men, six women, and six adolescent boys (14 +/- 0 yr) performed five sets of 10 knee extensions with 40% of one-repetition ma...
Article
Full-text available
Effects of strength training (ST) for 21 wk were examined in 10 older women (64 ± 3 yr). Electromyogram, maximal isometric force, one-repetition maximum strength, and rate of force development of the leg extensors, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps femoris (QF) and of vastus lateralis (VL), medialis (VM), intermedius (VI) and rect...
Article
Full-text available
The plasma noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (A) concentration responses of seven young male athletes [15 (SD 1) years] and seven adult male athletes [25 (SD 6) years] were investigated together with the serum testosterone (Tes) concentration responses in four different half-squatting exercises. The loads, number of repetitions, exercise intensity...
Article
Forty healthy males (M) and females (F) divided into two different age groups i.e. M50 years (range 44-57; n = 9), F50 years (range 43-54; n = 9), M70 years (range 64-73; n = 11) and F70 years (range 63-73; n = 11) volunteered as subjects for examination of muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and maximal voluntary isometric force production character...
Article
Effects of intensive strength training for 10.5 weeks on electromyographic activity, muscle cross-sectional area, isometric force-time curve of leg extensor muscles and on endogeneous hormone balance were investigated in male strength athletes (MSA), physically active males (MPA) and females (FPA). Significant changes occurred primarily in the high...
Article
The effects of progressive strength training for 24 weeks on maximal strength and pituitary-thyroid function were studied in 21 males during the training and during the following detraining period of 12 weeks. Maximal strength increased greatly (p less than 0.001) in the first 20 weeks, followed by a plateau phase in the last 4 weeks of training. M...
Article
The effects of season on the activity of the pituitary-ovarian axis and the pineal gland were studied in 11 women by serum and urinary melatonin determinations and in 21 women by measurements of the serum concentrations of anterior pituitary and ovarian hormones during the dark and light seasons. A melatonin index was determined by integration of t...
Article
The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-term effects of endurance exercise on the function of the adrenal cortex of 18 female runners, 12 control subjects, and 13 joggers and their 11 control subjects by measuring the serum concentrations of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and the responses of cortisol to intravenous AC...
Article
The hormonal responses to energetic chronic exercise and to seasonal shift from autumn to spring were evaluated by measuring concentrations of serum FSH, LH, PRL, estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), testosterone (T), and sex hormone-binding globuline (SHBG) during 1 menstrual cycle in the autumn (light training season) and 1 in the spring (hard train...
Article
The effects of a 24-weeks' progressive training of neuromuscular performance capacity on maximal strength and on hormone balance were investigated periodically in 21 male subjects during the course of the training and during a subsequent detraining period of 12 weeks. Great increases in maximal strength were noted during the first 20 weeks, followe...
Article
Neonatal serum bilirubin levels were determined at the ages of 12 hrs, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days and 5 days in 80 infants. Forty-three mothers had received segmental epidural analgesia at the height of Th 10-12 for pain relief during the first stage of labor. The analgesic agent used was 0.5% bupivacaine. The individual doses were of 4 ml. Thirty-seve...
Article
Pituitary-adrenal and testicular function was monitored by plasma ACTH and testosterone (T) measurements in preterm newborns (gestational age below 36 weeks), exposed in utero to dexamethasone treatment for prevention of respiratory distress syndrome. A group of age-matched premature newborns and full-term infants served as controls. The cord-blood...

Citations

... Regarding to physical training and muscle strength, physiologically, the increase of muscle strength is related to recruitment of motors units, stimulation frequency [53] and neuromuscular adaptations caused by high loads of resistance training [54,55]. On the other hand, LIRTBFR, with 20-30% 1RM, can also increase the muscle strength. ...
... There are several ways in which overload may be introduced during resistance training. From the various training variables, it appears that training intensity is the most important variable to consider when designing a resistance training program to target maximum strength in competitive experienced and elite strength athletes (18,20,31). Several studies have shown that training with loads corresponding to 80-100% of 1RM is most effective for increasing maximal dynamic strength (2,3) because this loading range appears to maximally recruit muscle fibers and produce further neural adaptations (15,23). ...
... Changes in both acute and chronic hormone levels appear to be mediated by factors such as the decline in the adenosine triphosphate/adenosine monophosphate ratio (Beaven, 2010). In the literature, there is no consensus on establishing a response pattern associated with so-called power loads (Crewther et al., 2006;Leite et al., 2011;Mero, Komi, Kyllönen, Pullinen, & Pakarinen, 1992). Thus, the structure of the session has a key role in modulating hormone secretion and adaptive response. ...
... As individuals transition from untrained to trained, they move closer to their genetic limits for muscle hypertrophy and neuromuscular adaptations. Therefore, trained individuals experience strength gains at a slower rate than untrained individuals [83][84][85]. This was noted in a group of athletes who experienced a non-significant 3.5% increase in maximal strength of the leg extensors over the course of a year [86]. ...
... Thus, it is important to study the effect that manipulating the set configuration in the bench press exercise may have on mechanical and metabolic variables that influence the physiological adaptations. The 10RM load (i.e., load with which a maximum of 10 continuous repetitions can be performed) has been frequently prescribed during hypertrophic-oriented resistance training sessions (1,29). However, to date the effect that different set configurations conducted against the 10RM load presents on the mechanical and metabolic responses also remain virtually unknown. ...
... While the lactate levels observed 5 min post-exercise (5-9 mmoL/L) were somewhat lower than a previous study (10-12 mmoL/L) (Walker et al., 2013), it should be remembered that the upper body muscles are smaller than those of the lower body. Secondly, the observed ~41% decrease in maximum force in the present study is similar to that observed following 40 maximum isometric bench press contractions in Häkkinen et al. (1998) and reflective of the large fatiguability of trained subjects (compared to untrained subjects) (Ahtiainen et al., 2011;Häkkinen et al., 1998). ...
... When strength training continues for longer periods, further increases in strength are contributed to a large extent by muscular hypertrophy (e.g., Häkkinen, 1994). Prolonged strength training may not have large chronic effects on serum resting concentrations of endogenous anabolic and catabolic hormones that would be out of normal physiological range in adult men or women (Häkkinen et al., 1985;1992;Kraemer et al., 1998;Ahtiainen et al., 2003;Kraemer and Ratamess, 2005). However, women have typically large interindividual differences in their serum resting testosterone concentrations (Häkkinen et al., 1992). ...
... These factors combine to improve performance at shorter exercise durations and higher intensities in adults. Moreover, the concentration of noradrenaline seems to be dependent on chronological age [25] and can participate in creatine metabolism, mainly through the stimulation of net creatine uptake preferentially by β 2 receptors probably via a cyclic AMP-dependent mechanism [26,27]. Besides these evidences, no study has investigated whether MAOD is sensitive to chronological age. ...
... Twelve studies investigated the effects of training on testosterone concentrations in older adults [16,[57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67] (Table 4). Irrespective of the exercise protocol (type of exercise, duration or intensity of exercise training), these studies all reported increases in basal total testosterone in both male and female participants (effect size: 0.19 < d < 3.37, small to very large). ...
... Implementing some of the standards [1,[23][24][25] as medical laboratory quality initiatives with regards to the laboratory customers [26][27][28] provides both laboratory and business benefits such as: ...