Arthur T. Hertig's research while affiliated with Harvard Medical School and other places

Publications (121)

Article
If John Rock, MD, were alive today, he would be coauthor of this article. I first saw John Rock in Boston's Colonial Theater in 1929, when I was a third-year student at Harvard Medical School. Seated four rows ahead of me, he was pointed out by a proper Bostonian lady directly in front, who turned to her companion and said, "That man (indicating Dr...
Article
The term hormone was first coined in 1904 by W. M. Bayliss and C. H. Starling "for the active substances secreted into the blood stream or tissue fluids by the ductless or endocrine glands."1 Adrenaline was the first hormone to be obtained in pure form from the medulla of the adrenal gland; watery extracts were obtained in 1894 by G. Oliver and E....
Article
Seventy-eight female reproductive tracts from mature Macaca fascicularis caught in the wild were examined histologically for evidence of dysplasia in immature (metaplastic) and native (mature) squamous epithelium of the cervix and vagina. This series contained equal numbers of experimental animals and control and/or breeding colony animals. Five of...
Article
The female reproduction tracts and ovaries of 30 owl monkeys, Aotus trivirgatus, were examined morphologically using the light and electron microscope. The animals ranged in age from a third trimester stillborn fetus to those of mature old age. The epithelia of the generative tracts were inactive or resting; evidence of prior menstruation was occas...
Article
Quiescent oocytes of the monkey Cebus albifrons were examined with the electron microscope. In many respects the ultrastructure of these cells was similar to that of other mammalian species. Elongate and oval mitochondria, lamellar Golgi complexes, small profiles of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and vacuolar organelles were randomly distributed aro...
Article
Two examples of preinvasive carcinoma of the nonhuman primate uterus are described and illustrated—an adenocarcinoma in situ of the endometrium in an aging chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and a squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the cervix in an aging crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis). Both lesions are comparable in their morphology to those o...
Article
This paper is a description, with illustrations, of the technique used by the authors from 1938 to 1954 in searching for early human pregnancies prior to the first missed menstrual period. The myometrium was bivalved on the dissecting board down to the endometrium. The entire specimen was immersed in saline and the endometrial sac opened by dissect...
Article
Three ovaries from 2 sexually mature chimpanzees in the midproliferative stage of their menstrual cycles were prepared for electron microscopy and 34 primary oocytes were serially sectioned. Stacks of 2–35 annulate lamellae were found in the cytoplasm of these oocytes, usually more than one in each cell. Those stacks cut in longitudinal section wer...
Article
The ultrastructure of huma corpora luntea obtained approximately 2, 3, 5, 11, and 15 days after ovulation is reported. All specimens were fixed in Karnovsky's formaldehyde-glutaral-dehyde solution. The 5-day corpus luteum is presumed to represent, in terms of fine structure, the ultrastructural aspects of high progesterone production and is compare...
Article
The ultrastructure of human corpora lutea obtained during the 6th, 10th, 16th, and 35th week of pregnancy is reported. Differences between the established luteal cell of pregnancy and the transitory luteal cell of the menstrual cycle are noted. In pregnancy the luteal cell is more compartmentalized into a peripheral mass of ER (endoplasmic reticulu...
Article
The ultrastructure of human corpora lutea obtained during the 6th, 10th, 16th, and 35th week of pregnancy is reported. Differences between the established luteal cell of pregnancy and the transitory luteal cell of the menstrual cycle are noted. In pregnancy the luteal cell is more compartmentalized into a peripheral mass of ER (endoplasmic reticulu...
Article
From a prospective study of precancerous lesions at the Boston Hospital for Women and from studies in the literature, evidence is examined for a relationship between dysplasia and carcinoma in situ. Epidemiologic observations indicate that dysplasia is the precursor of carcinoma in situ. The discovery rate of cervical epithelial abnormality (consis...
Article
The ultrastructural details of human oocytes from four primordial follicles and one early primary follicle are presented. A fifth primordial follicle is represented by a paraffin section stained by hematoxylin and eosin. The paranuclear Balbiani vitelline body, contsisting of a centrosome surrounded by endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complexes, compou...
Article
Oocytes in primordial ("resting") follicles in adult human ovaries contain a complex paranuclear structure identified by light microscopists as Balbiani's vitelline body. By electron microscopy this structure is composed of a mass of mitochondria with associated endoplasmic reticulum, multiple compound aggregates which form a ring around the cytoce...
Article
Oocytes in primordial ("resting") follicles in adult human ovaries contain a complex paranuclear structure identified by light microscopists as Balbiani's vitelline body. By electron microscopy this structure is composed of a mass of mitochondria with associated endoplasmic reticulum, multiple compound aggregates which form a ring around the cytoce...
Chapter
Reproductive failure occurs in all forms of life, plant and animal. I have been asked to make a few introductory or general remarks about the problem in man. Whatever I have to say is based upon 35 years’ experience in obstetric and gynecologic pathology, seasoned by interest in the early embryology of the human and interspersed with a nine-year in...
Article
The results of therapy in 16 patients with metastatic or nonmetastatic trophoblastic disease have been reported. Therapy consisted of chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy with indicated surgery carried out in the middle of a course of drug administration. Agents used were Methotrexate and actinomycin D. A complete remission rate of 75 per cent among...
Article
The results of therapy in 16 patients with metastatic or nonmetastatic trophoblastic disease have been reported. Therapy consisted of chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy with indicated surgery carried out in the middle of a course of drug administration. Agents used were Methotrexate and actinomycin D. A complete remission rate of 75 per cent among...
Article
Normal guinea pig oocytes develop in an environment of AMPase within the granulosa cells of the wall, the cumulus and the latter's projections that traverse the zona pellucida to terminate at the surface of the oocyte. Oocytes in developing non-vesicular and small vesicular follicles have an ATPase activity at their surface, which appears to indica...
Article
Carcinoma in situ of the endometrium is the name applied to a complex hyperplastic glandular pattern in the endometrium also labeled atypical hyperplasia or adenomatous hyperplasia. When these latter names are applied they are usually modified by “severe” or “marked.” This lesion is often followed by or accompanies definite adenocarcinoma. Indeed,...
Article
Organ culture of 15 immature human placentas — obtained at therapeutic abortion of 5–22 week gestations — was carried out in a medium consisting of: horse serum, 20%; NCTC 109, 15%; and balanced salt solution, 65% to which was added 100 I.U. of penicillin per ml of culture medium. Minced placental fragments were placed on filter paper laid across g...
Article
Oocytes in primordial and primary follicles of young adult guinea pig ovaries fixed in osmium tetroxide and embedded in Epon 812, have been observed by electron microscopy. The gradual differentiation of a series of cytoplasmic organelles has been correlated with the growth in size of the oocyte and the development of the follicular wall. The most...
Article
Oocytes in primordial and primary follicles of young adult guinea pig ovaries fixed in osmium tetroxide and embedded in Epon 812, have been observed by electron microscopy. The gradual differentiation of a series of cytoplasmic organelles has been correlated with the growth in size of the oocyte and the development of the follicular wall. The most...
Article
Various works by others are cited in an attempt to correlate radiosensitivity and histopathology of cervical cancer. The problem is complicated since radiosensitivity does not necessarily mean radiocurability. Discussion is also given on whether the exclusive treatment of cancer of the cervix by radiotherapeutic methods should be continued or w...
Article
HYDATIDIFORM moles have been known for many centuries and have had their existence explained in various, sometimes unique, ways. Diocles of Carystos supposedly had a knowledge of moles in the third century B.C., and Erotianus, in the time of Nero (54–68 A.D.), made suggestions concerning the degenerative nature of the molar villi.1 In 1564 Christop...
Article
From a study of 34 early human ova (24 normal and 10 abnormal) recovered from a series of 107 patients known to be fertile whose conditions for conception were optimal it appears that the maximum fertility rate at implantation is 58%; the maximum normal fertility rate after the twelfth day of ovular development is 42%; the probable maximum fertilit...
Article
An attempt has been made to show how a research program in pathology dictated by the problems and material of an obstetric and a gynecologic hospital has evolved over a quarter of a century. Effort has always been made to correlate form and function with the use of new techniques as they appear. Any past work is merely preparation for the future as...
Article
Normal and abnormal human placentas, as well as specimens of hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma, have been surveyed for homologous plasma albumin and globulin by the fluorescent antibody technique. Protein has been found broadly dispersed throughout the stromal ground substance of the villi, decidua, and cord, as well as in the intervillous spac...
Article
A nonbacterial acute salpingitis occurring at the time of menstruation was found in 62.3 per cent of patients who were menstruating. The inflammatory reaction was characterized by a polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration, edema of the stroma of the plicae, dilatation of lymphatic vessels of the plicae, leukostasis, and menstrual blood in the tuba...
Article
Intravascular fibrin deposition in arterioles and capillaries throughout the body is responsible for the necrosis and hemorrhage seen in eclampsia, bilateral renal cortical necrosis, and pituitary necrosis associated with pregnancy. These cases are often accompanied by severe shock, hemorrhage, and anuria. Fibrinogenopenia and fibrinolysins develop...
Article
• 1.1. The initial vaginal smears obtained in 60 cases of carcinoma in situ were correctly diagnosed on first examination in 70 per cent. • 2.2. The highest diagnostic accuracy attainable by the vaginal smear technique in cases of carcinoma in situ of the cervix was found to be 82 per cent. • 3.3. Vaginal smears were accurate in 54 per cent of 24 c...

Citations

... The secretory phase follows ovulation; now the progesterone-dependent differentiation of the endometrium takes place [4]. Characteristics are tortuous glands, sub-nuclear vacuoles in glandular epithelial cells, stromal oedema and maturation of spiral arterioles [4,5]. ...
... The endometrial biopsy was subjected to classical histological examination by staining with hematoxylin-eosin (H-E), and morphological evaluation was carried out using Noyes criteria [45]. ...
... Following implantation, the primary syncytium quickly invades through the surface epithelium into the underlying endometrium, which is transformed during pregnancy into a specialised tissue known as decidua (Fig. 1B) (Schlafke and Enders, 1975). By the time of the first missed menstrual period (∼14 dpf ), the blastocyst is completely embedded in the decidua and is covered by the surface epithelium (Fig. 1C) (Hertig et al., 1956). Fluid-filled spaces (lacunae) then appear within the syncytial mass that enlarge and merge, partitioning it into a system of trabeculae. ...
... Abnormal spiral arteriogenesis can contribute to pregnancy failure and may lead to breakthrough bleeding and HMB [26]. While the macaque uterus is strikingly similar to that of most other Old World nonhuman primates, the anatomy of the cervix varies greatly between primate species [27]. In baboons [28] ( as in women) the cervical canal is relatively free from obstruction, which facilitates hysteroscopy for the assessment of endometrial bleeding and collection of samples by curettage Each row shows the days of bleeding of one animal followed for 110 days, aligned by the first day of bleeding. ...
... Although a link between EPs and infertility has been shown in retrospective studies (Foss et al., 1958;Wallach, 1972), the effect of EPs in ART is not clear and is likely underestimated. EPs appear to negatively affect ER and implantation in infertile women, but there is currently a lack of good quality prospective studies evaluating the effects of EPs on IVF. ...
... First is "placental migration theory or trophotropism", in which the placenta migrates towards the richly vascularised area with advancing gestation to achieve better perfusion [7]. Another is the "blastocyst polarity theory", which hypothesizes that abnormal cord insertion results from malpositioning of blastocyst during implantation [8]. ...
... The quantitative accounts in WSJD and the brief BMJ article partially follow Leridon (see Figure 1). The 85% fertilisation rate matches Leridon's 84%, and derives ultimately from Hertig 14 . The pre-implantation loss of 15% is also similar to Leridon's. ...
... Mutation in zonula occludens (ZO-1; also known as TJP1), a tight junction protein, prevents cavity formation in the mouse (Wang et al., 2008). The expanding cavity forms adjacent to the ICM and the resulting asymmetry defines the first axis in mammalian 3 dpc 4.5 dpc (Finn and McLaren, 1967) Human (Homo sapiens) 8-to 16-cell stage (Edwards et al., 1981;Steptoe et al., 1971) 5 dpc (Hertig et al., 1954;Hertig et al., 1956) 7-10 dpc (Hertig et al., 1956) Cattle (Bos taurus) 32-cell stage (Van Soom et al., 1997a,b) 7-8 dpc (Van Soom et al., 1997a,b) 19-21 dpc (Wathes & Wooding, 1980) Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) 32-cell stage (Ziomek et al., 1990) 3 dpc (Gamow and Daniel, 1970) 6-7 dpc (Enders and Schlafke, 1971;Nishimura, 2001) Pig (Sus scrofa) 32-cell stage (Reima et al., 1993) 6-7 dpc (Reima et al., 1993) 18 dpc (Dantzer, 1985) development: the embryonic-abembryonic axis (reviewed by Rossant and Tam, 2009). ...
... A definite connective tissue layer lies the cavity and the blood vessels are numerous and become sinusoidal. [6,7] At this stage it can be seen as a yellowish projection from the surface of the ovary occupying about half the volume of ovary. The mature stage of the corpus luteum coincides with the pre-menstrual or luteal phase of the endometrium. ...
... [1] . Epithelial tumours are the most frequent, accounting for approximately 80%-90% of all ovarian tumours [2]. The current prognosis for patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer is variable depending on the country of presenta- tion [3]. ...