Arlene Lennox's research while affiliated with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and other places

Publications (29)

Article
Full-text available
A proof of principle for cell killing by Gadolinium (Gd) neutron capture in Magnevist preloaded Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells is provided. U87cells were pre-loaded with 5 mg/ml Magnevist (Gd containing compound) and irradiated using an enhanced neutron beam developed at NIU Institute for Neutron Therapy at Fermilab. These experiments were pos...
Article
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of fast neutrons in the management of recurrent/unresectable pleomorphic adenoma, arising from the salivary glands. Methods and Materials: Between January 1980 and December 2003, sixteen patients with recurrent/unresectable pleomorphic adenoma, arising from both major and minor salivary glands, were treated with hi...
Article
Full-text available
At the NIU Institute for Neutron Therapy at Fermilab, the clinical tissue-equivalent ionization chamber response is measured every treatment day using a cesium source that was configured to match readings obtained at the National Bureau of Standards. Daily measurements are performed in air using the air-to-tissue dose conversion factors given in AA...
Article
In boron neutron capture therapy and boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy, the absorbed dose of tissue due to the boron neutron capture reaction is difficult to measure directly. This dose can be computed from the measured thermal neutron fluence rate and the (10)B concentration at the site of interest. A borated tissue-equivalent (T...
Article
At the Northern Illinois University Institute for Neutron Therapy at Fermilab, the clinical tissue-equivalent ionisation chamber response is measured every treatment day using a cesium source that was configured to match readings obtained at the National Bureau of Standards. Daily measurements are performed in air using the air-to-tissue dose conve...
Article
The combination of fast neutron therapy and boron neutron capture therapy is currently being studied as a possible treatment for some radio-resistant brain tumours. In an attempt to design a boron-enhanced fast neutron therapy beam for the Fermilab Fast Neutron Therapy Facility, the use of moderating material surrounding the patient's head has been...
Article
Full-text available
The principles of neutron capture therapy of tumor diseases, the types of drugs, and the results of their clinical applications are discussed.
Article
The ICRU tissue to A-150 tissue equivalent plastic kerma ratio is needed for neutron therapy dosimetry. The current ICRU protocol for neutron dosimetry recommends using a common conversion factor of 0.95 at all high-energy neutron therapy facilities. In an effort to determine facility specific ICRU tissue to A-150 plastic kerma ratios, an experimen...
Article
To evaluate the effectiveness of impedance-controlled microcurrent therapy for managing treatment sequelae in head-and-neck cancer patients. Between January 1998 and June 1999, 26 patients who were experiencing late effects of radiotherapy were treated b.i.d. with impedance-controlled microcurrent therapy for 1 week. Objective range-of-motion measu...
Article
Microdosimetric spectra were measured at the Fermilab neutron therapy facility using low pressure proportional counters operated in pulse mode. The neutron beam has a very low duty cycle (<0.1%) and consequently a high instantaneous dose rate which causes distortions of the microdosimetric spectra due to pulse pileup. The determination of undistort...
Article
The vast majority of radiation treatments for cancerous tumors are given using electron linacs that provide both electrons and photons at several energies. Design and construction of these linacs are based on mature technology that is rapidly becoming more and more standardized and sophisticated. The use of hadrons such as neutrons, protons, alphas...
Chapter
Several authors have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of Boron Neutron Capture Enhancement of Fast Neutron (BNCEFN) at their facility.1–5 The two major difficulties of this technique are to incorporate a large amount of 10B selectively into the tumor (>100µg/g) and to optimize neutron thermalization in the tissues. Unfortunately, it has...
Article
Modern radiation treatment planning for photons includes full 3D modeling of the adsorbed dose distribution, accurate inclusion of the patient anatomy, and consideration of significant changes in material density and composition. Such efforts are founded in an accurate description of the radiation source and the beam delivery system. Modern fast ne...
Article
The Monte Carlo transport codes LAHET and MCNP were used to calculate energy fluence spectra at three neutron therapy facilities. The results compare very favourably with measured data. Kerma spectra and the ratio of ICRU muscle tissue kerma to A-150 kerma, along with the carbon to oxygen kerma ratio, were determined. Absorbed dose rate calculation...
Article
Full-text available
To evaluate neutron irradiation alone and with chemotherapy to treat inoperable pancreatic cancer. Between 1977 and 1994, 173 patients (60 men, 113 women, aged 43-77 years [mean, 59 years]) with unresectable adenocarcinoma of the exocrine pancreas were treated, 106 with neutron irradiation alone and 67 with concomitant chemotherapy (fluorouracil [5...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
An extraction beamline and an experimental area have been designed for the Fermilab Linac. The design exploits attributes of the Linac in order to adapt it to a wide range of applications and purposes. Charge stripping of H<sup>-</sup> ions enables beam manipulations which contribute enormously to the capabilities and flexibility of the facility. T...
Article
Analysis of the dose-response function in normal tissues following pelvic irradiation for carcinoma of the prostate. A homogeneous group of 136 patients with locally advanced carcinoma of the prostate were treated with the Fermilab high-energy neutron beam at three dose levels: 19, 20.4, and 21 Gy, using the same treatment plan and fractionation sc...
Article
Full-text available
The dose equivalent rate in the radiation field outside of the polydoor at the Neutron Therapy Facility has been measured, using a Chipmunk, assuming a quality factor (QF) of 5, to be 25 mrem/hr. This kind of dose rate if true introduced occupancy restrictions and NTF is operating under an exemption. Based on the previous CR-39 studies of the neutr...
Article
Full-text available
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Article
Sixty-two patients with high grade malignant astrocytoma were treated with fast neutrons using three different treatment schemes to evaluate the effect of shortening the overall time. Dose and fraction number were kept constant. The total dose was 16-18 neutron Gy delivered in six fractions, weekly for 6 weeks, twice a week over 3-4 weeks, or three...
Article
The incidence of significant complications (fibrosis, ulceration, necrosis of bone or soft tissue or serious functional impairment) was determined in relation to neutron dosage and follow-up time for 5 anatomical sites totalling 617 patients who had survived 2 or more years following treatment. The regions studied were head and neck (268 patients),...
Article
Forty-six patients with locally recurrent disease were re-irradiated with fast neutrons at Fermilab. All had received prior radical radiation therapy either with or without surgery. Six were palliative. Forty patients treated with curative intent were analyzed for local response, survival, and complications. The overall response rate was 78% (31/40...
Article
One hundred and thirteen cases of recurrent and/or unresectable malignant salivary gland tumors, treated with fast neutron therapy at Fermilab between September 1976 and December 1984, are analyzed for local control, sites of failure, and treatment-related morbidity. Sixty-three patients had major and 55 had minor salivary gland tumors. Local contr...
Article
Full-text available
Wedge Factor measurements were performed for the wedges that are used at the Neutron Therapy Facility for cancer neutron therapy. Wedge factors enable the calculation of the amount of beam that is necessary to deliver the required dose for treatments that use wedges. For the measurements an ionization chamber was positioned at different depths in a...
Article
Full-text available
The Fermilab Neutron Therapy Facility produces neutrons by bombarding a 2.21-cm-thick beryllium target with 66-MeV protons. The neutron beam is collimated to produce a desired field size and is monitored using dual parallel-plate ionization chambers. The neutron spectrum of this beam was determined by unfolding bare and moderated foil activation da...
Article
Full-text available
The Neutron Therapy Facility at Fermilab has treated cancer patients since 1976. Since then more than 2,300 patients have been treated and a wealth of clinical information accumulated. The therapeutic neutron beam at Fermilab is produced by bombarding a beryllium target with 66 MeV protons. The resulting continuous neutron spectrum ranges from ther...

Citations

... In experimental microdosimetry there are some conditions in which TEPCs with a counter cavity of few centimetres in diameter are not applicable. For instance in high dose-rate radiation fields, such as found in clinical application of linear accelerators (7) , a normal size TEPC cannot be employed because of pile-up of the electronic signals (8) . The physical dimensions of a TEPC are an important instrument-design parameter in reducing the effects of dead time and spectrum distortion due to pulse pile-up. ...
... The presence of a strong absorption also means the possibility of enabling imaging modalities based on photoacoustic tomography 17 . Finally, the synthesized B NPs look very appealing for applications in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) [5][6][7][8] . Since the formed NPs are composed of elemental boron, they should provide the highest possible concentration of boron atoms in tumor cells to maximize the therapeutic outcome. ...
... curing of coatings, adhesive and paints, etc. (Koleske, 2002), processing of cables and sheets to improve thermal and mechanical properties (Cleland et al., 2003;Sarma et al., 1996), sterilization of disposable medical products (Allen et al., 1995), colouration in gems and stones (Sharma, 2005), treatment of pathogenic germs of the sewage and sludge, etc (Benny and Bhatt, 1996). There are also medical electron accelerators being operated for radiotherapy use (Lennox, 2001;Murray and Lilley, 2020). Depending upon the applications, these machines are being operated from hundreds of keV to tens of MeV energy range with varying beam power and current. ...
... The rest of the proton energy is deposited in a 0.5 mm thick gold backing. The neutron beam then travels through a primary steel collimator, a transmission chamber and finally passes through a collimator composed of a mixture of cement, polyethylene pellets and water (Ross et al., 1997) to reach the cells. The source axis distance is 190 cm for the fixed, horizontal beam. ...
... However, the effectiveness of 10 B was poor. Recently, researchers, attention were attracted to special remark of the more promising element gadolinium, having the best biophysical characteristics [8,9]. Interaction 157 Gd with the thermal neutrons follows the scheme: 157 Gd+n о → 158 Gd*+γ-Rays+conversion electrons → → 158 Gd+Auger electrons+characteristic radiation, Where, n °-neutron, 158 Gd*-nuclear isomers (an excited state of the nucleus nuclide-158) [9]. ...
... Following the discovery of X-rays by the German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen, radiation was used to treat cancer patients and has since been proven as an effective treatment [1,2]. However, the side effects of irradiation come at the expense of normal tissue injury, especially with the widespread use of radiotherapy in cancer patients [3,4]. Local irradiation is known to be a common treatment for malignancies such as prostate, pancreatic, cervical, rectal, and endometrial cancers, and with direct irradiation exposure to the bone being inevitable, adverse effects of irradiation on the skeleton are common [5][6][7][8]. ...
... In these trials, fast neutron therapy was found to sterilize GBM in a signifi cant fraction of the patients as determined by histology data. However, in those early clinical trials, no survival benefi t was observed because patients suff ered from fatal post-irradiation gliosis to normal brain tissue (Saroja et al. 1989). Infl ammation contributes to radiation gliosis by dying cells spilling danger signals from the necrotic cells and these danger signals initiate an infl ammation response involving normal surrounding cells and tissues (Raza et al. 2002). ...
... CRN as sequelae of neutron beam radiation for salivary gland tumors has been mentioned in prior retrospective studies but not described in sufficient detail to allow counseling of patients currently treated with this algorithm [18,25,26]. We present a case of a patient who developed CRN of the temporal lobe 30 months after neutron beam radiation for recurrent parotid adenocarcinoma. ...
... One study found an overall response rate of 78% in patients treated for recurrent disease with NRT after prior XRT. Toxicity was dose dependent, and approximately 25% of patients had adverse events [20]. among patients with unresectable adenoid cystic carcinomas, soft tissue sarcomas, rectal recurrences, and previously irradiated head and neck tumors, NRT appears to provide efficacious palliation [21]. ...
... This creates a limitation with intentional underdosage of part of the target volume close to the skull base, especially for adenoid cystic carcinomas of either major or minor salivary gland origin with perineural tumor spread along the facial or trigeminal nerve pathways. Late neutron toxicity appears to be a function of absolute dose more than a function of daily fraction size [25,26], and many locally advanced salivary gland tumors require compromises in tumor coverage or supplementation with other modalities to meet tumor-coverage goals. ...