Antonio A. Casilli's research while affiliated with Institut de France and other places

Publications (58)

Article
Full-text available
Around the world, myriad workers perform micro-tasks on online platforms to train and calibrate artificial intelligence solutions. Despite its apparent openness to anyone with basic skills, this form of crowd-work fails to fill gender gaps, and may even exacerbate them. We demonstrate this result in three steps. First, inequalities in both the prof...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we analyze the recessionary effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on digital platform workers. The crisis has been described as a great work-from-home experiment, with platform ecosystems positing as its most advanced form. Our analysis differentiates the direct (health) and indirect (economic) risks incurred by workers, to critically ass...
Article
Research in social network analysis (SNA) faces unprecedented ethical challenges today due to both technological developments (‘big’ data) and a growing tendency toward institutionalization of ethics governance. We argue that a suitable response requires a more comprehensive approach to SNA ethics, and we identify two main paths toward this goal. F...
Research
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Research on social networks raises formidable ethical issues that often fall outside existing regulations and guidelines. Even standard informed consent and anonymization are difficult to implement with data about personal relationships. Today, state-of-the-art tools to collect, handle, and store personal data expose both researchers and participan...
Article
Full-text available
Discourses of robotic replacement and of the end of work have survived to the present day. But more and more voices now challenge the very idea that technological innovation is necessarily conducive to job loss. According to several studies, new high-tech jobs is accompanied by an even bigger low-tech job creation, and AI can be expected to be no e...
Article
Full-text available
2020 marks the 25th anniversary of the “digital divide.” Although a quarter century has passed, legacy digital inequalities continue, and emergent digital inequalities are proliferating. Many of the initial schisms identified in 1995 are still relevant today. Twenty-five years later, foundational access inequalities continue to separate the digital...
Article
Full-text available
Marking the 25th anniversary of the “digital divide,” we continue our metaphor of the digital inequality stack by mapping out the rapidly evolving nature of digital inequality using a broad lens. We tackle complex, and often unseen, inequalities spawned by the platform economy, automation, big data, algorithms, cybercrime, cybersafety, gaming, emot...
Article
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In this article, we argue that new kinds of risk are emerging with the COVID-19 virus, and that these risks are unequally distributed. As we expose to view, digital inequalities and social inequalities are rendering certain subgroups significantly more vulnerable to exposure to COVID-19. Vulnerable populations bearing disproportionate risks include...
Article
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This paper sheds light on the role of digital platform labour in the development of today’s artificial intelligence, predicated on data-intensive machine learning algorithms. Focus is on the specific ways in which outsourcing of data tasks to myriad ‘micro-workers’, recruited and managed through specialized platforms, powers virtual assistants, sel...
Article
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Este artículo es una versión resumida del informe “Le Micro-travail en France. Derrière l’automatisation de nouvelles précarités au travail?» <http://diplab. eu>This article is a summarized version of the report "Le Micro-travail en France. Derrière l’automatisation de nouvelles précarités au travail?" <http://diplab.eu>.
Article
Full-text available
This paper delves into the human factors in the “back-office” of artificial intelligence and of its data-intensive algorithmic underpinnings. We show that the production of AI is a labor-intensive process, which particularly needs the little-qualified, inconspicuous and low-paid contribution of “micro-workers” who annotate, tag, label, correct and...
Preprint
Full-text available
Les plateformes de micro-travail allouent des tâches fragmentées à des foules de prestataires dont la rémunération peut être aussi faible que quelques centimes. Indispensables pour développer les intelligences artificielles actuelles, ces micro-tâches poussent à l’extrême les logiques de précarité déjà constatées à l’égard des travailleurs « uberis...
Preprint
Full-text available
Microwork platforms allocate fragmented tasks to crowds of providers with remunerations as low as few cents. Instrumental to the development of today's artificial intelligence, these micro-tasks push to the extreme the logic of casualization already observed in "uberized" workers. The present article uses the results of the DiPLab study to estimate...
Article
* Eredeti tanulmány: Casilli, Antonio (2016): Is There a Global Digital Labor Culture?: Marginalization of Work, Global Inequalities, and Coloniality. Előadás a 2nd Symposium of the Project for Advanced Research in Global Communication (PARGC)­on, 2016. április, Philadelphia, USA.
Article
Full-text available
Body image issues associated with eating disorders involve attitudinal and perceptual components: individuals’ dissatisfaction with body shape or weight, and inability to assess body size correctly. While prior research has mainly explored social pressures produced by the media, fashion, and advertising industries, this paper focuses on the effects...
Book
Pre-print téléchargeable gratuitement: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01404890/document Consultés et administrés par des personnes atteintes d’anorexie ou d’autres troubles alimentaires, les sites web dits « pro-ana » sont accusés d’inciter à la maigreur extrême. Depuis le début des années 2000, des vagues de polémiques amplifiées par les mé...
Article
Fake online profiles are seen as the problematic manifestation of two social processes: the alleged loss of online anonymity and pseudonymity, and the automated attribution of an online identity with respect to civil identity. Here the authors suggest a third option, digital inscription, a social mechanism through which individuals posit themselves...
Article
(à paraître dans le vol. 33, n. 2, mai 2015, de la revue Communication http://communication.revues.org/)
Article
Texte initialement publié sur le blog Bodyspacesociety.eu (2009), ensuite publié dans le numéro spécial "Virus" de la revue Terrain (2015).
Article
This article presents an agent-based model of a health-related Internet forum. If recent literature demonstrates the relevance of network approaches to gain insight into consensus-building within online groups of peers, the dynamic process of mutual adjustment of participants’ health orientations has been seldom explored. Our model is informed by q...
Chapter
As discussed earlier, social media companies’ business model is based on their capacity to monetize the wealth of personal data to which they have access. Often, users have no monetary price to pay to use the service, but still have to arbitrate between the opportunities offered by social networking services and the possible ‘costs’ (in terms of pe...
Chapter
The observed increase in the amount of personal information that is publicly visible online depends partly on users’ behaviors, partly on the active policies of Internet companies, partly on regulators’ interventions. A historical perspective is now in order to pinpoint the elements of novelty in today’s situation, to characterize more precisely th...
Chapter
The current transformations bring with them a wealth of potential informational gains from more intense use of detailed personal data, but also numerous uncertainties. Key areas where data on individuals are crucial to corporate success—and privacy concerns are bound to emerge—are the relationships of an organization with its stakeholders: in parti...
Chapter
The era of social media and more generally, the growth of ‘big data’, have led some to hypothesize that our societies are heading towards what can be called the `end-of-privacy’ as we used to know it. Socialization through online networking services generates data as part of the broader process through which a growing range of people’s daily transa...
Chapter
Overall, our results indicate that the alleged erosion of privacy is far from being a linear process. Privacy itself is not just an attitude or a degree of sensitivity to exposure to the view of others; and cannot be studied only as the resultant of exogenously given individual attributes such as gender, age or education. Rather, the meaning of pri...
Chapter
The preceding discussions point to the need to focus attention on users. To do so, we use an agent-based computer simulation, as an extension of the theoretical analysis developed in the preceding sections. In this chapter, we outline its basic structure and functioning, the experiments that have been run, and their results.
Article
This article presents an agent-based model of a health-related Internet forum. If recent literature demonstrates the relevance of network approaches to gain insight into consensus-building within online groups of peers, the dynamic process of mutual adjustment of participants' health orientations has been seldom explored. Our model is informed by q...
Article
Full-text available
The article presents a method to elicit personal network data in Internet surveys, exploiting the renowned appeal of network visualizations to reduce respondent burden and risk of dropout. It is a participant-generated computer-based sociogram, an interactive graphical interface enabling participants to draw their own personal networks with simple...
Article
The following text, featured in the special issue of the Journal of Visual Culture (vol. 13, n. 1, April 2014) celebrating the 50th anniversary of Marshall McLuhan's 'Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man' is based on the talk given by Antonio A. Casilli at the McLuhan centenary conference 'McLuhan 100 Then Now Next' (7-11 November 2011, Unive...
Book
Several prominent public voices have advanced the hypothesis that networked communications erode the value of privacy in favor of a transparent connected existence. Especially younger generations are often described as prone to live "open digital lives". This hypothesis has raised considerable controversy, polarizing the reaction of its critics as...
Chapter
We can now reflect on the insight derived from our study, its limitations, and possible directions for future research. We have relied on a computer simulation model informed by social theory, previous literature and secondary sources, but we have used no raw, let alone original, empirical data: our effort remains essentially theoretical.
Book
Several prominent public voices have advanced the hypothesis that networked communications erode the value of privacy in favor of a transparent connected existence. Especially younger generations are often described as prone to live "open digital lives". This hypothesis has raised considerable controversy, polarizing the reaction of its critics as...
Article
Au sein de la communaute internationale plusieurs voix se levent pour denoncer l’erosion inexorable de la privacy dans le contexte des usages actuels du Web social. L'hypothese de la « fin de la vie privee » a souvent ete presentee comme une evolution spontanee et ineluctable des attitudes a l'egard de la sphere intime dans le contexte des communic...
Article
Full-text available
Dr AA Casilli from Telecom ParisTech, Dr F Pailler from the Edgar Morin Centre and Dr P Tubaro from Greenwich University demonstrate how the reshaping and censoring of online ana-mia communities is bad news for health care providers and policy makers
Article
Version corrigée. ATTENTION ! La version imprimée dans le premier tirage du numéro 169 de la revue 'Idées Economiques et Sociales' présente d'importantes erreurs de composition typographique. Notamment, les figures 2, 3 et 4 ont été reproduites de manière inexacte. Se référer à cette version en ligne, ainsi qu'à la version .pdf publiée sur le site...
Article
Following the 2011 wave of political unrest, extending from the Arab Spring to the UK riots, the formation of a large consensus around Internet censorship is underway. The present paper adopts a social simulation approach to show that the decision to “regulate”, filter or censor social media in situations of unrest changes the pattern of civil prot...
Article
Full-text available
Resume This paper offers a methodical review of the scientific literature of the last decade that concerns itself with online services offering supportive advocacy for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa (‘pro-ana’ and ‘pro-mia’). The main question is whether these studies reproduce the traditional divide in the study of eating disorders, between...
Article
Following the 2011 wave of political unrest, going from the Arab Spring to UK riots, the formation of a large consensus around Internet censorship is underway. Beyond all political consideration of consequences in terms of freedom of expression, the present paper adopts a social simulation approach to show that the decision to "regulate" or restric...
Article
La transdisciplinarité a vécu au cours des dernières décennies une sorte de victoire paradoxale: en se généralisant, elle devient une formule creuse, sujette à une forte tension entre le discours souvent élogieux et une réalité universitaire qui tend encore à favoriser l’enracinement disciplinaire des chercheurs. Dans la présente contribution, nous...
Article
Since the beginning of the 2000s, social scientists have progressively moved away from the hypothesis that computer use is correlated to social isolation. But what kind of social structures do users of computer-mediated communication technologies (notably, the Web and social media) contribute to put in place? Do online 'friending' actually enlarge...
Article
The recent turn in ubiquitous computing challenges previous theories of ‘technological disembodiment’. In a mediascape where technology permeates bodies, the current discourse of viral information insinuates elements of fear and risk associated with both physical presence and computer usage. This article adopts a socio-historical approach to invest...
Article
Full-text available
“ Une séduction ethnographique ” — Comment la recherche qualitative et la modélisation par agents peuvent bénéficier l’un à l’autre : Nous proposons ici un cadre analytique général pour des simultations multi-agent informées par des données empiriques. Cette méthode pourrait fournir aux modèles par agents d’aujourd’hui une représentation correcte e...
Article
L’internet est depuis sa creation un lieu de mobilisations et de contestation des pouvoirs. Le pouvoir medical n’a pas echappe, notamment dans le contexte de la diffusion de l’epidemie de sida, a une mise en cause par des groupes de patients organises. On peut deja faire une histoire de la relation entre medecins et patients depuis les annees 1980...
Article
Food Products with Health Claims (FPHC) are presented as a valuable alternative to pharmaceutical products. Their acceptance is believed to vary substantially from country to country according to the degree of understanding of the health content of the claims. The results of an anthropological fieldwork involving 144 US, Japanese and French respond...

Citations

... Interviewer asks open-ended biographical questions to explore the objectives of interviewee along his/her trajectory (if any), his/ her degree of agency, and the subjective turning points along the trajectory F I G U R E 1 Qualitative life grid completed by an interviewee of the interviewees' relationships (see Tubaro et al., 2021), our experience was highly satisfactory and similar to that reported by McCarty et al. (2007), in which network visualisation worked as a cue to develop further reflection on the interviewee's network of supports and to check the accuracy of the information obtained. In addition, the graphic representation of the contacts made it possible to deepen the importance of the different spheres of sociability where interviewees had acquired these contacts. ...
... Although the global gender digital gap in internet use stayed nearly constant at around 11 percent between 2013 and 2017, the gap between developing and developed countries widened (OECD, 2018, p13). Even though gender gap in ICT access and use has narrowed considerably in developed countries, the gender digital divide still remains in developing countries (Robinson et al., 2020). The use of information technology has increased in developing countries, but gender gaps persist in ICT access and quality of access, as well as differences in internet use due to cultural and social roles (Gray et al., 2017). ...
... Since gamification requires the collection, storage and processing of staff data to function properly, along with constant monitoring of their activities, systematic control of privacy appears to act as the means with which corporations can achieve total transformation of the shopfloor process. As Robinson et al. (2020) highlight, these 'opaque methods of 'algorithmic management' produce information asymmetries and surveillance that restrict workers' autonomy' and it affects their ability to develop autonomous lives (Roessler 2005) and even their identities. 14 This is exactly the charge that can be levelled at gamification. ...
... In the late 1970s and the 1980s, home office was perceived as the work arrangement of the future [17]. As underlined by [18], it becomes increasingly feasible thanks to advances in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Advantages and disadvantages of home office are numerous at the organizational and individual levels. ...
... The elderly group and migrants are likely to experience disruptions in their online information access because of the high expense of budget devices and internet service plans [36]. Many low-income people struggle to reach information and support from online sources during the crisis [34,37]. Digital inequality access during a pandemic can cause a higher risk for the marginalized groups both in terms of social and health impacts such as non-access or unproper healthcare assistance [11,32]. ...
... In this way, prolonged negotiation, consensus and responsibility are associated with irregular risks communication (Salvatore, 2020). In the case of the government of Mexico, the communication can be considered irregular if the president and health official's statements are taken into account (Casilli, 2019). Until May 2020, the Mexican State presumed that they had controlled the pandemic, but COVID-19 cases increased in June. ...
Reference: Año 2 I
... In these instances, outsourcing organization and their clients regard workers as independent contractors, considering them factors of production, and their labor a commodity or a product subject to market regulations [87]. They are paid as little as a few cents of a dollar per task, usually lack social protection traditionally tied with employment relations, and are subject to systems of control and surveillance [30,37,81]. Their assignments broadly comprise the interpretation and classification of data, and their work practices involve subjective social and technical choices that influence data production and have ethical and political implications. ...
... al., 2021). A uberização do trabalho é caracterizada por um novo design de organização do trabalho, a qual liga clientes e trabalhadores, através de aplicativos conectados na internet (plataformas digitais), mediante o uso de algoritmos computacionais (Casilli, 2018;Franco, 2020). Contudo, o algoritmo é um enigma parcial, dado que os trabalhadores da ponta do processo pouco conhecem de seus critérios de funcionamento. ...
... Összehangolják több érdekcsoport érdekeit (fogyasztók, termelők, beszállítók, közönségek…) [...], és így valahol a piacok és a cégek között félúton elhelyezkedő közvetítő szervezetként működnek: önálló és független szereplőket hangolnak össze, mint a piacok; azonban a cégekhez hasonlóan tőkére és munkára van szükségük az értékelsajátításhoz és a kockázatcsökkentéshez. A termelőfolyamat nem csak a cégen belül zajlik, hanem tágabb ökoszisztémákban, ahol formális szervezetek startupokkal, alvállalkozókkal, elosztási hálózatokkal, innovációs központokkal és az "erőltetetten bevont" felhasználók és fogyasztók közösségeivel lépnek kapcsolatba [...] (Casilli 2018(Casilli [2016: 126). ...
... Effective automation of control processes necessarily requires humans at various steps; developing, maintaining and stepping in when 'autonomous' systems inevitably experience failure [114,115]. Similarly, today's 'autonomous' vehicles still depend on human "safety drivers" and the need for human input is unlikely to disappear entirely although it might change form [116]. ...