Anthony D Stephens's scientific contributions

Publications (8)

Preprint
Full-text available
Sales of new petrol and diesel passenger vehicles may not be permitted in the United Kingdom (UK) post-2030. Should this happen, it is likely that vehicles presently powered by hydrocarbons will be progressively replaced by Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs). This paper describes the use of mathematical modelling, drawing on real time records of the...
Article
The decision by the government in December 2007 that the United Kingdom (UK) should build a 33 gigawatt wind fleet, capable of generating about 10 gigawatts or 25% of the country’s electricity total requirement, was a controversial one. Proponents argued that it was the most attractive means of lowering the country’s greenhouse gas emissions, where...
Preprint
Full-text available
Methods for predicting the likely upper economic limit for the wind fleet in the United Kingdom should be simple to use whilst being able to cope with evolving technologies, costs and grid management strategies. This paper present two such models, both of which use data on historical wind patterns but apply different approaches to estimating the ex...
Article
Energy policy in Europe has been driven by the three goals of security of supply, economic competitiveness and environmental sustainability, referred to as the energy trilemma. Although there are clear conflicts within the trilemma, member countries have acted to facilitate a fully integrated European electricity market. Interconnection and cross-b...
Article
Full-text available
The decision by the United Kingdom (UK) government in 2007 that the country should build a 33GW wind fleet, capable of generating 25 percent of the UK electricity requirement, was controversial. Proponents argued that it was the most attractive means of lowering the UK greenhouse gas emissions, whereas opponents noted that it would result in an unn...

Citations

... In addition, modelling of the separate RMI4P bids was undertaken using spreadsheet models, based on typical data for a South African summer and winter. The latter approach has been previously described for the United Kingdom energy system [11,12]. The approach requires downloading the real time data from the online databases [10,13], importing the values into Excel, and then calculating the outcomes of changes to the generation technologies/demand profiles. ...
... As Figure 1 illustrates, according to the IEA, in 2020, China's installed onshore wind capacity almost triples the growth of 2019 to nearly 69 GW; similarly, wind energy deployment in the US was twice as high as in 2019; new installed capacity in the EU and the UK remained at 8 GW; while India's wind capacity fell by 50% to just 1 GW. The global wind power industry is predicted to add 1 TW of installed capacity by 2030, and China's wind power market will account for 41% of the total new installations worldwide [5,6]. ...
... It is sometimes suggested that the problem of such enormous grid surpluses/ deficits may be solved by storing surpluses for later use. However, although energy storage systems are being increasingly deployed, they are on a very small scale relative to total demand (Stephens and Walwyn, 2017). By the end of 2020, the world's largest energy storage system, excluding pumped storage and molten salt systems, was reportedly the 800 MWh vanadium redox flow battery in China, built by Rongke Power and its partner, US UniEnergy Technologies, although the status of this project is unclear (Norge Mining, 2020). ...
... The authors have previously reported that removing the cyclic component entirely, by replacing the real time Grid Demand with average Grid Demand, had only a minimal effect on the calculated wind fleet efficiency (Stephens and Walwyn, 2018a). An explanation for this initially surprising finding is that for half the year the removal of the cyclic component reduces the calculation of wind curtailment and for the other half increases it, the two effects cancelling each other. ...