Anil K. Jain's research while affiliated with Michigan State University and other places

Publications (784)

Chapter
In this work, we study multi-domain learning for face anti-spoofing (MD-FAS), where a pre-trained FAS model needs to be updated to perform equally well on both source and target domains while only using target domain data for updating. We present a new model for MD-FAS, which addresses the forgetting issue when learning new domain data, while posse...
Chapter
Although significant advances have been made in face recognition (FR), FR in unconstrained environments remains challenging due to the domain gap between the semi-constrained training datasets and unconstrained testing scenarios. To address this problem, we propose a controllable face synthesis model (CFSM) that can mimic the distribution of target...
Preprint
Feature fusion plays a crucial role in unconstrained face recognition where inputs (probes) comprise of a set of $N$ low quality images whose individual qualities vary. Advances in attention and recurrent modules have led to feature fusion that can model the relationship among the images in the input set. However, attention mechanisms cannot scale...
Preprint
Deep neural networks (DNNs) have shown incredible promise in learning fixed-length representations from fingerprints. Since the representation learning is often focused on capturing specific prior knowledge (e.g., minutiae), there is no universal representation that comprehensively encapsulates all the discriminatory information available in a fing...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this work, we study multi-domain learning for face anti-spoofing(MD-FAS), where a pre-trained FAS model needs to be updated to perform equally well on both source and target domains while only using target domain data for updating. We present a new model for MD-FAS, which addresses the forgetting issue when learning new domain data, while posses...
Preprint
Full-text available
Although significant advances have been made in face recognition (FR), FR in unconstrained environments remains challenging due to the domain gap between the semi-constrained training datasets and unconstrained testing scenarios. To address this problem, we propose a controllable face synthesis model (CFSM) that can mimic the distribution of target...
Preprint
Fingerprint recognition systems have been deployed globally in numerous applications including personal devices, forensics, law enforcement, banking, and national identity systems. For these systems to be socially acceptable and trustworthy, it is critical that they perform equally well across different demographic groups. In this work, we propose...
Preprint
Much of the success of fingerprint recognition is attributed to minutiae-based fingerprint representation. It was believed that minutiae templates could not be inverted to obtain a high fidelity fingerprint image, but this assumption has been shown to be false. The success of deep learning has resulted in alternative fingerprint representations (em...
Preprint
A major limitation to advances in fingerprint spoof detection is the lack of publicly available, large-scale fingerprint spoof datasets, a problem which has been compounded by increased concerns surrounding privacy and security of biometric data. Furthermore, most state-of-the-art spoof detection algorithms rely on deep networks which perform best...
Preprint
Recognition in low quality face datasets is challenging because facial attributes are obscured and degraded. Advances in margin-based loss functions have resulted in enhanced discriminability of faces in the embedding space. Further, previous studies have studied the effect of adaptive losses to assign more importance to misclassified (hard) exampl...
Preprint
Human gait is considered a unique biometric identifier which can be acquired in a covert manner at a distance. However, models trained on existing public domain gait datasets which are captured in controlled scenarios lead to drastic performance decline when applied to real-world unconstrained gait data. On the other hand, video person re-identific...
Preprint
A major impediment to researchers working in the area of fingerprint recognition is the lack of publicly available, large-scale, fingerprint datasets. The publicly available datasets that do exist contain very few identities and impressions per finger. This limits research on a number of topics, including e.g., using deep networks to learn fixed le...
Article
Matching contactless fingerprints or finger photos to contact-based fingerprint impressions has received increased attention in the wake of COVID-19 due to the superior hygiene of the contactless acquisition and the widespread availability of low cost mobile phones capable of capturing photos of fingerprints with sufficient resolution for verificat...
Article
Over the past two decades, biometric recognition has exploded into a plethora of different applications around the globe. This proliferation can be attributed to the high levels of authentication accuracy and user convenience that biometric recognition systems afford end-users. However, in-spite of the success of biometric recognition systems, ther...
Preprint
Recent studies suggest that ``memorization'' is one important factor for overparameterized deep neural networks (DNNs) to achieve optimal performance. Specifically, the perfectly fitted DNNs can memorize the labels of many atypical samples, generalize their memorization to correctly classify test atypical samples and enjoy better test performance....
Preprint
Over the past two decades, biometric recognition has exploded into a plethora of different applications around the globe. This proliferation can be attributed to the high levels of authentication accuracy and user convenience that biometric recognition systems afford end-users. However, in-spite of the success of biometric recognition systems, ther...
Preprint
DNN-based face recognition models require large centrally aggregated face datasets for training. However, due to the growing data privacy concerns and legal restrictions, accessing and sharing face datasets has become exceedingly difficult. We propose FedFace, a federated learning (FL) framework for collaborative learning of face recognition models...
Preprint
Matching contactless fingerprints or finger photos to contact-based fingerprint impressions has received increased attention in the wake of COVID-19 due to the superior hygiene of the contactless acquisition and the widespread availability of low cost mobile phones capable of capturing photos of fingerprints with sufficient resolution for verificat...
Preprint
Full-text available
State-of-the-art defense mechanisms against face attacks achieve near perfect accuracies within one of three attack categories, namely adversarial, digital manipulation, or physical spoofs, however, they fail to generalize well when tested across all three categories. Poor generalization can be attributed to learning incoherent attacks jointly. To...
Article
In many of the least developed and developing countries, a multitude of infants continue to suffer and die from vaccine-preventable diseases and malnutrition. Lamentably, the lack of official identification documentation makes it exceedingly difficult to track which infants have been vaccinated and which infants have received nutritional supplement...
Article
State-of-the-art presentation attack detection approaches tend to overfit to the presentation attack instruments seen during training and fail to generalize to unknown presentation attack instruments. Given that face presentation attack detection is inherently a local task, we propose a face presentation attack detection framework, namely Self-Supe...
Preprint
Full-text available
Prevailing defense mechanisms against adversarial face images tend to overfit to the adversarial perturbations in the training set and fail to generalize to unseen adversarial attacks. We propose a new self-supervised adversarial defense framework, namely FaceGuard, that can automatically detect, localize, and purify a wide variety of adversarial f...
Preprint
We propose a framework, called LiftedGAN, that disentangles and lifts a pre-trained StyleGAN2 for 3D-aware face generation. Our model is "3D-aware" in the sense that it is able to (1) disentangle the latent space of StyleGAN2 into texture, shape, viewpoint, lighting and (2) generate 3D components for rendering synthetic images. Unlike most previous...
Chapter
We address the problem of bias in automated face recognition and demographic attribute estimation algorithms, where errors are lower on certain cohorts belonging to specific demographic groups. We present a novel de-biasing adversarial network (DebFace) that learns to extract disentangled feature representations for both unbiased face recognition a...
Preprint
Full-text available
In many of the least developed and developing countries, a multitude of infants continue to suffer and die from vaccine-preventable diseases and malnutrition. Lamentably, the lack of official identification documentation makes it exceedingly difficult to track which infants have been vaccinated and which infants have received nutritional supplement...
Preprint
Typical evaluations of fingerprint recognition systems consist of end-to-end black-box evaluations, which assess performance in terms of overall identification or authentication accuracy. However, these black-box tests of system performance do not reveal insights into the performance of the individual modules, including image acquisition, feature e...
Preprint
Full-text available
Face recognition is known to exhibit bias - subjects in certain demographic group can be better recognized than other groups. This work aims to learn a fair face representation, where faces of every group could be equally well-represented. Our proposed group adaptive classifier, GAC, learns to mitigate bias by using adaptive convolution kernels and...
Preprint
State-of-the-art spoof detection methods tend to overfit to the spoof types seen during training and fail to generalize to unknown spoof types. Given that face anti-spoofing is inherently a local task, we propose a face anti-spoofing framework, namely Self-Supervised Regional Fully Convolutional Network (SSR-FCN), that is trained to learn local dis...
Article
Mugshots while routinely acquired by law enforcement agencies are under utilized by automated face recognition systems. In this paper, we propose a regression based approach to reconstruct textured full 3D face models from multi-view mugshot images. Using landmarks from the input frontal and profile mugshots of a subject, our method reconstructs hi...
Article
Full-text available
We present a style-transfer based wrapper, called Universal Material Generator (UMG), to improve the generalization performance of any fingerprint spoof (presentation attack) detector against spoofs made from materials not seen during training. Specifically, we transfer the style (texture) characteristics between fingerprint images of known materia...
Preprint
Full-text available
The vulnerability of automated fingerprint recognition systems to presentation attacks (PA), i.e., spoof or altered fingers, has been a growing concern, warranting the development of accurate and efficient presentation attack detection (PAD) methods. However, one major limitation of the existing PAD solutions is their poor generalization to new PA...
Preprint
We present a method to search for a probe (or query) image representation against a large gallery in the encrypted domain. We require that the probe and gallery images be represented in terms of a fixed-length representation, which is typical for representations obtained from learned networks. Our encryption scheme is agnostic to how the fixed-leng...
Preprint
Full-text available
Given a gallery of face images of missing children, state-of-the-art face recognition systems fall short in identifying a child (probe) recovered at a later age. We propose a feature aging module that can age-progress deep face features output by a face matcher. In addition, the feature aging module guides age-progression in the image space such th...
Preprint
In recent years, significant progress has been made in face recognition due to the availability of large-scale labeled face datasets. However, since the faces in these datasets usually contain limited degree and types of variation, the models trained on them generalize poorly to more realistic unconstrained face datasets. While collecting labeled f...
Preprint
Recognizing wild faces is extremely hard as they appear with all kinds of variations. Traditional methods either train with specifically annotated variation data from target domains, or by introducing unlabeled target variation data to adapt from the training data. Instead, we propose a universal representation learning framework that can deal with...
Article
We present DeepPrint, a deep network, which learns to extract fixed-length fingerprint representations of only 200 bytes. DeepPrint incorporates fingerprint domain knowledge, including alignment and minutiae detection, into the deep network architecture to maximize the discriminative power of its representation. The compact, DeepPrint representatio...
Preprint
Full-text available
We utilize the dynamics involved in the imaging of a fingerprint on a touch-based fingerprint reader, such as perspiration, changes in skin color (blanching), and skin distortion, to differentiate real fingers from spoof (fake) fingers. Specifically, we utilize a deep learning-based architecture (CNN-LSTM) trained end-to-end using sequences of minu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Evaluation of large-scale fingerprint search algorithms has been limited due to lack of publicly available datasets. To address this problem, we utilize a Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) to synthesize a fingerprint dataset consisting of 100 million fingerprint images. In contrast to existing fingerprint synthesis algorithms, we incorporate an...
Preprint
Full-text available
Spoof detectors are classifiers that are trained to distinguish spoof fingerprints from bonafide ones. However, state of the art spoof detectors do not generalize well on unseen spoof materials. This study proposes a style transfer based augmentation wrapper that can be used on any existing spoof detector and can dynamically improve the robustness...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present a style-transfer based wrapper, called Universal Material Generator (UMG), to improve the generalization performance of any fingerprint spoof detector against spoofs made from materials not seen during training. Specifically, we transfer the style (texture) characteristics between fingerprint images of known materials with the goal of sy...
Preprint
Full-text available
We address the problem of bias in automated face recognition algorithms, where errors are consistently lower on certain cohorts belonging to specific demographic groups. We present a novel de-biasing adversarial network that learns to extract disentangled feature representations for both unbiased face recognition and demographics estimation. The pr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Given a gallery of face images of missing children, state-of-the-art face recognition systems fall short in identifying a child (probe) recovered at a later age. We propose an age-progression module that can age-progress deep face features output by any commodity face matcher. For time lapses larger than 10 years (the missing child is found after 1...
Preprint
Full-text available
Detecting manipulated facial images and videos is an increasingly important topic in digital media forensics. As advanced synthetic face generation and manipulation methods become available, new types of fake face representations are being created and raise significant concerns for their implications in social media. Hence, it is crucial to detect...
Preprint
We present DeepPrint, a deep network, which learns to extract fixed-length fingerprint representations of only 200 bytes. DeepPrint incorporates fingerprint domain knowledge, including alignment and minutiae detection, into the deep network architecture to maximize the discriminative power of its representation. The compact, DeepPrint representatio...
Preprint
Deep neural networks (DNN) have achieved unprecedented success in numerous machine learning tasks in various domains. However, the existence of adversarial examples raises our concerns in adopting deep learning to safety-critical applications. As a result, we have witnessed increasing interests in studying attack and defense mechanisms for DNN mode...
Preprint
Prevailing evaluations of fingerprint recognition systems have been performed as end-to-end black-box tests of fingerprint identification or verification accuracy. However, performance of the end-to-end system is subject to errors arising in any of the constituent modules, including: fingerprint reader, preprocessing, feature extraction, and matchi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Face recognition systems have been shown to be vulnerable to adversarial examples resulting from adding small perturbations to probe images. Such adversarial images can lead state-of-the-art face recognition systems to falsely reject a genuine subject (obfuscation attack) or falsely match to an impostor (impersonation attack). Current approaches to...
Preprint
Full-text available
Optical coherent tomography (OCT) fingerprint technology provides rich depth information, including internal fingerprint (papillary junction) and sweat (eccrine) glands, in addition to imaging any fake layers (presentation attacks) placed over finger skin. Unlike 2D surface fingerprint scans, additional depth information provided by the cross-secti...
Article
The two underlying requirements of face age progression, i.e., aging accuracy and identity permanence, are not well studied in the literature. This paper presents a novel generative adversarial network based approach to address the issues in a coupled manner. It separately models the constraints for intrinsic subject-specific characteristics and ag...
Preprint
Full-text available
Latent fingerprint recognition is not a new topic but it has attracted a lot of attention from researchers in both academia and industry over the past 50 years. With the rapid development of pattern recognition techniques, automated fingerprint identification systems (AFIS) have become more and more ubiquitous. However, most AFIS are utilized for l...
Preprint
Recurrent networks have been successful in analyzing temporal data and have been widely used for video analysis. However, for video face recognition, where the base CNNs trained on large-scale data already provide discriminative features, using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), a popular recurrent network, for feature learning could lead to overfittin...
Preprint
Embedding methods have achieved success in face recognition by comparing facial features in a latent semantic space. However, in a fully unconstrained face setting, the features learned by the embedding model could be ambiguous or may not even be present in the input face, leading to noisy representations. We propose Probabilistic Face Embeddings (...
Preprint
Full-text available
In developing countries around the world, a multitude of infants continue to suffer and die from vaccine-preventable diseases, and malnutrition. Lamentably, the lack of any official identification documentation makes it exceedingly difficult to prevent these infant deaths. To solve this global crisis, we propose Infant-Prints which is comprised of...
Preprint
We learn a discriminative fixed length feature representation of fingerprints which stands in contrast to commonly used unordered, variable length sets of minutiae points. To arrive at this fixed length representation, we embed fingerprint domain knowledge into a multitask deep convolutional neural network architecture. Empirical results, on two pu...
Preprint
We propose a new approach to video face recognition. Our component-wise feature aggregation network (C-FAN) accepts a set of face images of a subject as an input, and outputs a single feature vector as the face representation of the set for the recognition task. The whole network is trained in two steps: (i) train a base CNN for still image face re...
Article
Numerous activities in our daily life require us to verify who we are by showing our ID documents containing face images, such as passports and driver licenses, to human operators. However, this process is slow, labor intensive and unreliable. As such, an automated system for matching ID document photographs to live face images (selfies <sup>1</sup...
Preprint
Full-text available
Prevailing user authentication schemes on smartphones rely on explicit user interaction, where a user types in a passcode or presents a biometric cue such as face, fingerprint, or iris. In addition to being cumbersome and obtrusive to the users, such authentication mechanisms pose security and privacy concerns. Passive authentication systems can ta...
Preprint
Prevailing fingerprint recognition systems are vulnerable to spoof attacks. To mitigate these attacks, automated spoof detectors are trained to distinguish a set of live or bona fide fingerprints from a set of known spoof fingerprints. However, spoof detectors remain vulnerable when exposed to attacks from spoofs made with materials not seen during...
Preprint
The two underlying requirements of face age progression, i.e. aging accuracy and identity permanence, are not well studied in the literature. This paper presents a novel generative adversarial network based approach to address the issues in a coupled manner. It separately models the constraints for the intrinsic subject-specific characteristics and...
Article
The explosive growth of digital images in video surveillance and social media has led to the significant need for efficient search of persons of interest in law enforcement and forensic applications. Despite tremendous progress in primary biometric traits (e.g., face and fingerprint) based person identification, a single biometric trait alone can n...
Preprint
Full-text available
We study the problem of fingerprint presentation attack detection (PAD) under unknown PA materials not seen during PAD training. A dataset of 5,743 bonafide and 4,912 PA images of 12 different materials is used to evaluate a state-of-the-art PAD, namely Fingerprint Spoof Buster. We utilize 3D t-SNE visualization and clustering of material character...
Preprint
Full-text available
We propose, WarpGAN, a fully automatic network that can generate caricatures given an input face photo. Besides transferring rich texture styles, WarpGAN learns to automatically predict a set of control points that can warp the photo into a caricature, while preserving identity. We introduce an identity-preserving adversarial loss that aids the dis...
Preprint
The explosive growth of digital images in video surveillance and social media has led to the significant need for efficient search of persons of interest in law enforcement and forensic applications. Despite tremendous progress in primary biometric traits (e.g., face and fingerprint) based person identification, a single biometric trait alone canno...