Andrew S. Winston's research while affiliated with University of Guelph and other places

Publications (19)

Article
Woodward (2010) argued that Maria Rickers-Ovsiankina, Eugenia Hanfmann, and Tamara Dembo constituted a group of Jewish emigré psychologists who received substantial help in America from a "Jewish network" of patronage. This comment focuses on the historiographic problems and pitfalls of essentialized ethnic identification. There was no evidence tha...
Article
I describe how the problem of “value neutrality” remained a central issue for SPSSI from the founding of the organization to the 1960s, as SPSSI leaders worked to maintain legitimacy in both scientific and public spheres. In 1930s psychology, notions of objectivity and political neutrality were intertwined in ways that produced substantial debate o...
Article
This reply reviews the conceptual, methodological, and statistical foundations of Rushton, Skuy and Bons' article in this journal that compared Black Africans, Whites and East Indians on the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, and concluded that the Raven's is an unbiased test. Through a technical re-analysis of both the internal and external va...
Article
Whitney in 1995 argued that White groups around the world have relatively low homicide rates compared to Black groups. He used the presumed similarity of homicide rates of White groups to argue for the importance of genetic factors and the unimportance of sociocultural factors in explaining group differences. We show that for Europeans, Whitney add...
Article
Between 1930 and 1960, experimentation became the premier form of knowledge generation in social psychology. In journals, texts, and handbooks, experiment was now conceived as the active manipulation of an independent variable, and the sole method for the discovery of "causes." Understanding this change requires further investigation of the fine-gr...
Article
Henry E. Garrett (1894–1973) was the President of the American Psychological Association in 1946 and Chair of Psychology at Columbia University from 1941 to 1955. In the 1950s Garrett helped organize an international group of scholars dedicated to preventing race mixing, preserving segregation, and promoting the principles of early 20th century eug...
Article
From the 1920s to the 1950s, Edwin G. Boring wrote letters of reference for Jewish students and colleagues in which he followed the common practice of identifying them as Jews and assessing whether they showed "objectionable traits" thought to characterize Jews. These practices are discussed in relation to the increasing antisemitism of the interwa...
Article
In this reply to Rushton (1997), I address three issues: purported factual errors in Winston (1996) and Peters (1995a) regarding brain size, purported politically neutrality of Rushton's work, and legitimate scholarly concerns over unjustified, pernicious claims regarding racial differences. Peters (1995a) noted that the rank order of brain size: "...
Article
Comments on the work of E. Staub (see record 83-27014) on the cultural-societal roots of violence. A. S. Winston contends that Staub neglected the role of mainstream academic science in providing the foundations, rationalization, and encouragement for the Nazi Holocaust. To race hygienists, Winston argues, Jews were a problem of biology that requir...
Article
Comments on the work of E. Staub (see record 83-27014) on the cultural-societal roots of violence. A. S. Winston contends that Staub neglected the role of mainstream academic science in providing the foundations, rationalization, and encouragement for the Nazi Holocaust. To race hygienists, Winston argues, Jews were a problem of biology that requir...
Article
The textbook definition of experiment as manipulation of an independent variable while holding all other variables constant is generally treated as transdisciplinary and transhistorical. We examined the rise of this definition in psychology and other disciplines by comparing 236 introductory texts from psychology, sociology, biology, and physics pu...
Article
According to Philippe Rushton, the equalitarian fiction, a scientific hoax that races are genetically equal in cognitive ability, underlies the politically correct objections to his research on racial differences. He maintains that there is a taboo against race unequaled by the Inquisition. I show that while Rushton has been publicly harassed, he h...
Article
Letters of reference from Robert S. Woodworth identified some psychologists as Jews and reveal an implicit stereotype of Jewish “objectionable traits.” I examine these conceptions of “Jewish character” in the context of Woodworth's general views on individual differences and in the broader context of Jewish immigration to America and enrollment at...
Article
Popular Art, typically rejected by high art patrons, consists of technically skilled but sentimentalized images of wildlife, country life, and family life. Major themes and features of popular art are discussed. In a series of studies, viewers without art background focused on warm, pleasant feelings to justify choice of popular images, whereas exp...

Citations

... Artistic aesthetic emotion is subjective. Aesthetics is a psychological process of establishing a subject-object relationship (Cupchik and Winston 1996). Aesthetic emotion will be improved following the experience changes of the subjects (Wang 2010). ...
... Sin embargo, en rigor, el término 'experimental' no refiere a una orientación teórica: el experimento es un instrumento o conjunto de instrumentos técnicos y procedimentales de recolección de datos aplicable, al menos a priori, a problemas de cualquier orientación teórica. Esto, lejos de constituir un presentismo, ha sido reconocido desde fines del siglo XIX por los propios pioneros como Wundt y Brentano, ha sido definido más concretamente desde el auge de los neoconductismos a partir de 1930 y 1940 (Feest, 2005), y ha sido sistematizado y volcado a manuales de entrenamiento de psicólogos desde 1970 (Winston & Blais, 1996). A su vez, el experimentalismo tampoco se alea necesariamente con un tipo particular de orientación epistemológica (positivistas han investigado sin experimentos, y no positivistas o 'antipositivistas' como los ya referidos Brentano y Wundt han impulsado o llevado a cabo experimentos). ...
... 496). Winston (2001b) notes that Mills did not understand Skinnerian "causality" as Machian functional relations (Mach, 1883(Mach, /1960see Chiesa, 1992;Marr, 1985;Winston, 2001a), leading to his "harsh" judgment about Skinnerian theory, a judgment Casas (2000) applied to Mills' treatment of behaviorism in general (see also Brady & Heaton, 2000). Boakes (1999) and Casas fault Mills for having done no archival research on Skinner, as he had for the other behaviorists, arguing that this likely accounted for some misattributions. ...
... However, it is important for credible judges of aesthetics to put aside personal interests, goals, prejudices, or other practical concerns (Gracyk, 1999;Kant, 1790Kant, /1949 even though "nonaesthetic grounds" for aesthetic judgments are commonplace (e.g., fame, sales ;Eysenck, 1988). Art serves many functions, such as stress reduction or nostalgia (Winston, 1992(Winston, , 1995, which are irrelevant to aesthetic value and can cloud judgments. ...
... I additionally encouraged students to deconstruct the power dynamics contributing to more traditional genetic and environmental models of development. For example, genetic models of development, including resilience, have been strongest during times of xenophobia, racism, and eugenics (Gillborn, 2016;Winston, 1997). Environmental resilience models unidirectionally center on the impact of a more privileged mentor often attempting to give voice to marginalized populations without recognizing the empowering stories that are already a part of the mentee's community and culture (McCoy, Winkle-Wagner, & Luedke, 2015;Spencer, Basualdo-Delmonico, Walsh, & Drew, 2017). ...
... Obviously, the racial and ethnic sensibilities of people living in the United States in 1939 should not be judged by appropriate sensibilities in 2010. Not only was there strong prejudice against African Americans, hut anti-Semitism negatively affected university hiring practices in North America (Winston, 1996(Winston, , 1998Zimmerman, 2007). Whether or not a candidate for an academic position was known to be a Jew, merely having a jewish-sounding name was seen to be an obstacle to employment. ...
... Psychologists along with biologists, anthropologists, philosophers, and other academics have contributed to the propagation of "research" designed to "prove" the superiority of those classified as White and the inferiority of other racial and ethnic groups, such as Black people, Indigenous Peoples, Mexican people, multiracial people, and Jewish people (de Gobineau, 1853;Guthrie, 1976;Richards, 1997;Tucker, 2004;Winston, 2004Winston, , 2011. Academics, including psychologists, operating from a eugenics approach at the turn of the 20th century developed theories, conducted studies, created curricula, and worked to inform policies that, by design, discriminated against the poor and racial and ethnic minority groups. ...
... B. figurale Intelligenz, teils erfasst mit nur einem oder wenigen Subtests), um daran anschließend weitreichende Schlussfolgerungen zu ziehen, diehäufig ungeprüftauf breite Intelligenzgruppenunterschiede in verschiedenen Intelligenzfacetten generalisiert werden (z. B. Cronshaw, Hamilton, Onyura & Winston, 2006;Rushton & Skuy, 2000). Ein weiteres Beispiel für selektive Darstellungen von Einzelaspekten ist Kritik an Oberflächenmerkmalen oder spezifischen Aspekten eines Messinstruments (einzelne Formulierungen oder Items), die aber nicht unbedingt eine realistische Einschätzung der Gesamteffizienz des Messinstruments wiedergeben (z. ...
... Around the mid-twentieth century and alongside the developments of the civil rights era, there was a concerted effort in reviving the perceived legitimacy of eugenics and allied race sciences often focusing on group differences in psychological traits (e.g., Winston, 1998; see also Jackson, 2005;Kline, 2001). Within America, a particularly DAVIDSON -5 of 15 controversial turn in this cultural saga was psychologist Arthur Jensen's 1969 article arguing against the plasticity of intelligence. ...
... Blacks as a "race" were at one end of the spectrum, Asians as a "race" were on the other end, and Whites established the good Aristotelian middle ground (see also Aalbers, 2002). Rushton, who included a variety of psychological and biological variables in his research suggested that Asian males had the smallest penis size but the highest intellectual capacity, whereas African American males had the largest penises but the lowest intellectual capacity (for a critique see also Winston, 1996). Code (1993) argued that Rushton's results were interpreted and believed to be reliable because they were products of so-called "objective" research. ...