Andrew E Skodol's research while affiliated with Tucson College and other places

Publications (258)

Article
We tested the predictive validity of personality disorder (PD) indicators at different levels of aggregation, ranging from general PD severity to PD syndrome scales to individual PD criteria. We compared the predictive validity of models on these levels based on interview data on all 78 DSM-IV PD criteria, by using 19 outcome scales in three differ...
Article
Criterion A, as represented by Level of Personality Functioning (LPF), offers a means by which to conceptualize the core impairment in self and interpersonal functioning that distinguishes personality disorder (PD) from other forms of psychopathology. One of the most widely cited criticisms of the current Section II in Diagnostic and Statistical Ma...
Article
The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) has emerged out of the quantitative approach to psychiatric nosology. This approach identifies psychopathology constructs based on patterns of co-variation among signs and symptoms. The initial HiTOP model, which was published in 2017, is based on a large literature that spans decades of research...
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The DSM-5 Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (AMPD) includes two main criteria: moderate or greater impairment in personality functioning (Criterion A) and the presence of one or more pathological personality traits (Criterion B). The aim of the study was to investigate the incremental utility of Criteria A and B for predicting DSM-5 Secti...
Article
The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is a quantitative nosological system that addresses shortcomings of traditional mental disorder diagnoses, including arbitrary boundaries between psychopathology and normality, frequent disorder co-occurrence, substantial heterogeneity within disorders, and diagnostic unreliability over time and...
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Background Numerous theories posit different core features to borderline personality disorder (BPD). Recent advances in network analysis provide a method of examining the relative centrality of BPD symptoms, as well as examine the replicability of findings across samples. Additionally, despite the increase in research supporting the validity of BPD...
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Past psychiatric diagnoses are central to patient case formulation and prognosis. Recently, alternative classification models such as the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) proposed to assess traits to predict clinically relevant outcomes. In the current study, we directly compared personality traits and past diagnoses as predictors o...
Article
Structural models of personality traits, particularly the five-factor model (FFM), continue to inform ongoing debates regarding what personality attributes and trait domains are central to psychopathy. A growing body of literature has linked the constructs of the triarchic model of psychopathy (boldness, meanness, disinhibition) to the FFM. Recentl...
Article
Shortcomings of approaches to classifying psychopathology based on expert consensus have given rise to contemporary efforts to classify psychopathology quantitatively. In this paper, we review progress in achieving a quantitative and empirical classification of psychopathology. A substantial empirical literature indicates that psychopathology is ge...
Article
Importance Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been identified as a strong risk factor for suicidal behavior, including suicide attempts. Delineating specific features that increase risk could inform interventions. Objective To examine factors associated with prospectively observed suicide attempts among participants in the Collaborative Lon...
Chapter
This chapter describes the emergence of dimensional models for the classification and diagnosis of personality pathology. Broad personality traits underlie the meta-structure of psychopathology in general and describe the myriad manifestations of personality disorders (PDs) specifically. Domains of personality functioning distinguish personality st...
Article
The third edition of the textbook presents psychiatry as a medical specialty. The application of science has transformed much of medicine by providing an understanding of the mechanisms of pathology. The genetic basis of psychiatry guarantees a future for explanation by neuroscience. The book sets the scene for such development by explaining the ke...
Article
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Background: Conceptualizations of personality disorders (PD) are increasingly moving towards dimensional approaches. The definition and assessment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in regard to changes in nosology are of great importance to theory and practice as well as consumers. We studied empirical connections between the traditional DSM...
Article
Objective: Diagnosis is a cornerstone of clinical practice for mental health care providers, yet traditional diagnostic systems have well-known shortcomings, including inadequate reliability, high comorbidity, and marked within-diagnosis heterogeneity. The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is a data-driven, hierarchically based alte...
Article
The Level of Personality Functioning Scale (LPFS) of the Alternative DSM-5 Model for Personality Disorders (AMPD) was formulated to assess the presence and severity of personality disorders (PDs). Moderate impairment (Level 2) in personality functioning, as measured by the LPFS, was incorporated into the AMPD as a diagnostic threshold for PD in Cri...
Article
Converging lines of evidence suggest that personality pathology comprises shared and unique impairments. We leveraged a large clinical sample ( N = 505) and a person-centered statistical approach, ipsative change analysis, to decompose individuals’ multidimensional profiles at two time points into a metric that captures change in the elevation of t...
Article
The alternative model for personality disorders (AMPD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), defines personality functioning by assessment of impairment in Identity and Self-direction (Self component) and in Empathy and Intimacy (Interpersonal). These four domains constitute the Level of Personality Fu...
Article
For more than a century, research on psychopathology has focused on categorical diagnoses. Although this work has produced major discoveries, growing evidence points to the superiority of a dimensional approach to the science of mental illness. Here we outline one such dimensional system-the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP)-that is...
Preprint
Converging lines of evidence suggest that personality pathology is comprised of shared and unique impairments. The current study leveraged a large clinical sample (N=505) and a person-centered statistical approach, ipsative change analysis, to decompose individuals’ multidimensional profiles at two time points into a metric which captures change in...
Chapter
Die Diagnostik von Persönlichkeitsstörungen ist im Umbruch begriffen: Die aktuellen kategorialen Klassifikationssysteme (beispielsweise in DSM-5, Teil II) haben sich als unzulänglich erwiesen und werden langfristig vermutlich durch dimensionale Modelle ersetzt. In diesem Kapitel werden zunächst die Vor- und Nachteile kategorialer und dimensionaler...
Article
Full-text available
Shortcomings of approaches to classifying psychopathology based on expert consensus have given rise to contemporary efforts to classify psychopathology quantitatively. In this paper, we review progress in achieving a quantitative and empirical classification of psychopathology. A substantial empirical literature indicates that psychopathology is ge...
Article
The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–5) presents an alternative model for personality disorders in which severity of personality pathology is evaluated by the Level of Personality Functioning Scale (LPFS). The Structured Interview for the DSM–5 Alternative Model for Personality Disorders, Module I (SCI...
Article
Borderline personality disorder (PD) has historically been cast as an unabating condition. Longitudinal data, however, support a more variable time course marked by remission and relapse. In the present study, we tested the possibility that borderline PD has both stable (i.e., consistently present across time and situation, as modern diagnostic sys...
Article
Caretakers are often intimidated or alienated by patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), compounding the clinical challenges posed by the severe morbidity, high social costs and substantial prevalence of this disorder in many health-care settings. BPD is found in â1.7% of the general population but in 15-28% of patients in psychiatric...
Article
Personality disorders impair social, occupational, leisure, and global functioning more than a significant disorder such as major depressive disorder. Impairment is found in clinical and community populations. Impairment is independent of co-occurring other mental disorders. Impairment is more stable over time than are the diagnoses themselves. Per...
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The reliability and validity of traditional taxonomies are limited by arbitrary boundaries between psychopathology and normality, often unclear boundaries between disorders, frequent disorder co-occurrence, heterogeneity within disorders, and diagnostic instability. These taxonomies went beyond evidence available on the structure of psychopathology...
Article
Theorists have long argued that personality disorder (PD) is best understood in terms of general impairments shared across the disorders as well as more specific instantiations of pathology. A model based on this theoretical structure was proposed as part of the DSM–5 revision process. However, only recently has this structure been subjected to for...
Article
Individuals with a personality disorder (PD) tend to experience more negative life events (NLEs) than positive life events (PLEs). In community samples, the Five Factor Model of personality (FFM) predicts both positive and negative life events. The present research examined whether FFM normal personality traits were associated with positive and neg...
Article
Background and aims: Persistent cases of alcohol and nicotine dependence are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, and are predicted by childhood maltreatment and personality disorders. Our aim was to test whether personality disorders (individually or conjointly) mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and the pers...
Article
Objectives: To investigate associations between adolescent personality disorder (PD) and obesity 17 years later. Methods: The Children in the Community is a longitudinal study based on a randomly sampled cohort of families, in effect since 1975. PDs were assessed in youths by self-report and mother report in 1985 to 1986, when participants were...
Article
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is often misdiagnosed as a mood disorder, especially bipolar disorder. Mood disorder diagnostic variants that broaden the definitions of disorders often lead in clinical practice to the inappropriate use of medications, to a proliferation of medication changes, and sometimes to extensive and harmful polypharmac...
Article
A Young Attorney Presents for Outpatient Treatment of Depression Ms.Bisa32-year-oldsingleCaucasianwomanwhowasreferred byafriend’spsychiatristformentalhealthtreatmentforthe first time after a 4-month period of depression. She reported persistent feelings of “emptiness” and “worthlessness,” increased sleeping with difficulty getting out of bed, impai...
Article
Objective: This report examines the relationship of DSM-IV borderline personality disorder (BPD) to anxiety disorders using data on the reciprocal effects of improvement or worsening of BPD and anxiety disorders over the course of 10 years. Method: We reliably and prospectively assessed borderline patients (n = 164) with DSM-IV-defined co-occurr...
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Full-text available
The current categorical classification of personality disorders, originally introduced in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III), has been found to suffer from numerous shortcomings that hamper its usefulness for research and for clinical application. The Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group for DSM-5 was ch...
Article
An "Alternative DSM-5 Model for Personality Disorders" was published in Sect. III of DSM-5, while the identical categories and criteria from DSM-IV for the personality disorders (PDs) are in Sect. II. Given strong shifts from categorical diagnoses toward dimensional representations in psychiatry, how did the PDs end up "stuck in neutral," with the...
Article
Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use (NMPDU) is a growing issue world-wide. Previously, NMPDU comorbidity has been investigated using bivariate approaches, providing a piecemeal understanding of NMPDU's relationship to other mental disorders. We investigate how NMPDU fits within the multivariate meta-structure of psychiatric comorbidity and how this mi...
Article
Background Among individuals with anxiety disorders, comorbid personality disorders (PDs) increase cross-sectional symptom severity and decrease functioning. Little is known, however, about how PDs influence the course of anxiety disorders over time. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of PDs on the persistence of four anxiety disor...
Article
Objective: To examine the relationship of borderline personality disorder (BPD) to mood disorders by using data from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study on the reciprocal interactions of BPD with both depressive and bipolar disorders over the course of 10 years. Method: The study included 223 BPD patients with DSM-IV-defin...
Article
Full-text available
Several authors have raised the concern that the DSM-5 Level of Personality Functioning Scale (LPFS) is relatively complex and theory laden, and thus might put high requirements on raters. We addressed this concern by having 22 untrained and clinically inexperienced students assess the personality functioning of 10 female psychotherapy inpatients f...
Article
This study compared the perceived clinical utility of DSM-IV-TR personality disorder diagnoses (retained in DSM-5) with the alternative model presented in DSM-5 Section III, using a national sample of clinicians applying both systems to their own patients. A sample of 337 mental health clinicians (26% psychiatrists, 63% psychologists, and 11% other...
Article
This commentary reviews three articles in the special section on the assessment of personality pathology in adolescents from the perspective of the recently published DSM-5. The articles address general clinical guidelines for assessment, a study on the reliability and validity of an assessment instrument, and a study of informant discrepancies and...
Article
Childhood maltreatment increases the risk for adult personality disorders (PDs), but several PDs or maltreatment types co-occur. Specificity of maltreatment-personality associations is poorly understood. Using a representative US population sample, we identified specific associations between maltreatment types (sexual, physical and emotional abuse...
Article
Alcohol and nicotine dependence are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, especially when cases are persistent. The risk for alcohol and nicotine dependence is increased by childhood maltreatment. However, the influence of childhood maltreatment on dependence course is unknown, and is evaluated in the current study. Physical, sexual...
Article
An alternative model for the diagnosis of personality disorders (PDs), based on assessments of impairments in personality functioning and of pathological personality traits, was intended for the official classification in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5), but was instead placed in Section III, "Emergi...
Article
Presents a rejoinder to comments by Silk (see record 2013-45025-005) and Zimmerman (see record 2013-45025-006) on the original article by Skodol et al. (see record 2013-45025-004) regarding personality disorders in the DSM-5. Here, Skodol et al. comment that many of the early decisions made by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorde...
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Researchers examining personality typologies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have consistently identified 3 groups: low pathology, internalizing, and externalizing. These groups have been found to predict functional severity and psychiatric comorbidity. In this study, we employed Latent Profile Analysis to compare this previously establishe...
Article
The authors sought to determine whether a 5-point global rating of personality dysfunction on the Level of Personality Functioning Scale proposed as a severity index for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), would be related to DSM-IV personality disorder diagnosis as well as to other key clinical judgments. Da...
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The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) was published in May 2013 and features (in Section III) a new model for the diagnosis of personality disorders. The aim of this paper is to introduce this model to a broader German-speaking readership. The article begins by explaining why a new model seems necess...
Article
Preliminary explorations of the trait model for personality disorders provided in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) Section III suggest that the factor structure of proposed traits includes 5 higher order factors that resemble other dimensional trait models of personality. These prior investigations have been ba...
Article
The criteria for personality disorders in Section II of DSM-5 have not changed from those in DSM-IV. Therefore, the diagnosis of Section II narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) will perpetuate all of the well-enumerated shortcomings associated with the diagnosis since DSM-III. In this article, we will briefly review problems associated with Sect...
Article
Comments on the article by S. C. South and N. J. DeYoung (see record 2012-01744-001). This commentary examines how behavior genetic research can be used to inform the revision of personality disorders (PDs) during the transition from DSM-IV to DSM-5. Although supportive of the proposal put forth by the work group that extreme personality traits nee...
Article
Objective: Research has demonstrated poor agreement between clinician-assigned personality disorder (PD) diagnoses and those generated by self-report questionnaires and semistructured diagnostic interviews. No research has compared prospectively the predictive validity of these methods. We investigated the convergence of these 3 diagnostic methods...
Article
The Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) recommended substantial revisions to the personality disorders (PDs) section of DSM-IV-TR, proposing a hybrid categorical-dimensional model that represented PDs as combinations of core personality dysfunctions an...
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Despite the 3:1 prevalence ratio of men versus women with Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD), research on sex differences on correlates of ASPD in the general population is scarce. The purpose of this study was to examine sex differences in childhood and adult adverse events, lifetime psychiatric comorbidity, and clinical correlates of DSM-IV A...
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Although controversy surrounds the definition and measurement of narcissism, the claim that pathological grandiosity is central to the construct generates little disagreement. Yet representations of pathological grandiosity vary across measures of narcissism, leading to conceptual confusion in the literature. The validity of a DSM-based measure of...
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Purpose: Prevalence rates, and bivariate comorbidity patterns, of many common mental disorders differ significantly across ethnic groups. While studies have examined multivariate comorbidity patterns by gender and age, no studies to our knowledge have examined such patterns by ethnicity. Such an investigation could aid in understanding the nature...
Article
This cross-sectional study examined the associations between neighborhood-level socioeconomic-status (NSES), and psychosocial functioning and personality pathology among 335 adults drawn from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study. Participants belonged to four personality disorder (PD) diagnostic groups: Avoidant, Borderline, S...
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Background: The study attempted to identify characteristics that differentiate multiple suicide attempters from single attempters in individuals with personality disorders (PDs) and/or major depression. Method: Participants were 431 participants enrolled in the Collaborative Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders from July 1996 to June 2008...
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Multivariate comorbidity research indicates mood and anxiety (internalizing) disorders share one or more common liabilities, but categorical, dimensional, and hybrid accounts of these liabilities have not been directly compared. We modeled seven internalizing disorders in a nationally representative sample of 43,093 individuals via confirmatory fac...
Article
This study compares the 10-year retest stability of normal traits, pathological traits, and personality disorder dimensions in a clinical sample. Ten-year rank-order stability estimates for the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality, and Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders were evaluat...
Article
A substantive revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) last occurred in 1994; therefore, the mental health field should anticipate significant changes to the classification of mental disorders in the fifth edition. Since DSM-5 Work Groups have recently proposed revisions for the major diagnostic classes of mental...
Article
To examine prospectively the natural course of bulimia nervosa (BN) and eating disorder not-otherwise-specified (EDNOS) and test for the effects of stressful life events (SLE) on relapse after remission from these eating disorders. 117 female patients with BN (N = 35) or EDNOS (N = 82) were prospectively followed for 72 months using structured inte...
Article
DSM-IV-TR suggests that clinicians should assess clinically relevant personality traits that do not necessarily constitute a formal personality disorder (PD), and should note these traits on Axis II, but DSM-IV-TR does not provide a trait model to guide the clinician. Our goal was to provide a provisional trait model and a preliminary corresponding...
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The identification of reliable predictors of course in major depressive disorder (MDD) has been difficult. Evidence suggests that the co-occurrence of personality pathology is associated with longer time to MDD remission. Interpersonal pathoplasticity, the mutually influencing nonetiological relationship between psychopathology and interpersonal tr...
Article
Personality traits may provide underlying risk factors for and/or sequelae to substance use disorders (SUDs). In this study Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) traits were compared in a clinical sample (N=704, age 18-45) with current, past, or no historical alcohol or non-alcohol substance use disorders (AUD and NASUD) as asses...
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We examined the predictive power of the self-harm subscale of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) to identify suicide attempters in the Collaborative Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders (CLPS). The SNAP, a self-report personality inventory, was administered to 733 CLPS participants at baseline, of whom 701 (96%) had...
Article
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Little is known about the role of a broad range of personality disorders in the course of substance use disorder (SUD) and whether these differ by substance. The existing literature focuses mostly on antisocial personality disorder and does not come to clear conclusions. To determine the association between the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders and t...
Article
DSM-IV drug use disorders, a major public health problem, are highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, but little is known about the role of this comorbidity when studied prospectively in the general population. Our aims were to determine the role of comorbid psychopathology in the 3-year persistence of drug use disorders. Secondary data a...
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Full-text available
This study investigated the replicability of a previously proposed personality typology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and explored stability of cluster membership over a 6-month period. Participants with current PTSD (n = 156) were drawn from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS). The CLPS project tracked a lar...
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Epidemiological studies of categorical mental disorders consistently report that gender differences exist in many disorder prevalence rates and that disorders are often comorbid. Can a dimensional multivariate liability model be developed to clarify how gender impacts diverse, comorbid mental disorders? We pursued this possibility in the National E...
Article
The extensive comorbidity among Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994 ) personality disorders might be compelling evidence of essential commonalities among these disorders reflective of a general level of personality functioning that in itself is highly relevant to clinical d...
Article
The transition from the Diagnostic and Statistical Model of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text revision [DSM–IV–TR]; American Psychiatric Association, 20001. American Psychiatric Association. 2000. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision), Washington, DC: Author. [CrossRef]View all references) to the fifth edition...
Article
Personality disorders are associated with fundamental disturbances of self and interpersonal relations, problems that vary in severity within and across disorders. This review surveyed clinician-rated measures of personality psychopathology that focus on self–other dimensions to explore the feasibility and utility of constructing a scale of severit...
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Despite a general consensus that dimensional models are superior to the categorical representations of personality disorders in DSM-IV, proposals for how to depict personality pathology dimensions vary substantially. One important question involves how to separate clinical severity from the style of expression through which personality pathology ma...
Article
ABSTRACTDSM-5 is scheduled for publication in 2013. The revision process will be the product of over 13 years of work. DSM-5 Work Groups have recently proposed changes in each of the major diagnostic classes of mental disorders and revised their proposals in anticipation of APA-sponsored and APA-conducted Field Trials now underway. This article wil...
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Borderline personality disorder (BPD) shows high levels of co-morbidity with an array of psychiatric disorders. The meaning and causes of this co-morbidity are not fully understood. Our objective was to investigate and clarify the complex co-morbidity of BPD by integrating it into the structure of common mental disorders. We conducted exploratory a...
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The Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group has proposed five specific personality disorder (PD) types for DSM-5, to be rated on a dimension of fit: antisocial/psychopathic, avoidant, borderline, obsessive-compulsive, and schizotypal. Each type is identified by core impairments in personality functioning, pathological personality traits, a...
Article
The DSM-IV model of personality disorders is composed of trait sets arranged into 10 theoretically distinct, polythetically assessed categories, with little regard for how the traits comprising these disorders are interrelated and structured. Research since the publication of DSM-III has shown that this model is untenable. The question is not wheth...
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Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is traditionally considered chronic and intractable. To compare the course of BPD's psychopathology and social function with that of other personality disorders and with major depressive disorder (MDD) over 10 years. A collaborative study of treatment-seeking, 18- to 45-year-old patients followed up with standa...
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Findings from several large-scale, longitudinal studies over the last decade have challenged the long-held assumption that personality disorders (PDs) are stable and enduring. However, the findings, including those from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS; Gunderson et al., 2000), rely primarily on results from semistru...
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of specific personality disorder comorbidity on the course of major depressive disorder in a nationally representative sample. Data were drawn from 1,996 participants in a national survey. Participants who met criteria for major depressive disorder at baseline in face-to-face interviews (in 2001-...
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The four-part assessment of personality psychopathology proposed for DSM-5 focuses attention on identifying personality psychopathology with increasing degrees of specificity, based on a clinician's available time, information, and expertise. In Part I of this two-part article, we described the components of the new model and presented brief ration...
Article
Personality traits may provide underlying risk factors for and/or sequelae to substance use disorders (SUDs). In this study Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) traits were compared in a clinical sample (N=704, age 18–45) with current, past, or no historical alcohol or non-alcohol substance use disorders (AUD and NASUD) as asses...