Andreas Wimmer's research while affiliated with Columbia University and other places

Publications (41)

Article
This article reviews some of the most prominent books in the field of race studies in the USA and identifies their shared assumptions: that racial inequality is the primary principle of stratification in the USA; that is has transformed but not lessened since the civil rights era; that it can be explained by the racist inclinations of the white maj...
Article
Existing research has shown that highly diverse countries tend to provide less public goods. This article argues, by contrast, that the relationship is spurious: both contemporary ethnic heterogeneity and low public goods provision represent legacies of a weakly developed state capacity inherited from the past. Classical theories of state formation...
Article
Though war has long been a neglected topic in the social sciences, we now look back on several decades of systematic research. This review first summarizes the main strands of recent research in political science, where the most influential studies and well-structured debates have emerged. It then outlines four main contributions made by political,...
Article
Why have some states been captured by specific ethnic elites and their clienteles, excluding all others from access to government power? Conversely, what explains political inclusion across ethnic divides or, in other words, successful ‘nation building’? Assuming a relational theoretical perspective, I argue that high state capacity to deliver publ...
Article
This article explores the conditions under which political modernization leads to nation building, to the politicization of ethnic cleavages, or to populism by modeling these three outcomes as more or less encompassing exchange relationships between state elites, counterelites, and the population. Actors seek coalitions that grant them the most adv...
Article
This article introduces GeoEPR, a geocoded version of the Ethnic Power Relations (EPR) dataset that charts politically relevant ethnic groups across space and time. We describe the dataset in detail, discuss its advantages and limitations, and use it in a replication of Cederman, Wimmer and Min's (2010) study on the causes of ethno-nationalist conf...
Article
This article reviews how major theorists of nationalism – from Ernest Renan to Benedict Anderson – have tried to come to grips with the puzzle that Swiss nationalism and the Swiss state present in view of the monoethnic states that surround it. I will argue that this puzzle disappears when assuming a political sociology perspective that highlights...
Article
A notable feature of U.S. social networks is their high degree of racial homogeneity, which is often attributed to racial homophily--the preference for associating with individuals of the same racial background. The authors unpack racial homogeneity using a theoretical framework that distinguishes between various tie formation mechanisms and their...
Article
In Africa, Asia, and the Middle East, oil-producing countries have civil wars at a significantly higher rate than countries without oil. Is there also a link between oil and armed rebellion in Latin America? I argue the answer is "yes," but with an important qualification. In the rest of the world, oil heightens the danger of both "national" confli...
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Full-text available
Why did the nation-state proliferate across the world over the past 200 years, replacing empires, kingdoms, city-states, and the like? Using a new dataset with information on 145 of today's states from 1816 to the year they achieved nation-statehood, we test key aspects of modernization, world polity, and historical institutionalist theories. Event...
Book
The article examines methodological nationalism, a conceptual tendency that was central to the development of the social sciences and undermined more than a century of migration studies. Methodological nationalism is the naturalization of the global regime of nation-states by the social sciences. Transnational studies, we argue, including the study...
Article
Much of the quantitative literature on civil wars and ethnic conflict ignores the role of the state or treats it as a mere arena for political competition among ethnic groups. Other studies analyze how the state grants or withholds minority rights and faces ethnic protest and rebellion accordingly, while largely overlooking the ethnic power configu...
Article
The article summarizes four well-known critiques of the classical, anthropological theory of culture. It then develops a new theory of culture as the outcome of an instable and open process of negotiating meaning, which may lead to a consensus and thus more stable patterns of meaning and corresponding forms of social closure.
Chapter
Fredrik Barths (vgl. Barth 1969b) berühmte Einleitung zu einer Sammlung ethnographischer Fallstudien stellt bis heute die Grundlage der vergleichenden Ethnizitätsforschung dar. Barth brach mit dem Herderschen Kanon der Anthropologie, demzufolge jede ethnische Gruppe eine historisch gewachsene, einzigartige Blume im Garten der menschlichen Kultur da...
Article
A critical question in the quantitative study of war is how to choose appropriate units of analysis. While most studies link wars to the sovereign states that fight them, several authors have recently offered alternative perspectives, focusing on the the properties of rebel organizations and armies or tracking events in fine-grained geographic spac...
Article
Major paradigms in immigration research, including assimilation theory, multi-culturalism, and ethnic studies, take it for granted that dividing society into ethnic groups is analytically and empirically meaningful because each of these groups is characterized by a specific culture, dense networks of solidarity, and shared identity. Three major rev...
Article
Quantitative scholarship on civil wars has long debated whether ethnic diversity breeds armed conflict. We go beyond this debate and show that highly diverse societies are not more conflict prone. Rather, states characterized by certain ethnopolitical configurations of power are more likely to experience violent conflict. First, armed rebellions ar...
Article
Metodologický nacionalismus je chápán jako předpoklad, že národ/stát/společnost je přirozenou sociální a politickou formou moderního světa. Nejprve rozlišujeme tři druhy metodologického nacionalismu příznačné pro hlavní proud sociální vědy a poté ukazujeme, jak ovlivnily výzkum migrace. Odkrýváme paralely mezi nacionalistickým myšlením a konceptual...
Article
Scholars have long recognized the potential of Internet-based communication technologies for improving network research—potential that, to date, remains largely underexploited. In the first half of this paper, we introduce a new public dataset based on manipulations and embellishments of a popular social network site, Facebook.com. We emphasize fiv...
Article
This article offers a new taxonomy of how actors may change ethnic boundaries. I distinguish between five main strategies: to redraw a boundary by either expanding or limiting the domain of people included in one's own ethnic category; to modify existing boundaries by challenging the hierarchical ordering of ethnic categories, or by changing one's...
Article
Primordialist and constructivist authors have debated the nature of ethnicity "as such" and therefore failed to explain why its characteristics vary so dramatically across cases, displaying different degrees of social closure, political salience, cultural distinctiveness, and historical stability. The author introduces a multilevel process theory t...
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
The existing quantitative literature on war takes the independent nation-state as the self-evident unit of analysis and largely excludes other political types from consideration. In contrast, the authors argue that the change in the institutional form of states is itself a major cause for war. The rise of empires and the global spread of the nation...
Article
Full-text available
The article examines methodological nationalism, a conceptual tendency that was central to the development of the social sciences and undermined more than a century of migration studies. Methodological nationalism is the naturalization of the global regime of nation-states by the social sciences. Transnational studies, we argue, including the study...
Article
This article aims to integrate different explanatory approaches to ethnic conflicts: studies on ethnic clientelism and discrimination, on political mobilisation by minority elites, on unequal relations between ethnoregions, and on the effects that different political systems have on the dynamics of ethnic conflicts. For each of these approaches, th...
Article
How can an escalation of tensions between the major ethno-religious groups be avoided in a democratizing Iraq? The first section explains why and under which conditions democratization may stir up, rather than palliate ethnic conflicts: when networks of civil society organizations have not yet developed and if the state is too weak and poor to be a...
Article
The authors suggest a revision of the current strategy of reconstruction and peace-building in Afghanistan with reference to four points. (i) The programme of reconstruction should have a clear strategic focus and be designed as a state-building project. The main problem Afghanistan faces is the absence of a monopoly of power and of other basic sta...
Article
Methodological nationalism is understood as the assumption that the nation/state/society is the natural social and political form of the modern world. We distinguish three modes of methodological nationalism that have characterized mainstream social science, and then show how these have influenced research on migration. We discover parallels betwee...
Article
Full-text available
The study purports to show how a bias, known as methodological nationalism, has weighed down research and investigation on migration until recently. Relying on the contribution of work on transnational communities, the authors propose a programmatic conclusion.
Article
Full-text available
The Petersberg conference held near Bonn at the beginning of December 2001 and the donor conference held in Tokyo in mid-January 2002 defined the broad outlines for peace-making and reconstruction in Afghanistan. Under the Bonn agreement, a loya jirga consisting of representatives from all the country’s regions will agree on a new constitution in t...
Chapter
Ethnische Gewalt gehört seit Ende des Kalten Krieges zu jenen Gewaltformen, welche in der westlichen Öffentlichkeit als besonders abstoßend und illegitim empfunden werden. ‚Ethnische Säuberung’ durch Massenerschießungen, systematische Vergewaltigungen oder Massaker genozidalen Ausmaßes gelten als Inbegriff des Schreckens und als Zeichen der ‚neuen...
Article
The academic world has undoubtedly become smaller in recent decades. Chinese-, Spanish-, English-, Arabic-, French-, Russian-, German- and Italian-speaking academics, intellectuals, and feuilletonists discuss ‘the end of history' or ‘the clash of civilizations.' We all seem driven by the cycles of boom and bust that govern the planetary intellectua...

Citations

... Transnacionální migrační studia vycházejí z kritiky metodologického nacionalismu, překonávají vnímání migrujících osob jako hrozby nebo abnormality a zaměřují se na vzájemné působení a spoluutváření globální, národní a místní dynamiky srov. Sager 2018;Wimmer, Glick Schiller 2009;Beck, Beck-Gernsheim 2014). Zasazují migraci do kontextu s dalšími sociálními procesy a přeshraničními interakcemi ve vztahu k sociálním institucím a životním formám uvnitř hranic i napříč hranicemi a ve vztahu ke globálním nerovnostem, konfl iktům a moci. ...
... Kustenbauder (2012:419), studying how political actors in Sudan have politicized religious identity, found that politicized religious identity is used as a polarizing rhetorical device, emphasizing religious duty to mobilize support for warfare and advance political visions (ibid). According to Wimmer (2016), the nature of ethnic politics is conditioned by state-building processes. In contexts where states have built up a strong presence, ethnic or religious identities tend not to be politicized (Cammett 2019:3). ...
... For instance, race scholars often express frustration that dated concepts like cultural explanations for racialized poverty refuse to die (e.g., Darity, 2011). But critical race scholars' perfectly reasonable predictions of continuing racial inequality (Bell, 1995) amid shifting mechanisms are usually derided as political (Wacquant, 2014), not objective (Wimmer, 2015), or simply ignored. In contrast to perpetual skepticism about persistent racial inequality, we would expect to find discrimination when deriving hypotheses from CRT, which defines race as a social hierarchy. ...
... During a conventional war, both civilian and military lives on both sides of the conflict are likely to be at risk. However, modern wars are increasingly asymmetrical (Wimmer, 2014), and during recent U.S. wars, U.S. civilians have not been directly endangered. The categories that we included, therefore, were outgroup civilians and ingroup military lives (omitting ingroup civilians and outgroup military lives). ...
Citing article
... These methods for analyzing social networks are applicable to a wide spectrum of relevant domains, such as the analysis of concepts in mental models [14,142] and the study of wars between nations [145]. SNA provides psychologists with powerful tools to help explain and model the relational context in which behaviors occur alongside the relational dimensions of those behaviors. ...
... Our paper contributes to the existing literature in two ways. First, we propose (to the best of our knowledge) the first modelling of a nation building process a`la Gellner, 5 and do so by explicitly incorporating the role of elites following Breuilly's critique (Breuilly, 1993) of Gellner's theory and other nation building theories underlining the importance of the interaction between central and peripheral elites (see, in particular, Kroneberg andWimmer, 2012, andRoeder, 2007). Second, we provide a theoretical framework for understanding the endogenous emergence of peripheral vs. statewide nations and link it to the existing historical evidence for five European countries characterized by different power configurations. ...
... Civic nationalism is often associated with strong states, while those in weak statesi.e. states unable to deliver public goodsare considered more likely to embrace ethnic nationalism and sectarianism (Wimmer 2002(Wimmer , 2015. However, as Hinnebusch (2020) demonstrates in his examination of nationalism and sectarianism in Syria, both civic and ethnic nationalism are found in strong and weak states. ...
... Thus, in theory, the social condition drivers of armed conflict risk should include those related to population density levels, remoteness of a settlement, levels of education, access to basic human rights, systems of good governance, social equity, positive traditional values, customs, and ideological beliefs and overall collective organizational systems, levels of individual and national economic reserves, levels of debt and the degree of access to credit, loans, insurance, etc. (UN/ISDR, 2004). Considering the availability of high spatial resolution data and long time span, we selected population density (Raleigh and Urdal, 2007;Hauge and Ellingsen, 1998), urban accessibility (Hegre et al., 2019), nighttime lights (Owain and Maslin, 2018;Miguel et al., 2015;Nordhaus and Chen, 2015), and ethnic diversity (Wimmer et al., 2009;Esteban et al., 2012), that composed the dataset on the social conditions, which can reflect the demographic distribution, traffic convenience, general economic level, and ethnic differences. These indicators of social condition are closely related to the armed conflict risk (see Supplementary Materials for detailed description). ...
... The ontology of minorities is already put forward in Will Kymlicka's work on liberal multiculturalism 9 and the subsequent criticism under left-Herderian ontology (Wimmer, 2008). ...
... Дж. Хатчинсон делает фундаментальное замечание по поводу своих взглядов на природу национализма -«нация может быть сформирована только как повторяющийся процесс снизу» [16,[18][19]. Данная идея заключается в том, что мы переходим в постнациональный век множественности лояльностей и для «выживания» государств необходимо будет искать общие основы для будущего национального развития. ...