# Andreas Adelmann's research while affiliated with Paul Scherrer Institut and other places

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## Publications (168)

The recently developed method Lasso Monte Carlo (LMC) for uncertainty quantification is applied to the characterisation of spent nuclear fuel. The propagation of nuclear data uncertainties to the output of calculations is an often required procedure in nuclear computations. Commonly used methods such as Monte Carlo, linear error propagation, or sur...

Uncertainty quantification (UQ) is an active area of research, and an essential technique used in all fields of science and engineering. The most common methods for UQ are Monte Carlo and surrogate-modelling. The former method is dimensionality independent but has slowconvergence, while the latter method has been shown to yield large computational...

The accurate calculation and uncertainty quantification of the characteristics of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) play a crucial role in ensuring the safety, efficiency, and sustainability of nuclear energy production, waste management, and nuclear safeguards. State of the art physics-based models, while reliable, are computationally intensive and time-co...

We report the state of the field of High-Power Fixed-Field Accelerators (with an emphasis on cyclotrons) as discussed by international experts during a three-day workshop of the same name in 2021. The workshop was part of the Snowmass'21 Community Planning Exercise. Here, we take stock of the world inventory of high-power fixed-field accelerators,...

Creating high quality treatment plans is crucial for a successful radiotherapy treatment. However, it demands substantial effort and special training for dosimetrists. Existing automated treatment planning systems typically require either an explicit prioritization of planning objectives, human-assigned objective weights, large amounts of historic...

A summary of numerical modeling capabilities regarding high power cyclotrons and fixed field alternating gradient machines is presented. This paper focuses on techniques made available by the OPAL simulation code.

Particle accelerators are complex facilities that produce large amounts of structured data and have clear optimization goals as well as precisely defined control requirements. As such they are naturally amenable to data-driven research methodologies. The data from sensors and monitors inside the accelerator form multivariate time series. With fast...

A summary of numerical modeling capabilities regarding high power cyclotrons and fixed field alternating gradient machines is presented. This paper focuses on techniques made available by the OPAL simulation code.

Uncertainty quantification (UQ) is an active area of research, and an essential technique used in all fields of science and engineering. The most common methods for UQ are Monte Carlo and surrogate-modelling. The former method is dimensionality independent but has slow convergence, while the latter method has been shown to yield large computational...

IsoDAR@Yemilab is a novel isotope-decay-at-rest experiment that has preliminary approval to run at the Yemi underground laboratory (Yemilab) in Jeongseon-gun, South Korea. Here, we describe in detail the considerations for installing this compact particle accelerator and neutrino target system at the Yemilab underground facility. Specifically, we d...

Particle accelerators are complex facilities that produce large amounts of structured data and have clear optimization goals as well as precisely defined control requirements. As such they are naturally amenable to data-driven research methodologies. The data from sensors and monitors inside the accelerator form multivariate time series. With fast...

OPAL-FEL is a recently developed tool for the modeling of particle accelerators containing wigglers or undulators. It extends the well established 3D electrostatic particle-tracking code OPAL, by merging it with the finite-difference time-domain electromagnetic solver MITHRA. We present results of two benchmark cases where OPAL-FEL simulations are...

Alpine consists of a set of mini-apps that makes use of exascale computing capabilities to numerically solve some classical problems in plasma physics. It is based on IPPL (Independent Parallel Particle Layer), a framework that is designed around performance portable and dimension independent particles and fields. In this work, IPPL is used to impl...

We present a novel machine learning-based approach to generate fast-executing virtual radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) particle accelerators using surrogate modelling. These could potentially be used as on-line feedback tools during beam commissioning and operation, and to optimize the RFQ beam dynamics design prior to construction. Since surrogate...

This whitepaper summarizes and the state of the field of high-power cyclotrons and FFAs as discussed by international experts during a three-day workshop of the same name. The workshop was held online from Sep 7 to Sep 9, 2021 as part of the US Snowmass'21 Community Exercise, specifically the Accelerator Frontier (AF) and the subpanel Accelerators...

The computational cost for high energy physics detector simulation in future experimental facilities is going to exceed the current available resources. To overcome this challenge, new ideas on surrogate models using machine learning methods are being explored to replace computationally expensive components. Additionally, differentiable programming...

Atmospheric aerosols have a major influence on the earth’s climate and public health. Hence, studying their properties and recovering them from light scattering measurements is of great importance. State of the art retrieval methods such as pre-computed look-up tables and iterative, physics-based algorithms can suffer from either accuracy or speed...

There is great need for high intensity proton beams from compact particle accelerators in particle physics, medical isotope production, and materials- and energy-research. To address this need, we present, for the first time, a design for a compact isochronous cyclotron that will be able to deliver 10 mA of 60 MeV protons - an order of magnitude hi...

IsoDAR@Yemilab is a novel isotope-decay-at-rest experiment that has preliminary approval to run at the Yemi underground laboratory (Yemilab) in Jeongseon-gun, South Korea. In this technical report, we describe in detail the considerations for installing this compact particle accelerator and neutrino target system at the Yemilab underground facility...

We present a novel machine learning-based approach to generate fast-executing virtual radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) particle accelerators using surrogate modelling. These could potentially be used as on-line feedback tools during beam commissioning and operation, and to optimize the RFQ beam dynamics design prior to construction. Since surrogate...

OPAL-FEL is a recently developed tool for the modeling of particle accelerators containing wigglers or undulators. It extends the well established 3D electrostatic particle-tracking code OPAL, by merging it with the finite-difference time-domain electromagnetic solver MITHRA. We present results of two benchmark cases where OPAL-FEL simulations are...

Atmospheric aerosols have a major influence on the earths climate and public health. Hence, studying their properties and recovering them from light scattering measurements is of great importance. State of the art retrieval methods such as pre-computed look-up tables and iterative, physics-based algorithms can suffer from either accuracy or speed l...

Beam stripping losses of H− ion beams by interactions with residual gas and electromagnetic fields are evaluated. These processes play an important role in compact cyclotrons where the beam is produced on an internal ion source, and they operate under high-magnetic field. The implementation of stripping interactions into the beam dynamics code opal...

Particle accelerators are enabling tools for scientific exploration and discovery in various disciplines. However, finding optimised operation points for these complex machines is a challenging task due to the large number of parameters involved and the underlying non-linear dynamics. Here, we introduce two families of data-driven surrogate models,...

Particle accelerators are enabling tools for scientific exploration and discovery in various disciplines. Finding optimized operation points for these complex machines is a challenging task, however, due to the large number of parameters involved and the underlying non-linear dynamics. Here, we introduce two families of data-driven surrogate models...

We propose a sparse grid-based adaptive noise reduction strategy for electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. By projecting the charge density onto sparse grids we reduce the high-frequency particle noise. Thus, we exploit the ability of sparse grids to act as a multidimensional low-pass filter in our approach. Thanks to the truncated comb...

Beam stripping losses of H- ion beams by interactions with residual gas and electromagnetic fields are evaluated. These processes play an important role in compact cyclotrons where the beam is produced on an internal ion source, and they operate under high magnetic field. The implementation of stripping interactions into the beam dynamics code OPAL...

There is great need for high intensity proton beams from compact particle accelerators in particle physics, medical isotope production, and materials- and energy-research. To this end, the DAE$\delta$ALUS/IsoDAR collaboration is developing a compact isochronous cyclotron that will be able to deliver 10 mA of protons - an order of magnitude higher t...

The beam interruptions (interlocks) of particle accelerators, despite being necessary safety measures, lead to abrupt operational changes and a substantial loss of beam time. A novel time series classification approach is applied to decrease beam time loss in the High-Intensity Proton Accelerator complex by forecasting interlock events. The forecas...

The Particle-Particle-Particle-Mesh algorithm elegantly extends the standard Particle-In-Cell scheme by direct summation of interaction that happens over distances below or around mesh size. Generally, this allows for a more accurate description of Coulomb interactions and improves precision in the prediction of key observables. Nevertheless, most...

The beam interruptions (interlocks) of particle accelerators, despite being necessary safety measures, lead to abrupt operational changes and a substantial loss of beam time. A novel time series classification approach is applied to decrease beam time loss in the High Intensity Proton Accelerator complex by forecasting interlock events. The forecas...

Modern synchrotron light source storage rings, such as the Swiss Light Source upgrade (SLS 2.0), use multibend achromats in their arc segments to achieve unprecedented brilliance. This performance comes at the cost of increased focusing requirements, which in turn require stronger sextupole and higher-order multipole fields for compensation of thei...

We propose a sparse grids based adaptive noise reduction strategy for electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Our approach is based on the key idea of relying on sparse grids instead of a regular grid in order to increase the number of particles per cell for the same total number of particles, as first introduced in Ricketson and Cerfon (...

Modern synchrotron light source storage rings, such as the Swiss Light Source upgrade (SLS 2.0), use multi-bend achromats in their arc segments to achieve unprecedented brilliance. This performance comes at the cost of increased focusing requirements, which in turn require stronger sextupole and higher-order multipole fields for compensation and le...

Every computer model depends on numerical input parameters that are chosen according to mostly conservative but rigorous numerical or empirical estimates. These parameters could for example be the step size for time integrators, a seed for pseudo-random number generators, a threshold or the number of grid points to discretize a computational domain...

Since many years proton therapy is an effective treatment solution against deep-seated tumors. A precise quantification of sources of uncertainty in each proton therapy aspect (e.g. accelerator, beam lines, patient positioning, treatment planning) is of profound importance to increase the accuracy of the dose delivered to the patient. Together with...

High-fidelity physics simulations are powerful tools in the design and optimization of charged particle accelerators. However, the computational burden of these simulations often limits their use in practice for design optimization and experiment planning. It also precludes their use as on-line models tied directly to accelerator operation. We intr...

The upgrade of the Swiss Light Source, called SLS 2.0, is scheduled for 2023-24. The current storage ring will be replaced by one based on multi-bend achromats, allowing for about 30 times higher brightness. Due to the stronger focusing and the required chromatic compensation, finding a reasonably large dynamic aperture (DA) for injection, as well...

Every computer model depends on numerical input parameters that are chosen according to mostly conservative but rigorous numerical or empirical estimates. These parameters could for example be the step size for time integrators, a seed for pseudo-random number generators, a threshold or the number of grid points to discretize a computational domain...

High current storage rings, such as the Z-pole operating mode of the FCC-ee, require accelerating cavities that are optimized with respect to both the fundamental mode and the higher order modes. Furthermore, the cavity shape needs to be robust against geometric perturbations which could, for example, arise from manufacturing inaccuracies or harsh...

Dielectric Laser Acceleration (DLA) achieves the highest gradients among structure-based electron accelerators. The use of dielectrics increases the breakdown field limit, and thus the achievable gradient, by a factor of at least 10 in comparison to metals. Experimental demonstrations of DLA in 2013 led to the Accelerator on a Chip International Pr...

Beam transmission optimization and losses characterization , where beam stripping interactions are a key issue, play an important role in the design and operation of compact cy-clotrons. A beam stripping model has been implemented in the three-dimensional object-oriented parallel code OPAL-cycl, a flavor of the OPAL framework. The model includes Mo...

This article presents a hardware architecture independent implementation of an adaptive mesh refinement Poisson solver that is integrated into the electrostatic Particle-In-Cell beam dynamics code OPAL. The Poisson solver is solely based on second generation Trilinos packages to ensure the desired hardware portability. Based on the massively parall...

The usage of numerical models to study the evolution of particle beams is an essential step in the design process of particle accelerators. However, uncertainties of input quantities such as the beam energy and magnetic field lead to simulation results that do not fully agree with measurements; hence, the final machine will behave slightly differen...

High current storage rings, such as the Z-pole operating mode of the FCC-ee, require accelerating cavities that are optimized with respect to both the fundamental mode and the higher order modes. Furthermore, the cavity shape needs to be robust against geometric perturbations which could, for example, arise from manufacturing inaccuracies or harsh...

Many sophisticated computer models have been developed to understand the behaviour of particle accelerators. Even these complex models often do not describe the measured data. Interactions of the beam with external fields, other particles in the same beam and the beam walls all present modelling challenges. These can be challenging to model correct...

Particle accelerators are invaluable tools for research in the basic and applied sciences, such as materials science, chemistry, the biosciences, particle physics, nuclear physics and medicine. The design, commissioning, and operation of accelerator facilities is a nontrivial task, due to the large number of control parameters and the complex inter...

Using a cyclotron-based model problem, we demonstrate for the first time the applicability and usefulness of an uncertainty quantification (UQ) approach in order to construct surrogate models. The surrogate model quantities, for example, emittance, energy spread, or the halo parameter, can be used to construct a global sensitivity model along with...

Macroparticle tracking is a prominent method for studying the collective beam instabilities in accelerators. However, the heavy computationalload often limits the capabilities of tracking codes. One widely used macroparticle tracking code for simulating collective instabilities in storage rings is mbtrack. The Message Passing Interface (MPI) has al...

The usage of numerical models to study the evolution of particle beams is an essential step in the design process of particle accelerators However, uncertainties of input quantities such as beam energy and magnetic field lead to simulation results that do not fully agree with measurements, hence the final machine will behave slightly differently th...

High-fidelity \psims\ are powerful tools in the design and optimization of charged particle accelerator systems. However, the computational burden of these simulations often limits their use in practice for design optimization and experiment planning. It also precludes their use as online models tied directly to accelerator operation. We demonstrat...

This paper presents the architecture and a performance study of the newly developed adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) solver in the Object-Oriented Particle Accelerator Library (OPAL). The framework AMReX, formerly known as BoxLib, is used and interfaced to the existing particle infrastructure in OPAL. The multigrid Poisson solver is based on second g...

We compute resonant modes in axisymmetric radio frequency cavities by solving a few generalized eigenvalue problems using the symmetric Jacobi–Davidson algorithm. In particular, we focus on the parallelization and the use of the multi‐level preconditioner for the correction equation. Additionally, we compute eigenvector approximations using the sol...

Radio frequency (RF) cavities are commonly used to accelerate charged particle beams. The shape of the RF cavity determines the resonant electromagnetic fields and frequencies, which need to satisfy a variety of requirements for a stable and efficient acceleration of the beam. For example, the accelerating frequency has to match a given target freq...

Machine learning (ML) is a subfield of artificial intelligence. The term applies broadly to a collection of computational algorithms and techniques that train systems from raw data rather than a priori models. ML techniques are now technologically mature enough to be applied to particle accelerators, and we expect that ML will become an increasingl...

Radio frequency (RF) cavities are commonly used to accelerate charged particle beams. The shape of the RF cavity determines the resonant electromagnetic fields and frequencies, which need to satisfy a variety of requirements for a stable and efficient acceleration of the beam. For example, the accelerating frequency has to match a given target freq...

Macro-particle tracking is a prominent method to study the collective beam instabilities in accelerators. However, the heavy computation load often limits the capability of the tracking codes. One widely used macro-particle tracking code to simulate collective instabilities in storage rings is mbtrack. The Message Passing Interface (MPI) is already...

We present an upgrade to the particle-in-cell ion beam simulation code opal that enables us to run highly realistic simulations of the spiral inflector system of a compact cyclotron. This upgrade includes a new geometry class and field solver that can handle the complicated boundary conditions posed by the electrode system in the central region of...

In a cyclotron-based proton therapy facility, the energy changes are performed by means of a degrader of variable thickness. The interaction of the proton beam with the degrader creates energy tails and increases the beam emittance. A precise model of the degraded beam properties is important not only to better understand the performance of a facil...

A tomographic gas-density diagnostic using a single-beam Wollaston interferometer able to characterise non-symmetric density distributions in gas jets is presented. A real-time tomographic algorithm is able to reconstruct three dimensional density distributions. A Maximum Likelihood -- Expectation Maximisation algorithm, an iterative method with go...

We investigate limits on the current of the PSI Injector II high intensity separate-sector isochronous cyclotron, in its present configuration and after a proposed upgrade. Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors, neutron and neutrino experiments, and medical isotope production all benefit from increases in current, even at the ~ 10% level: the PSI...

Despite the fact that the first-order beam dynamics models allow an approximated evaluation of the beam properties, their contribution is essential during the conceptual design of an accelerator or beamline. However, during the commissioning some of their limitations appear in the comparison against measurements. The extension of the linear model t...

We present an upgrade to the particle-in-cell ion beam simulation code OPAL that enables us to run highly realistic simulations of the spiral inflector system of a compact cyclotron. This upgrade includes a new geometry class and field solver that can handle the complicated boundary conditions posed by the electrode system in the central region of...

In recent years graphical processing units (GPUs) have become a powerful tool in scientific computing. Their potential to speed up highly parallel applications brings the power of high performance computing to a wider range of users. However, programming these devices and integrating their use in existing applications is still a challenging task. I...

This document addresses concerns raised about possible limits, due to space charge, to the maximum H2+ ion beam current that can be injected into and accepted by a compact cyclotron. The discussion of the compact cyclotron is primarily within the context of the proposed DAEdALUS and IsoDAR neutrino experiments. These concerns are examined by the co...

A plasma has been observed inside the vacuum chamber of the PSI Ring
Cyclotron. This ionized gas cloud maybe a substantial contributor to several
interior components having reduced lifetimes. The plasma's generation has been
directly linked to the voltage that is applied to the Flat Top Cavity through
visual confirmation using CCD cameras. A spectr...

This conceptual design report describes the technical facility for the IsoDAR
electron-antineutrino source at KamLAND. The IsoDAR source will allow an
impressive program of neutrino oscillation and electroweak physics to be
performed at KamLAND. This report provides information on the physics case, the
conceptual design for the subsystems, alternat...

Using a cyclotron based model problem, we demonstrate for the first time the
applicability and usefulness of a uncertainty quantification (UQ) approach in
order to construct surrogate models for quantities such as emittance, energy
spread but also the halo parameter, and construct a global sensitivity analysis
together with error propagation and $L...

Emerging processor architectures such as GPUs and Intel MICs provide a huge
performance potential for high performance computing. However developing
software using these hardware accelerators introduces additional challenges for
the developer such as exposing additional parallelism, dealing with different
hardware designs and using multiple develop...

A homotopy method for multi-objective optimization that produces uniformly
sampled Pareto fronts by construction is presented. While the algorithm is
general, of particular interest is application to simulation-based engineering
optimization problems where economy of function evaluations, smoothness of
result, and time-to-solution are critical. The...