Andrea M. McCollum's research while affiliated with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other places

Publications (103)

Article
In July 2021, we conducted environmental sampling at the residence of a person in Dallas, Texas, USA, who had travel-associated human West African monkeypox virus (MPXV-WA). Targeted environmental swab sampling was conducted 15 days after the person who had monkeypox left the household. Results indicate extensive MPXV-WA DNA contamination, and viab...
Article
Monkeypox, a zoonotic infection caused by an orthopoxvirus, is endemic in parts of Africa. On August 4, 2022, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services declared the U.S. monkeypox outbreak, which began on May 17, to be a public health emergency (1,2). After detection of the first U.S. monkeypox case), CDC and health departments implemented e...
Preprint
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Monkeypox is a viral zoonotic disease endemic in Central and West Africa. In May 2022, dozens of non-endemic countries reported hundreds of monkeypox cases, most with no epidemiological link to Africa. We identified two lineages of Monkeypox virus (MPXV) among nine 2021 and 2022 U.S. monkeypox cases. A 2021 case was highly similar to the 2022 MPXV...
Article
On May 17, 2022, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) Laboratory Response Network (LRN) laboratory confirmed the presence of orthopoxvirus DNA via real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from lesion swabs obtained from a Massachusetts resident. Orthopoxviruses include Monkeypox virus, the causative agent of monkeypox. Subsequent r...
Article
Monkeypox is a rare, sometimes life-threatening zoonotic infection that occurs in west and central Africa. It is caused by Monkeypox virus, an orthopoxvirus similar to Variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox) and Vaccinia virus (the live virus component of orthopoxvirus vaccines) and can spread to humans. After 39 years without detection of...
Article
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Bovine vaccinia (BV), caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV), is a zoonotic disease characterized by exanthematous lesions on the teats of dairy cows and the hands of milkers, and is an important public health issue in Brazil and South America. BV also results in economic losses to the dairy industry, being a burden to the regions involved in milk product...
Article
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Background Monkeypox is a poorly described emerging zoonosis endemic to Central and Western Africa. Methods Using surveillance data from Tshuapa Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo during 2011–2015, we evaluated differences in incidence, exposures, and clinical presentation of PCR-confirmed cases by sex and age. Results We report 1,057 con...
Article
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Recent enhanced monkeypox (MPX) surveillance in the Democratic Republic of Congo, where MPX is endemic, has uncovered multiple cases of MPX and varicella zoster virus (VZV) coinfections. The purpose of this study was to verify if coinfections occur and to characterize the clinical nature of these cases. Clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory res...
Article
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Background: The largest West African monkeypox outbreak began September 2017, in Nigeria. Four individuals traveling from Nigeria to the UK (2), Israel, and Singapore became the first human monkeypox cases exported from Africa, and a related nosocomial transmission event in the UK became the first confirmed human-to-human monkeypox transmission ev...
Article
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Vaccination has transformed public health, most notably including the eradication of smallpox. Despite its profound historical importance, little is known of the origins and diversity of the viruses used in smallpox vaccination. Prior to the twentieth century, the method, source and origin of smallpox vaccinations remained unstandardised and opaque...
Article
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Smallpox eradication, coordinated by the WHO and certified 40 years ago, led to the cessation of routine smallpox vaccination in most countries. It is estimated that over 70% of the world’s population is no longer protected against smallpox, and through cross-immunity, to closely related orthopox viruses such as monkeypox. Monkeypox is now a re-eme...
Article
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Monkeypox virus is a zoonotic Orthopoxvirus (OPXV) that causes smallpox-like illness in humans. In Cameroon, human monkeypox cases were confirmed in 2018, and outbreaks in captive chimpanzees occurred in 2014 and 2016. We investigated the OPXV serological status among staff at a primate sanctuary (where the 2016 chimpanzee outbreak occurred) and re...
Article
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In 2017, a monkeypox outbreak occurred in Likouala Department, Republic of the Congo. Many of the affected individuals were of Aka ethnicity, hunter-gatherers indigenous to Central Africa who have worse health outcomes in comparison with other forest-dwelling peoples. To test the hypothesis that Aka people have different risk factors for monkeypox,...
Article
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Vaccinia virus (VACV) is an orthopoxvirus used in smallpox vaccines, as a vector for novel cancer treatments, and for experimental vaccine research (1). The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends smallpox vaccination for laboratory workers who handle replication-competent VACV (1). For bioterrorism preparedness, the U.S. gov...
Article
Background: In September, 2017, human monkeypox re-emerged in Nigeria, 39 years after the last reported case. We aimed to describe the clinical and epidemiological features of the 2017-18 human monkeypox outbreak in Nigeria. Methods: We reviewed the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of cases of human monkeypox that occurred between Se...
Article
Objective To describe varicella cases in Tshuapa Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo identified during monkeypox surveillance. Methods Demographic, clinical, and epidemiological data were collected from each suspected monkeypox case 2009–2014. Samples were tested by PCR for both Orthopoxviruses and varicella‐zoster virus (VZV); a subs...
Article
Full-text available
Monkeypox, caused by a zoonotic orthopoxvirus, is endemic in Central and West Africa. Monkeypox has been sporadically reported in the Republic of the Congo. During March 22–April 5, 2017, we investigated 43 suspected human monkeypox cases. We interviewed suspected case-patients and collected dried blood strips and vesicular and crust specimens (act...
Article
Introduction: Monkeypox is a re-emerging viral zoonosis that occurs naturally in heavily-forested regions of West and Central Africa. Inter-human transmission of monkeypox virus, although limited, drives outbreaks, particularly in household and healthcare settings. But the available evidence suggests that without repeated zoonotic introductions, hu...
Article
Full-text available
Endemic to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), monkeypox is a zoonotic disease that causes smallpox-like illness in humans. Observed fluctuations in reported cases over time raises questions about when it is appropriate to mount a public health response, and what specific actions should be taken. We evaluated three different thresholds to d...
Article
Healthcare-associated transmission of monkeypox has been observed on multiple occasions in areas where the disease is endemic. Data collected by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from an ongoing CDC-supported program of enhanced surveillance in the Tshuapa Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where the annual inci...
Article
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The recent apparent increase in human monkeypox cases across a wide geographic area, the potential for further spread, and the lack of reliable surveillance have raised the level of concern for this emerging zoonosis. In November 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with CDC, hosted an informal consultation on monkeypox with...
Article
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Since 1999 Vaccinia virus (VACV) outbreaks involving bovines and humans have been reported in Brazil; this zoonosis is known as Bovine Vaccinia (BV) and is mainly an occupational disease of milkers. It was only in 2008 (and then again in 2011 and 2014) however, that VACV was found causing natural infections in Brazilian equids. These reports involv...
Article
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Rapid early detection and control of Ebola virus disease (EVD) is contingent on accurate case definitions. Using an epidemic surveillance dataset from Guinea, we analyzed an EVD case definition developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and used in Guinea. We used the surveillance dataset (March-October 2014; n = 2,847 persons) to identify pa...
Article
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Monkeypox is a smallpox-like illness that can be accompanied by a range of significant medical complications. To date there are no standard or optimized guidelines for the clinical management of monkeypox (MPX) patients, particularly in low-resource settings. Consequently, patients can experience protracted illness and poor outcomes. Improving care...
Article
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During 2012, 2013 and 2015, we collected small mammals within 25 km of the town of Boende in Tshuapa Province, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The prevalence of monkeypox virus (MPXV) in this area is unknown; however, cases of human infection were previously confirmed near these collection sites. Samples were collected from 353 mammals (roden...
Article
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Background Human monkeypox (MPX) occurs at appreciable rates in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) has a similar presentation to that of MPX, and in areas where MPX is endemic these two illnesses are commonly mistaken. This study evaluated the diagnostic utility of two surveillance case definitions f...
Article
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A cross-sectional serosurvey was performed to identify environmental features or practices of dairy farms associated with risk for exposure to vaccinia-like viruses in dairy cattle in Brazil. Sera from 103 cows from 18 farms in Minas Gerais state were examined for Orthopoxvirus-neutralizing antibodies. A database of 243 binary or multiple-selection...
Article
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Background.: Human infection by orthopoxviruses is being reported with increasing frequency, attributed in part to the cessation of smallpox vaccination and concomitant waning of population-level immunity. In July 2015, a female resident of interior Alaska, presented to an urgent care clinic with a dermal lesion consistent with poxvirus infection....
Data
Raw data from Risk Questionnaires. Unanalyzed data from all questionnaires. (XLSX)
Article
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Monkeypox virus (MPXV), a close relative of Variola virus, is a zoonotic virus with an unknown reservoir. Interaction with infected wildlife, bites from peri-domestic animals, and bushmeat hunting are hypothesized routes of infection from wildlife to humans. Using a Risk Questionnaire, performed in monkeypox-affected areas of rural Democratic Repub...
Data
Risk Questionnaire, 2011 version. Risk Questionnaire administered in 2011/2012 (translated from French). (PDF)
Data
Risk Questionnaire, 2013 version. Risk Questionnaire administered in 2013 (translated from French). (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
Monkeypox virus (MPXV), a zoonotic orthopoxvirus (OPX), is endemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Currently, diagnostic assays for human monkeypox (MPX) focus on real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, which are typically performed in sophisticated laboratory settings. Herein, we evaluate the accuracy and utility...
Article
On February 4, 2016, the New Mexico Department of Health (NMDOH) was contacted regarding a patient who had received ACAM2000* smallpox (vaccinia) vaccine 12 days earlier as part of an institutional review board–approved study at a plasma donation center and had numerous lesions surrounding the inoculation site and on the opposite arm, back, and abd...
Article
We present a report of a burn patient who developed skin lesions on her skin-graft harvest and skin-graft recipient (burn) sites. Orf virus infection was confirmed by a combination of diagnostic assays, including molecular tests, immunohistochemistry, pathology and electron microscopy. DNA sequence analysis grouped this orf virus isolate among isol...
Article
A 600-fold increase in monkeypox cases occurred in the Bokungu Health Zone of the Democratic Republic of the Congo during the second half of 2013; this increase prompted an outbreak investigation. A total of 104 possible cases were reported from this health zone; among 60 suspected cases that were tested, 50 (48.1%) cases were confirmed by laborato...
Article
Here we describe clinicopathologic features of EVD in pregnancy. One woman infected with Sudan virus in Gulu, Uganda in 2000 had a stillbirth and survived, and another woman with Bundibugyo virus had a livebirth with maternal and infant death in Isiro, the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2012. Ebolavirus antigen was seen in the syncytiotrophobl...
Article
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Background: Delayed and ineffective contact tracing contributed to the extensive transmission of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in the 2014–2015 West African outbreak. Understanding and addressing the challenges to implementing and managing contact tracing is essential to stopping EVD transmission and preventing large-scale EVD outbreaks in the future....
Article
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An increased incidence of monkeypox (MPX) infections in the Democratic Republic of the Congo was noted by the regional surveillance system in October 2013. Little information exists regarding how MPX is introduced into the community and the factors associated with transmission within the household. Sixty-eight wild animals were collected and tested...
Article
On November 26, 2013, the CDC poxvirus laboratory was notified by the Boston Public Health Commission (BPHC) of an inadvertent inoculation of a recently vaccinated (ACAM2000 smallpox vaccine) laboratory worker with wild type vaccinia virus (VACV) Western Reserve. A joint investigation by CDC and BPHC confirmed orthopoxvirus infection in the worker,...
Article
Understanding how malaria parasites move between populations is important, particularly given the potential for malaria to be reintroduced into areas where it was previously eliminated. We examine the distribution of malaria genetics across seven sites within the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and two nearby countries, Ghana and Kenya, in order...
Article
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Background: Some human poxvirus infections can be acquired through zoonotic transmission. We report a previously unknown poxvirus infection in 2 patients, 1 of whom was immunocompromised; both patients had known equine contact. Methods: The patients were interviewed and clinical information was abstracted from the patients' medical files. Biopsi...
Article
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Background Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) causes an innocuous yet persistent skin infection in immunocompetent individuals and is spread by contact with lesions. Studies point to atopic dermatitis (AD) as a risk factor for MCV infection; however, there are no longitudinal studies that have evaluated this hypothesis. Methods Outpatient visit dat...
Article
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Monkeypox (MPX) is a zoonotic Orthopoxvirus infection endemic in central and western Africa. Human MPX cases occur in the central and northern regions of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and this is the first report of confirmed MPX cases in the forested areas of North and South Kivu Provinces, with a detailed epidemiological investigati...
Article
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Plasmodium vivax is a predominant species of malaria in parts of South America and there is increasing resistance to drugs to treat infections by P. vivax. The existence of latent hypnozoites further complicates the ability to classify recurrent infections as treatment failures due to relapse, recrudescence of hyponozoites or re-infections. Antigen...
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Although it has been >30 years since the eradication of smallpox, the unearthing of well-preserved tissue material in which the virus may reside has called into question the viability of variola virus decades or centuries after its original occurrence. Experimental data to address the long-term stability and viability of the virus are limited. Ther...
Article
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Monkeypox (MPX) is an endemic disease of public health importance in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). In 2010, the DRC Ministry of Health joined with external partners to improve MPX surveillance in the Tshuapa Health District of DRC. A pivotal component of the program is training of health zone personnel in surveillance methods and pati...
Article
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Human monkeypox is a zoonotic Orthopoxvirus with a presentation similar to smallpox. Clinical differentiation of the disease from smallpox and varicella is difficult. Laboratory diagnostics are principal components to identification and surveillance of disease, and new tests are needed for a more precise and rapid diagnosis. The majority of human i...
Article
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Monkeypox is an acute viral infection with a clinical course resembling smallpox. It is endemic in northern and central Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), but it is reported only sporadically in neighboring Republic of the Congo (ROC). In October 2009, interethnic violence in northwestern DRC precipitated the movement of refugees across the Ub...
Article
In 2008, two deer hunters in Virginia and Connecticut were infected with a unique strain of pseudocowpox virus, a parapoxvirus. To estimate the prevalence of this virus, and in an attempt to define the reservoir, Parapoxvirus surveillance was undertaken between November 2009 and January 2010. 125 samples from four ruminant species (cows, goat, shee...
Article
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Flagstaff, Arizona, USA, experienced notable outbreaks of rabies caused by a bat rabies virus variant in carnivore species in 2001, 2004, 2005, 2008, and 2009. The most recent epizootic involved transmission among skunk and fox populations and human exposures. Multiple, wide-ranging control efforts and health communications outreach were instituted...
Article
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Cowpox virus is an Orthopoxvirus that can cause infections in humans and a variety of animals. Infections occur in Eurasia; infections in humans and animals have not been reported in the United States. This report describes the occurrence of the first known human case of laboratory-acquired cowpox virus infection in the United States and the ensuin...
Data
Figure S3. Relationships among 95 8-locus dhfr microsatellite haplotypes from populations in Western Kenya as determined by eBURST analysis. Samples from 1992-1999 (n = 134 samples) and 2002-2004 (n = 37 samples) were used. Each line connects haplotypes that are identical at 7 of 8 loci. The size of the circles is proportional to the number of isol...