André Mauchamp's research while affiliated with Tour du Valat, Research Institute for the Conservation of Mediterranean Wetlands and other places

Publications (32)

Chapter
Full-text available
This article attempts to explain why Opuntia megasperma var. orientalis is now rare on Española Island, Galapagos. We give a detailed description of the principal components of the island ecosystem that could have interacted, from the past to the present, and could have shaped the stages of ecological succession, resulting in the present rarity of...
Article
Les prairies xéro-halophyles méditerranéennes sont un habitat prioritaire pour l'Union européenne. En Camargue (delta du Rhône, sud de la France), elles sont fortement colonisées par l'arbuste Phillyrea angustifolia. Afin d'évaluer le rôle respectif des herbivores domestiques et du lapin dans le contrôle du Phillyrea, nous avons recensé et daté les...
Article
For centuries, the dry grassland of the plain of La Crau (south-eastern France) has been subjected to numerous disturbances resulting in the destruction and the fragmentation of this emblematic rangeland ecosystem of the Mediterranean. Today, this ecosystem is facing a new threat from a proliferating native species, the bramble (Rubus ulmifolius Sc...
Conference Paper
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The Marais de Vigueirat (Camargue, South France) are artificial marshes created on the Rhone Delta from irrigation excedents. Managers from Conservatoire du Littoral intend to preserve populations of the endangered Purple Heron. Reedbed communities dominate in less saline sites, and they are a refuge for herons and other waterfowl. Besides, permane...
Article
Phragmites australis tolerates a wider range of ecological conditions than Cladium mariscus and thus may be better adapted to disturbance resulting from human manipulations. We hypothesised that the difference in ecological conditions was related to differences in photosynthetic ability under water stress. We compared the reactions of the two speci...
Article
Colonization by common reed (Phragmites australis) is often assumed to be driven mainly by vegetative growth of rhizomes. Seedlings are rarely observed in the field despite the annual flowering, the large seed production, and germination potential. We considered that this was mainly a consequence of the rare occurrence of the regeneration window of...
Article
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Article
Phragmites australis colonises new areas by seedling establishment after drop down of water levels and exposure of mud flats. Seedlings may subsequently be subjected to submergence resulting from fluctuations of the water level. Seedling survival depends on tolerance to total or partial submersion. In particular, the response to short submergence p...
Article
Mediterranean reedbeds are subject to different human uses, each associated with a particular water and reed management that affects the functioning of the ecosystem and the conservation of endangered species. We present here the general structure of ReedSim, a multiagent model that integrates the horizontal (spatial configurations) and vertical (s...
Article
Full-text available
This paper addresses the sustainable management and conservation policies of large Mediterranean reedbeds. These habitats are subject to different human uses (reed harvesting, grazing, hunting, fishing and recreational activities), each associated with a particular water and reed management. Seasonal variations in water levels affect the functionin...
Article
Full-text available
El presente trabajo intenta explicar por qué Opuntia megasperma var. orientalis (Howell 1933) es actualmente rara en la isla Española, Galápagos. Se hace una descripción detallada de cómo los principales componentes del ecosistema de la isla pudieron haber interactuado, desde el pasado hasta el presente, y haber moldeado las etapas de sucesión ecol...
Article
Les roselières méditerranéennes sont l'objet de multiples usages, chacun étant associé à une gestion de l'eau et du roseau qui affecte le fonctionnement de l'écosystème et la conservation des espèces associées. Les auteurs présentent la structure générale de ReedSim, un modèle multi-agents qui intègre les relations horizontales (configurations spat...
Article
Reedbeds have high conservation value in Europe. In southern France, they are the major breeding habitat of five passerine species. Yet, habitat management is done primarily by water control to serve socio-economic rather than conservation interests, because we lack information on the species' ecological requirements. Determinants of passerine abun...
Article
Restoration of wetlands has become an increasing field of application of ecological research due to mitigation regulations, changes in agricultural practices and an increasing consideration of the role of wetlands in the water cycle. In areas where the history of human use of natural areas is old and intense, restoration projects must not only cons...
Article
Full-text available
Reedbeds of Phragmites australis have declined in Europe in recent decades. Moreover, in some European countries the remaining reedbeds are intensively managed for industrial reed cutting, hunting or grazing. Several species of conservation concern, such as herons and pelicans, use reedbeds as their principal breeding habitat. At the same time, dat...
Article
In areas deeply modified by human activities, the target ecosystems for restoration and/or rehabilitation projects can seldom be related to known reference systems accepted by all parties. Such projects are hence constructed around objectives defined with the owner according to a combination of biological, hydrological, social and political criteri...
Article
Full-text available
Within-tree variation in sap flow density (SFD) was measured in two isolated evergreen oak (Quercus ilex L.) trees growing in an oak savannah (dehesa) in southwest Spain. Sap flow was estimated by the constant heating method. Three sensors were installed in the trunk of each tree in three orientations: northeast (NE), northwest (NW) and south (S)....
Article
Responses to salt in soil interstitial water were studied experimentally for nine populations of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. from coastal Mediterranean marshes in France. The effects of exposure to salinity ranging from 0 to 25‰ were measured on germination of seeds collected in each site. Germination was up to 100% and was affected...
Article
Colonisation by reed seedlings, Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. is rare and usually occurs after drawdown and when shallow water prevails. P. australis seeds have high rates of germination but successful colonisation is dependent upon subsequent water depths. We investigated the capacity of young reed plants to resist a 4 weeks submerge...
Chapter
Full-text available
The questions of (1947) (“How are the individuals and the species put together? What determines their relative proportions and their spatial and temporal relations to each other?”) can be answered by examining flows and budgets of energy and matter at the scale of a specific vegetation band or their spatial relationships and aggregation. Both quest...
Article
Six management regimes were tested during 5 years in 18 abandoned ricefields in the Rh^one delta, France: two artificial floodings for 6 months (winter and summer flooding, 10cm deep) and a control only flooded by rain, each flooding treatment either with or without grazing by cattle and horses. In the absence of artificial flooding and in presence...
Article
Full-text available
Vegetation stripes were described in arid areas of Africa, Australia and México. They depend on the local concentration of rain water after runoff. In México, we described the soil surface characteristics of vegetation stripes and performed rainfall simulations to analyze its hydrodynamic behaviour. Simulations were performed on plots characterized...
Article
Space needs to be taken into account in vegetation dynamics models which deal with heterogeneous systems. Most landscapes, at a given scale, are mosaics of relatively homogeneous patches. Some patches act as sources of energy, matter or individuals, others as sinks. The dynamics of each patch depends partly on the flows which relate it to its neigh...
Article
Full-text available
In tropical semi-arid areas, a local concentration of water on sheetwash surfaces allows for a persistence of densely vegetated stripes parallel to the contour lines, alternating with almost bare soil stripes. The boundaries of the vegetated stripes are, upslope, a colonisation ecotone, and, downslope, a regressive ecotone, thus inducing a slow upw...
Article
In arid climates, plant growth and survival depend primarily upon the amount of soil water available at the roots. Variation in soil water content at the individual plant level must then be taken into account to analyse the production and dynamics of vegetation cover. The plant itself modifies local water availability through rainfall interception...
Article
1) Two-phase mosaics (densely vegetated patches regularly alternating with almost bare areas) occur on smooth slopes of many aridlands of the world as a result of rainwater distribution through sheetflow run-off. This paper reports the vegetation dynamics (through synchronic and diachronic approaches) of both the slope and downslope fringes of vege...
Article
Full-text available
(1) Vegetation stripes alternating with bare areas appear in some arid lands as a consequence of the redistribution of rainwater by sheet flow. The borders between stripes and bare areas are ecotones (one up-slope and one down-slope of each arc) between a very open scrub and a densely vegetated patch. (2) The up-slope migration of stripes has been...

Citations

... Thus, the greater availability of water and minerals enable B. phoenicoïdes to develop at the expense of typical dry grassland species and is responsible for a decline in the species richness of herbaceous species (Damgaard et al. 2011). In the Mediterranean grasslands, the dominance of competitive species is known to have a severe negative impact on species diversity, in particular on the proportion of annual species (Allen et al.1995;Noy-Meir 1995;McIntyre and Lavorel 2001;Peco et al. 2005;Mesléard et al. 2011). Water infiltration thus has an indirect and strong negative impact through the development of this competitive grass species, which compensates for the reduction in bramble cover. ...
... D'autres composantes de la diversité des roselières ont été analysées également comme les passereaux, le héron Butor étoile, les invertébrés ainsi que le fonctionnement de la roselière (Poulin et al., 2005 ;Poulin et al., 2002). L'étude simultanée du contexte socio-économique et sa mise en perspective historique ont permis aux membres de l'équipe de changer de point de vue, et de se placer résolument dans une perspective de construction des écosystèmes par les interactions entre processus anthropiques et processus écologiques, une véritable « co-construction » par opposition à R. MATHEVET, B. POULIN une vision dichotomique et quelque peu manichéenne où la nature s'opposerait aux activités humaines et où les effets sur la biodiversité de ces dernières seraient systématiquement négatifs (Mathevet et al., 2003). En remettant en cause le partage classique entre sciences de la nature et science de l'homme pour dépasser le constat de la victoire de l'artifice sur la nature, la démarche a combiné sciences expérimentales et sciences de l'observation, recherches théoriques et recherches appliquées, pour entrer dans le domaine de la recherche-action. ...
... In the 1980s and 1990s, case studies were reported from Mexico, extensive research was ongoing in Australia, and a large-scale study of the Sahel was undertaken in Niger. The work of Cornet and Montaña in the Chihuahuan desert of Mexico [Cornet et al., 1988, Montaña et al., 1990, Montaña, 1992 adds observations of soil moisture, plant migration, and plant community evolution drawn from nearly a decade of study. Their observations at the transition zone where striped vegetation gives way also drove a hypothesis about landscape evolution. ...
... Using the Cormas platform, the authors have developed an ABM to be used in environmental planning and to support collective decision-making by allowing evaluation of the long-term impact of several water management scenarios on the habitat and its fauna of large Mediterranean reedbeds (Mathevet et al. 2003b). A hydro-ecological module (water level, reedbed, fish, common and rare bird populations) is linked to a socio-economic module (reed market and management). ...
... By the mid-90s, several cellular automata models were formulated to simulate the formation of banded vegetation structures driven by the relations between available water and plants (Thiéry et al., 1995;Dunkerley, 1997, and for a review see Mauchamp et al., 2001). Following the use this discrete approach, several models were later presented based on an IBM paradigm, simulating vegetation dynamics and structure as well as pattern formation in different ecosystems (see Wiegand et al., 1995;Peters, 2002;Cipriotti et al., 2012Cipriotti et al., , 2014. ...
... Stemflow is an important source of soil moisture in arid and semiarid lands (Li et al. 2008). Mauchamp and Janeau (1993) reported that Flourensia cernua was capable of channeling approximately 50% of the incident gross precipitation to the plant stem. In addition, Navar and Bryan (1990) calculated that the stemflow entering the soil area around three semiarid shrub stems was five times greater than that received by other areas below the shrub canopies. ...
... In this study, mature T. latifolia plants grow perfectly even at 24 ‰ NaCl. Although P. australis is known to be tolerant to a large range of salinity levels even with large variation at a local and at a regional scale due to the effets of climate and substrate clay content (Lissner and Schierup 1997;Lissner et al. 1999a, b;Mauchamp and Mésleard 2001;Burdick et al. 2001;Batriu et al. 2015;McSorley et al. 2016aMcSorley et al. , 2016b, this study shows that this species displays slightly lower survival rates at its mature stage. However, variations cannot be considered as significant when taking into account statistical parameters (p > 0.05). ...
... En el caso de las plantas acuáticas, la degradación no ha tenido efectos directos en la riqueza de especies pero sí en la composición de la comunidad . La cobertura de los helófitos está cambiando desde entonces, principalmente con el declive y la fragmentación de la masiega (Cladium mariscus) y el incremento desmesurado del carrizo (Phragmites australis) y la enea (Typha dominguensis; Álvarez-Cobelas et al. 2008), que toleran condiciones ambientales más adversas (Klötzli y Grootjans 2001;Saltmarsh et al. 2006). La masiega en el PNTD ha pasado de ocupar 1100 ha en 1956 ) a 10 ha en 2019: 405 ha fueron directamente eliminadas en el periodo [1969][1970][1971][1972][1973][1974][1975][1976][1977]110 ha quemadas en 1987 y las otras 575 ha han ido desapareciendo a medida que la inundación se hacía cada vez más estocástica ). ...
... Moderate grazing improves fertility in very poor soils and can promote plant and insect species richness (Peco et al. 2006;Fadda et al. 2007;Blight et al. 2011;Alignan et al. 2014). Therefore, for the very large spatial scale of the Crau area, which exceeds 10 000 ha, it can be suggested that short-time grazing abandonment is tolerable and can even maximise species diversity at higher spatial scales due to increased beta-diversity (Mesléard et al. 2011;Moinardeau et al. 2016). The limited changes occurring after short-term exclosure suggest that flexible grazing management methods might be used with comparatively little impact on species composition, such as rotational grazing. ...
... Aquatic plants and plant communities differ distinctly from those of northern Europe or tropical Africa, as the landscape transitions from dune to lagoon, to marshland, to gr aside agricultural policies in Europe called for restoration of some of the rice fields in the Camargue, and some restoration of former wetlands along rivers in the region has already taken place (Mauchamp et al., 2002). ...