Amy L. Murphy's research while affiliated with Fondazione Bruno Kessler and other places

Publications (136)

Article
Full-text available
Policy makers have implemented multiple non-pharmaceutical strategies to mitigate the COVID-19 worldwide crisis. Interventions had the aim of reducing close proximity interactions, which drive the spread of the disease. A deeper knowledge of human physical interactions has revealed necessary, especially in all settings involving children, whose edu...
Article
Event-triggered control ( ETC ) holds the potential to significantly improve the efficiency of wireless networked control systems. Unfortunately, its real-world impact has hitherto been hampered by the lack of a network stack able to transfer its benefits from theory to practice specifically by supporting the latency and reliability requirements of...
Article
Full-text available
Automated contact detection by means of proximity loggers permits the measurement of encounters between individuals (animal‐animal contacts) and the time spent by individuals in the proximity of a focal resource of interest (animal‐fixed logger contacts). The ecological inference derived from contact detection is intrinsically associated with the d...
Article
Proximity detection is at the core of several mobile and ubiquitous computing applications. These include reactive use cases, e.g., alerting individuals of hazards or interaction opportunities, and others concerned only with logging proximity data, e.g., for offline analysis and modeling. Common approaches rely on Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) or ultr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Event-triggered control (ETC) holds the potential to significantly improve the efficiency of wireless networked control systems. Unfortunately, its real-world impact has hitherto been hampered by the lack of a network stack able to transfer its benefits from theory to practice specifically by supporting the latency and reliability requirements of t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Determining when two individuals are within close distance is key to contain a pandemic, e.g., to alert individuals in real-time and trace their social contacts. Common approaches rely on either Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) or ultra-wideband (UWB) radios, that nonetheless strike opposite tradeoffs for energy efficiency vs. accuracy of distance estima...
Article
Child independent mobility (CIM) refers to the freedom and capability of children to move about their local neighborhoods without constant direct adult supervision. Our climb project combats an observed decline in CIM, offering a pervasive gameful platform for home–school mobility composed of three primary components: the first two using technology...
Conference Paper
Technology increasingly offers parents more and more opportunities to monitor children, reshaping the way control and autonomy are negotiated within families. This paper investigates the views of parents and primary school children on mobile technology designed to support child independent mobility in the context of the local walking school buses....
Preprint
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The performance of wake-up radios must be clearly measured and understood while designing and developing robust, dependable, and affordable systems, considering both benefits and shortcomings. State-of-the-art WURs display significant diversity in their architecture, processing capability, energy consumption, and receiver sensitivity. Standard meth...
Article
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Energy efficiency is crucial in the design of battery-powered end devices, such as smart sensors for the Internet of Things applications. Wireless communication between these distributed smart devices consumes significant energy, and even more when data need to reach several kilometers in distance. Low-power and long-range communication technologie...
Preprint
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Long-range (LoRa) radio technologies have recently gained momentum in the IoT landscape, allowing low-power communications over distances up to several kilometers. As a result, more and more LoRa networks are being deployed. However, commercially available LoRa devices are expensive and propriety, creating a barrier to entry and possibly slowing do...
Preprint
Low-power and long-range communication tech- nologies such as LoRa are becoming popular in IoT applications due to their ability to cover kilometers range with milliwatt of power consumption. One of the major drawbacks of LoRa is the data latency and the traffic congestion when the number of devices in the network increases. Especially, the latency...
Preprint
Full-text available
Low-power and long-range communication technologies such as LoRa are becoming popular in IoT applications due to their ability to cover kilometers range with milliwatt of power consumption. One of the major drawbacks of LoRa is the data latency and the traffic congestion when the number of devices in the network increases. Especially, the latency a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Long-range (LoRa) radio technologies have recently gained momentum in the IoT landscape, allowing low-power communications over distances up to several kilometers. As a result, more and more LoRa networks are being deployed. However, commercially available LoRa devices are expensive and propriety, creating a barrier to entry and possibly slowing do...
Conference Paper
Today's "smart" domains are driven by lightweight battery operated devices carried by people and embedded in environments. Many applications rely on continuous neighbor discovery, i.e., the ability to detect other nearby devices. Application uses for neighbor discovery are widely varying, but they all rely on a protocol in which devices exchange pe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As a step toward sustainable wireless sensing, we present a proof of concept system that uses a Plant Microbial Fuel Cells (PMFC) as a power source. To match the very low power production capabilities of the PMFC, we couple it with an ultra-low power wake-up receiver used as a trigger for sampling and transmission of the sensed value. We demonstrat...
Conference Paper
The Internet of Things (IoT) offers challenges that are being met by the convergence of multiple technologies, which have matured rapidly over the past decade. Broadband communication and mobile platforms enable raw data collection and its transmission to the cloud. Data science, e.g., deep learning, transforms large amounts of data from the Intern...
Article
Full-text available
In wireless environments, transmission and recep- tion costs dominate system power consumption, motivating re- search effort on new technologies capable of reducing the foot- print of the radio, paving the way for the Internet of Things. The most important challenge is to reduce power consumption when receivers are idle, the so called idle-listenin...
Conference Paper
Identifying "who is around" is key in a plethora of smart scenarios. While many solutions exist, they often take a theoretical approach, reasoning about protocol behavior with an abstract model that makes simplifying assumptions about the environment. This approach creates a gap between protocol implementations and the models used during design and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Radio communication remains the primary battery consuming activity in wireless systems. Advances in MAC protocols have enabled significant lifetime improvements, but in systems with low data rate, idle listening, and other communication artifacts can begin to dominate costs. One proposal to combat this is the addition of a second, extremely low pow...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
LoRa technology is an increasingly popular option for applications that can exploit its low power and long range capabilities. While most efforts to date have studied its characteristics for smart city environments, we take LoRa outside the city limits, exploring how the environment affects its core communication properties. Specifically, we offer...
Article
Full-text available
Background In animal ecology, inter-individual encounters are often investigated using automated proximity loggers. However, data acquired are typically spatially implicit, i.e. the question ‘Where did the contact occur?’ remains unanswered. To resolve this issue, recent advancements in Wireless Sensor Network technology have facilitated the geo-re...
Conference Paper
Data prediction in wireless sensor networks replaces the commonly used (periodic) data reporting with a model, updated (infrequently) at the sink to accurately reproduce real data trends. This technique abates up to 99% of application messages; yet, recent work has shown it achieves "only" up to a 7x lifetime improvement when executed atop a mainst...
Article
Energy neutral operation of WSNs can be achieved by exploiting the idleness of the workload to bring the average power consumption of each node below the harvesting power available. This paper proposes a combination of state-of-the-art low-power design techniques to minimize the local and global impact of the two main activities of each node: sampl...
Article
Full-text available
Data prediction is proposed in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) to extend the system lifetime by enabling the sink to determine the data sampled, within some accuracy bounds, with only minimal communication from source nodes. Several theoretical studies clearly demonstrate the tremendous potential of this approach, able to suppress the vast majority...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Existing systems for wildlife monitoring focus either on acquiring the location of animals via GPS or detecting their proximity via wireless communication; the integration of the two, remarkably increasing the biological value of the data gathered, is hitherto unexplored. We offer this integration as our first contribution, embodied by our WILDSCOP...
Conference Paper
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One of the most challenging goals of many wireless sensor network (WSN) deployments is the reduction of energy consumption to extend system lifetime. This paper considers a novel combination of techniques that address energy savings at the hardware and application levels: wake-up receivers and node-level power management, plus prediction-based data...
Article
At the end of the second millennium, mobility was a hot research topic. Physical mobility of devices was becoming commonplace with the availability of cheap wireless cards, the first attempts to transform phones into personal do-it-all devices were beginning to appear, and mobile ad hoc networks were attracting a huge interest from many research co...
Book
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Wireless Sensor Networks, EWSN 2014, held in Oxford, UK, in February 2014. The 12 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 50 submissions. The papers cover a wide range of topics in the following areas: network protocols, system issues,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We study what happens when the same wireless sensor network (WSN) is "immersed" in different outdoor environments, namely, two types of forests and an open field. Qualitative answers can be derived from existing results. Here, we aim to quantify the extent of changes, both at the physical and application layer, based on the combined effect of envir...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Time series forecasting aims at improving energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) by reducing the amount of data traffic. One such technique has each node generate a model that predicts the sampled data. When the actual, sensed data deviates from the model, a new model is generated and transmitted to the sink. Reductions in application...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
How do the characteristics of the surrounding environment affect the ability of the nodes of a wireless sensor network (WSN) to communicate? Partial answers to this question can be found in the literature, but always with a focus on the short-term, small-scale behavior of individual links, as this directly informs the design of WSN protocols. In th...
Data
Full-text available
In recent years, indoor localization has become a hot research topic with some sophisticated solutions reaching accuracy on the order of ten centimeters. While certain classes of applications can justify the corresponding costs that come with these solutions, a wealth of applications have requirements that can be met at much lower cost by accepting...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In recent years, indoor localization has become a hot research topic with some sophisticated solutions reaching accuracy on the order of ten centimeters. While certain classes of applications can justify the corresponding costs that come with these solutions, a wealth of applications have requirements that can be met at much lower cost by accepting...
Article
This paper describes the application of a wireless sensor network (WSN) in Torre Aquila, a 31 meter-tall medieval tower located in the city of Trento (Italy). Special attention was paid to monitoring and preservation of an artistic treasure: the fresco of the “Cycle of the Months ” on the second floor. The various sensors installed include accelero...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Model-driven data acquisition techniques aim at reducing the amount of data reported, and therefore the energy consumed, in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). At each node, a model predicts the sampled data; when the latter deviate from the current model, a new model is generated and sent to the data sink. However, experiences in real-world deploymen...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Assessing the connectivity of Wireless Sensor Networks in the specific environment in which they are deployed is crucial to develop reliable system services and understand their behavior. In this demo, we introduce Trident, a tool that measures communication with an untethered infrastructure. It enables the execution of connectivity experiments "in...
Article
The domain of wireless sensor networks presents several challenging problems, with routing infor-mation being both one of the most fundamental as well as one of the most challenging. In general, nodes must use what little information they possess about the network to decide where next to send a packet. Better informed routing decisions can often be...
Article
Full-text available
A growing class of wireless sensor network (WSN) applications require the use of sensed data inside the network at multiple, possibly mobile base stations. Standard WSN routing techniques that move data from multiple sources to a single, fixed base station are not applicable, motivating new solutions that efficiently achieve multicast and handle mo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Existing deployments of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are often conceived as stand-alone monitoring tools. In this paper, we report instead on a deployment where the WSN is a key component of a closed-loop control system for adaptive lighting in operational road tunnels. WSN nodes along the tunnel walls report light readings to a control station,...
Chapter
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Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have seen rapid research and industrial development in recent years. Both the costs and size of individual nodes have been constantly decreasing, opening new opportunities for a wide range of applications. Nevertheless, designing software to achieve energy-efficient, robust and flexible data dissemination remains an...
Article
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are envisioned for a number of application scenarios. Never-theless, the few in-the-field experiences typically focus on the features of a specific system, and rarely report about the characteristics of the target environment, especially w.r.t. the behavior and performance of low-power wireless communication. The TRI...
Article
This paper describes the application of a wireless sensor network to a 31 meter-tall medieval tower located in the city of Trento, Italy. The effort is motivated by preservation of the integrity of a set of frescoes decorating the room on the second floor, representing one of most important International Gothic artworks in Europe. The specific appl...
Article
Full-text available
As the field of WSNs matures, a large body of research is be-ing amassed and several surveys have been published to offer summaries and categorizations of the results. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to the evaluation methodologies applied in these works, despite the fact that the completeness of an evaluation is one of the key factors...
Article
Motivated by the preservation of an artistic treasure, the fresco of the "Cycle of the Months" on the second floor in an historic tower, Torre Aquila, a wireless sensor network (WSN) has been developed and installed for permanent health monitoring. The monitoring scheme covers both static and dynamic evaluation of the tower structural integrity fro...
Conference Paper
LPL [5], or BoX-MAC in its TinyOS implementation, is arguably the most common MAC protocol for WSNs. Its extensive use in real world deployments is justified by a simple implementation, available online, that meets the requirements of a vast majority of monitoring applications. Despite the plethora of competitors, it still remains the reference in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We study the characteristics of the communication links of a wireless sensor network in a tropical cloud forest in Ecuador, in the context of a wildlife monitoring application. Thick vegetation and high humidity are in principle a challenge for the IEEE 802.15.4 radio we employed. We performed experiments with stationary-only nodes as well as in co...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Node clustering and data aggregation are popular techniques to reduce energy consumption in large WSNs and a large body of literature has emerged describing various clustering protocols. Unfortunately, for practitioners wishing to exploit clustering in deployments, there is little help when trying to identify a protocol that meets their needs. This...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Clustering and aggregation inherently increase wireless sensor network (WSN) lifetime by collecting information within a cluster at a cluster head, reducing the amount of data through computation, then forwarding it. Traditional approaches, however, both spend extensive communication energy to identify the cluster heads and are inflexible to networ...
Conference Paper
In-network data aggregation is widely recognized as an acceptable means to reduce the amount of transmitted data without adversely affecting the quality of the results. To date, most aggregation protocols assume that data from localized regions is correlated, thus they tend to identify aggregation points within these regions. Our work, instead, tar...
Conference Paper
In their EWSN'07 paper (1), Giusti et al. proposed a de- centralized wake-up scattering algorithm for temporally spreading the intervals in which the nodes of a wireless sensor network (WSN) are ac- tive, and showed that the resulting schedules signicantly improve over the commonly-used random ones, e.g., by providing greater area coverage at less...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Wireless sensor networks are untethered infrastructures that are easy to deploy and have limited visual impact - a key asset in monitoring heritage buildings of artistic interest. This paper describes one such system deployed in Torre Aquila, a medieval tower in Trento (Italy). Our contributions range from the hardware to the graphical front-end. C...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Efficient multihop data dissemination is a crucial building block to enable mature wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. Exploiting machine learning for these routing problems has received increasing attention in recent years due to its flexibility and localized mechanisms. However, with such an approach the resulting protocols often have add...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Trees are fundamental structures for data dissemination in large-scale network scenarios. However, their inherent fragility has led researchers to rely on more redundant mesh topologies in the presence of churn or other highly dynamic settings. In this paper, instead, we outline a novel protocol that directly and efficiently maintains a tree overla...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the domain of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), information routing is both a fundamental and challenging problem. In this work, we describe how information local to each node can be shared without overhead as feedback to neighboring nodes, enabling efficient routing to multiple sinks. Such a situation arises in WSNs with multiple, possibly mobil...
Conference Paper
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In October 2004 the University of Lugano in southern Switzerland established a new faculty of informatics. Its founding principles are innovation in teaching and faculty participation in the research community. With respect to teaching, students spend mornings at- tending lectures and afternoons in an Atelier designed to support interaction both am...
Conference Paper
One reasonable categorization of coordination models is into data sharing or message passing, based on whether the information nec- essary to coordination is persistently stored and shared, or instead is only transiently available during communication. Generally speak- ing, approaches based on data sharing are more expressive and pro- vide full dec...
Conference Paper
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are evolving to support sense-and-react applications, where actuators are physically interspersed with the sensors that trigger them. This solution maximizes localized interactions, improving resource utilization and reducing latency w.r.t. solutions with a centralized sink. Nevertheless, application development beco...
Conference Paper
In-network data aggregation is widely recognized as an acceptable means to reduce the amount of transmitted data without adversely affecting the quality of the results. To date, most aggregation protocols assume that data from localized regions is correlated, thus they tend to identify aggregation points within these regions. Our work, instead, tar...