Amaya Azqueta's research while affiliated with Universidad de Navarra and other places

Publications (123)

Article
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Graphene-based materials (GBMs) are a broad family of novel carbon-based nanomaterials with many nanotechnology applications. The increasing market of GBMs raises concerns on their possible impact on human health. Here, we review the existing literature on the genotoxic potential of GBMs over the last ten years. A total of 50 articles including in...
Article
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Worldwide antimicrobial resistance is partly caused by the overuse of antibiotics as growth promoters. Based on the known bactericidal effect of silver, a new material containing silver in a clay base was developed to be used as feed additive. An in vitro genotoxicity evaluation of this silver-kaolin clay formulation was conducted, which included t...
Article
Deep frying is one of the most used worldwide methods in food preparation, but controlling the oil quality (temperature and formation of polar compounds) is crucial. The main objective of this work was to assess the practices of food handlers with regard to the frying processes in social food services located in Navarra (a region of northern Spain)...
Article
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The comet assay or single cell gel electrophoresis, is the most common method used to measure strand breaks and a variety of other DNA lesions in human populations. To estimate the risk of overall mortality, mortality by cause, and cancer incidence associated to DNA damage, a cohort of 2,403 healthy individuals (25,978 person-years) screened in 16...
Article
The current article aimed to evaluate the in vitro mutagenicity of ten fried meat-based food extracts obtained from different catering companies from Navarra (Spain). A miniaturized 6-well version of the Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium TA98, and the in vitro micronucleus test (OECD TG 487) in TK6 cells were performed. None of the ten extracts o...
Article
Full-text available
The comet assay or single cell gel electrophoresis, is the most common method used to measure strand breaks and a variety of other DNA lesions in human populations. To estimate the risk of overall mortality, mortality by cause, and cancer incidence associated to DNA damage, a cohort of 2,403 healthy individuals (25,978 person-years) screened in 16...
Article
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Mechanistic toxicology is gaining weight for human health risk assessment. Different mechanistic assays are available, such as the comet assay, which detects DNA damage at the level of individual cells. However, the conventional alkaline version only detects strand breaks and alkali-labile sites. We have validated two modifications of the in vitro...
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The malaria parasite harbors a relict plastid called the apicoplast. Although not photosyn-thetic, the apicoplast retains unusual, non-mammalian metabolic pathways that are essential to the parasite, opening up a new perspective for the development of novel antimalarials which display a new mechanism of action. Based on the previous antiplasmodial...
Article
The identification of a plant-like Achille's Heel relict, i.e. the apicoplast, that is essential for Plasmodium spp., the causative agent of malaria lead to an attractive drug target for new antimalarials with original mechanism of action. Although it is not photosynthetic, the apicoplast retains several anabolic pathways that are indispensable for...
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Peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) have been traditionally used to investigate DNA damage by the comet assay in population studies, but validating alternative non-invasive samples would expand the application of this assay in human biomonitoring. The objectives of this study were (i) to test the validity of salivary leucocytes as a proper biomatrix...
Article
The in vitro genotoxicity of three compounds widely used as functional ingredients, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), rutin and α-tocopherol, was assessed. A miniaturized version of the Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium TA97a, TA98, TA100, TA102, and TA1535 strains (following the principles of OECD 471), and the in vitro micronucleus test in TK6 cells...
Article
DNA damage and repair activity are often assessed in blood s#38les from humans in different types of molecular epidemiology studies. However, it is not always feasible to analyse the s#38les on the day of collection without any type of storage. For instance, certain studies use repeated s#38ling of cells from the same subject or s#38les from differ...
Article
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PurposeTo determine whether (poly)phenols from gastrointestinal-digested green pepper possess genoprotective properties in human colon cells and whether the application of a culinary treatment (griddling) on the vegetable influences the potential genoprotective activity.Methods(Poly)phenols of raw and griddled green pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) subm...
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This article focuses on a complete in vitro genotoxicity assessment of three nutrients widely used as functional ingredients in the European market: betaine, choline, and taurine. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) tiered approach for food additives in concordance with the safety assessment of chemicals in food developed by Food and Agricult...
Article
The alkaline comet assay, or single cell gel electrophoresis, is one of the most popular methods for assessing DNA damage in human population. One of the open issues concerning this assay is the identification of those factors that can explain the large inter-individual and inter-laboratory variation. International collaborative initiatives such as...
Article
The enzyme-modified comet assay was developed in order to detect DNA lesions other than those detected by the standard version (single and double strand breaks and alkali-labile sites). Various lesion-specific enzymes, from the DNA repair machinery of bacteria and humans, have been combined with the comet assay, allowing detection of different oxid...
Article
This optimized protocol (including links to instruction videos) describes a comet-based in vitro DNA repair assay that is relatively simple, versatile, and inexpensive, enabling the detection of base and nucleotide excision repair activity. Protein extracts from samples are incubated with agarose-embedded substrate nucleoids (‘naked’ supercoiled DN...
Article
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The comet assay is a widely used test for the detection of DNA damage and repair activity. However, there are interlaboratory differences in reported levels of baseline and induced damage in the same experimental systems. These differences may be attributed to protocol differences, although it is difficult to identify the relevant conditions becaus...
Article
To study the antikinetoplastid 3-nitroimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine pharmacophore, a structure-activity relationship study was conducted through the synthesis of 26 original derivatives and their in vitro evaluation on both Leishmania spp and Trypanosoma brucei brucei. This SAR study showed that the antitrypanosomal pharmacophore was less restrictive than...
Article
The enzyme-modified comet assay is widely used for the detection of oxidized DNA lesions. Here we describe for the first time the use of the human alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (hAAG) for the detection of alkylated bases. hAAG was titrated using untreated and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-treated TK-6 cells. The hAAG-modified comet assay was compare...
Article
The comet assay is a popular assay in biomonitoring studies. DNA strand breaks (or unspecific DNA lesions) are measured using the standard comet assay. Oxidative stress-generated DNA lesions can be measured by employing DNA repair enzymes to recognise oxidatively damaged DNA. Unfortunately, there has been a tendency to fail to report results from a...
Article
The in vivo comet assay is an established genotoxicity test, with an OECD test guideline, but in its standard form it measures only DNA strand breaks. Including in the assay an additional step, in which the DNA is incubated with a lesion-specific enzyme, can provide important information about the nature of the DNA damage. Formamidopyrimidine DNA g...
Article
We report for the first time, a novel series of telluride bearing sulfonamide as selective and potent inhibitors of the β-class Carbonic Anhydrase (CA; EC 4.2.1.1) enzyme expressed in Leishmania donovani protozoa. Such derivatives showed high activity against axenic amastigotes, and among them compound 5g showed an IC50 of 0.02 µM being highly sele...
Article
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A great variety of functional foods, nutraceuticals, or foods with bioactive compounds are provided nowadays to consumers. Aware of the importance of the safety aspects, the food industry has to comply with different legal requirements around the world. In this review, the European regulatory framework for food-related bioactive compounds is summar...
Article
The comet assay is a well-accepted biomonitoring tool to examine the effect of dietary, lifestyle, environmental and occupational exposure on levels of DNA damage in human cells. With such a wide range of determinants for DNA damage levels, it becomes challenging to deal with confounding and certain factors are inter-related (e.g. poor nutritional...
Article
Some years ago, the IARC published the carcinogenic potential of processed and red meat. It is known that frying meat can produce genotoxic substances. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to evaluate in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity of fried meat. A total of 31 scientific articles were retrieved and analyzed. The meat extraction me...
Article
The in vivo comet assay is usually performed in fresh tissues by processing cells immediately after collection, an approach that is not always possible from a logistical point of view. Although the comet assay has been applied to frozen rodent tissue samples on several occasions, there is currently no agreement on the best way to freeze and thaw th...
Article
The current chemotherapy against Chagas disease is inadequate and insufficient. A series of ten Mannich base-type derivatives have been synthesized to evaluate their in vitro antichagasic activity. After a preliminary screening, compounds 7 and 9 were subjected to in vivo assays in a murine model. Both compounds caused a substantial decrease in par...
Research
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The International Comet Assay Workshops are a series of scientific conferences dealing with practical and theoretical aspects of the Comet Assay, aimed at both experienced and new users of this popular technique. The Workshop has always been rather informal. The next ICAW in 2019 will be organised in Russia - Pushchino (Moscow region). We welcome...
Article
The comet assay (single cell gel electrophoresis) is widely used as a biomonitoring tool to assess DNA damage - strand breaks, as well as oxidised bases; it can also be adapted to measure DNA repair. It is based on the ability of breaks in the DNA to relax supercoiling, allowing DNA loops to extend from the nuclear core (nucleoid) under an electric...
Article
Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) represents 15-20% of all new cases of leukemia and is characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal myeloid cells. Currently, the first-line of treatment involves Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs), which specifically inhibits the activity of the fusion protein BCR-ABL. However, resistance, mainly due to m...
Article
The comet assay offers the opportunity to measure both DNA damage and repair. Various comet assay based methods are available to measure DNA repair activity, but some requirements should be met for their effective use in human biomonitoring studies. These conditions include i) robustness of the assay, ii) sources of inter- and intra-individual vari...
Article
The enzyme-modified comet assay is a commonly used method to detect specific DNA lesions. However, still a lot of errors are made by many users, leading to dubious results and even misinterpretations. This technical note describes some critical points in the use of the enzyme-modified comet assay, such as the enzyme concentration, the time of incub...
Article
Chagas Disease is a potentially life-threatening and neglected tropical disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. One of the most important challenges related to Chagas disease is the search for new, safe, effective and affordable drugs since the current therapeutic arsenal is inadequate and insufficient. Here, we report a simple and cost-effective synt...
Article
Background: Glioblastomas (GBM) are one of the most aggressive tumor of the central nervous system with an average life expectancy of only 1-2 years after diagnosis, even with the use of advanced treatments with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. There are several anticancer drugs with alkylating properties that have been used in the therapy of...
Article
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin considered the most powerful renal carcinogen in rodents and classified as a possible human carcinogen. Though its mechanism of action is still unknown, indirect DNA reactivity mediated by oxidative stress has been hypothesized to play an important role. Moreover, large sex-differences have been observed in carcino...
Article
The alkaline comet assay, in vivo and in vitro, is currently used in several areas of research and in regulatory genotoxicity testing. Several efforts have been made in order to decrease the inter-experimental and inter-laboratory variability and increase the reliability of the assay. In this regard, lysis conditions are considered as one of the cr...
Article
The human eye is relatively unexplored as a source of cells for investigating DNA damage. There have been some clinical studies, using cells from surgically removed tissues, and altered DNA bases as well as strand breaks have been measured using the comet assay. Tissues examined include corneal epithelium and endothelium, lens capsule, iris and ret...
Article
Gantrez® AN 119-based NPs have been developed as oral drug carriers due to their strong bioadhesive interaction with components of the gastrointestinal mucosa and to their adaptable surface. The use of mannosamine to coat Gantrez® AN 119-based NPs results in a high mucus-permeable carrier, able to reach the gastrointestinal epithelium. Although the...
Data
Tables containing: (i) Complete list of isotopologue fractions of Glucose, Glycogen, Lactate, Glutamate fraction C2–5 and C2–4, and Ribose-5-phosphate of treated and non-treated C2C12 cells, (ii) Model-driven fitting of metabolite isotopologues and the corresponding χ2 of treated and non-treated C2C12 cells, (iii) kinetic parameters determined by o...
Data
Zip file with: (i) The kinetic model used to determine the metabolic fluxes, (ii) metabolic fluxes calculated for treated and non-treated C2C12 cells, (iii) kinetic parameters defined for treated and non-treated C2C12 cells, and (iv) results of the experimental labeling data for treated and non-treated C2C12 cells.
Article
The International Comet Assay Workshops are a series of scientific conferences dealing with practical and theoretical aspects of the Comet Assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis)-a simple method for detecting DNA strand breaks. The first paper describing such an assay was published over 30 years ago in 1984 by Swedish researchers O. Ostling and K....
Article
In the last years, the development of nanomaterials has significantly increased due to the immense variety of potential applications in technological sectors, such as medicine, pharmacy and food safety. Focusing on the nanodevices for oral drug delivery, poly(anhydride) nanoparticles have received extensive attention due to their unique properties,...
Article
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Rhabdomyolysis is a disorder characterized by acute damage of the sarcolemma of the skeletal muscle leading to release of potentially toxic muscle cell components into the circulation, most notably creatine phosphokinase (CK) and myoglobulin, and is frequently accompanied by myoglobinuria. In the present work, we evaluated the toxicity of p-phenyle...
Chapter
DNA is continuously under attack, from environmental chemicals and radiation and also from intrinsic damaging agents, notably reactive oxygen species. In the case of the latter, potential damage is kept under control by antioxidant defences. The damage that does occur is mostly removed by efficient repair pathways, but damage that remains when cell...
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Polyphenols are a very broad group of chemicals, widely distributed in plant foods, and endowed with antioxidant activity by virtue of their numerous phenol groups. They are widely studied as putative cancer-protective agents, potentially contributing to the cancer preventive properties of fruits and vegetables. We review recent publications relati...
Article
Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease with 6-7 million people infected worldwide and there is no effective treatment. Therefore, there is an urgent need to continue researching in order to discover novel therapeutic alternatives. We present a series of arylaminoketone derivatives as means of identifying new drugs to treat Chagas disease in...
Article
The main concerns with drugs designed for oral administration are their inactivation or degradation in the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, their poor solubility through the gastrointestinal mucus gel layer, the poor intestinal epithelium permeability that limits their absorption, and their toxicity. In this context, poly(anhydride)...
Article
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of aggregates of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) that are believed to be neurotoxic. One of the purposed damaging mechanisms of Aβ is oxidative insult, which eventually could damage the cellular genome. Stress and associated increases in glucocorticoids (GCs)...
Article
We report the synthesis and in vitro activity against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes of 15 novel quinoxaline derivatives. Ten of the derivatives presented IC50 values lower than the reference drugs Nfx and Bzn; four of them standed out with IC50 values lower than 1.5μM. Moreover, unspecific cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies are also reported....
Article
Oral administration is the most commonly used and accepted route for drug administration. However, two of the main concerns are the poor intestinal epithelium permeability and rapid degradation, which limit absorption of drugs. In this context, nanocarriers have shown great potential for oral drug delivery. Nevertheless, special importance should b...
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The alkaline comet assay (single cell gel electrophoresis) is the most widely used method for measuring DNA damage in eukaryotic cells (Neri et al., 2015). It detects strand breaks (SBs) and alkali-labile sites at frequencies from a few hundred to several thousand breaks per cell—a biologically useful range, extending from low endogenous damage lev...
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The accelerating production and use of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) raises questions about the safety of this new technology. To avoid the possible hazards associated with NMs requires proper regulation. How should toxicity testing be addressed and can standard tests for assessment of safety of chemicals be applied to NMs? What are the major limi...
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Lifestyle factors are responsible for a considerable portion of cancer incidence worldwide, but credible estimates from the World Health Organization and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) suggest that the fraction of cancers attributable to toxic environmental exposures is between 7% and 19%. To explore the hypothesis that low-...
Article
Miniscrew implants are widely used nowadays in orthodontic treatments due to their good results in clinical practice. However, data regarding the biocompatibility of commercially available orthodontic miniscrews and temporary devices are very scarce, and their role as genotoxicity inducers has been not previously evaluated with the alkaline comet a...
Article
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Genome instability is a prerequisite for the development of cancer. It occurs when genome maintenance systems fail to safeguard the genome's integrity, whether as a consequence of inherited defects or induced via exposure to environmental agents (chemicals, biological agents and radiation). Thus, genome instability can be defined as an enhanced ten...
Article
Full-text available
Lifestyle factors are responsible for a considerable portion of cancer incidence worldwide, but credible estimates from the World Health Organization and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) suggest that the fraction of cancers attributable to toxic environmental exposures is between 7% and 19%. To explore the hypothesis that low-...
Article
Full-text available
The comet assay is widely used to test the genotoxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) but outcomes may vary when results from different laboratories, or even within one laboratory, are compared. We address some basic methodological considerations, such as the importance of carrying out physico-chemical characterisation of the ENMs in test-medi...
Article
The alkaline comet assay is now the method of choice for measuring different kinds of DNA damage in cells. Several attempts have been made to identify and evaluate the critical points affecting the comet assay outcome, highlighting the requirement of arriving at a standardised protocol in order to be able to compare the results obtained in differen...
Article
Nutrient excess and unbalanced diets can result in overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are associated with oxidative stress. Cocoa extract contains antioxidants that inhibit the harmful effects of ROS. This trial analysed the effect of cocoa extract consumption integrated as a bioactive compound into ready-to-eat meals, on oxidat...
Article
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and Ochratoxin A (OTA) are genotoxic mycotoxins that can contaminate a variety of foodstuffs, the liver and the kidney being their target organ, respectively. The micronucleus (MN) assay (bone marrow) and the comet assay (liver and kidney) were performed simultaneously in F344 rats, treated with AFB1 (0.25 mg/kg b.w.), OTA (0.5...
Article
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The comet assay is a sensitive and versatile method for assessing DNA damage in cells. In the traditional version of the assay, there are many manual steps involved and few samples can be treated in one experiment. High throughput (HT) modifications have been developed during recent years, and they are reviewed and discussed. These modifications in...
Article
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Variability of the comet assay is a serious issue, whether it occurs from experiment to experiment in the same laboratory, or between different laboratories analysing identical samples. Do we have to live with high variability, just because the comet assay is a biological assay rather than analytical chemistry? Numerous attempts have been made to l...