Amanda Spink's research while affiliated with Loughborough University and other places

Publications (245)

Article
Background Knowledge BK plays an essential role in machine learning for short-text and non-topical classification. In this paper the authors present and evaluate two Information Retrieval techniques used to assemble four sets of BK in the past seven years. These sets were applied to classify a commercial corpus of search queries by the apparent age...
Article
The Missing Pieces tool visualizes the overlap of search engine results including those generated by the metasearch engine, Dogpile. The major research question is: how well can users interact with and interpret the circular metasearch results display? This study has interesting implications for the use of visualization for presenting information i...
Article
The study of successive searching, or user's pattern of search sessions in digital environments over time related to the same or evolving information problem, is developing as a new line of investigation. A growing body of studies is beginning to investigate and characterize the successive searching process. This area of research draws together inf...
Article
Accessing e-commerce information on the Web is becoming a key aspect of citizenship in the digital age. By 1999 e-commerce queries were the largest group of Web queries, forming some 25% of all queries. Web queries are a primary means for translating people's need for business product and service information for effective e-commerce. This paper rep...
Article
Studies examining scholars' use of printed materials are necessary precursors to the development of electronic journals and the field of electronic publishing. electronic publishing is of particular interest in scholarship, where timelines and relevance of publications are crucial to the advancement of knowledge. Although scholarly journals devote...
Chapter
Search query classification is a necessary step for a number of information retrieval tasks. This chapter presents an approach to non-hierarchical classification of search queries that focuses on two specific areas of machine learning: short text classification and limited manual labeling. Typically, search queries are short, display little class s...
Chapter
Background knowledge has been actively investigated as a possible means to improve performance of machine learning algorithms. Research has shown that background knowledge plays an especially critical role in three atypical text categorization tasks: short-text classification, limited labeled data, and non-topical classification. This chapter explo...
Book
Full-text available
A sign of maturity of a scientific field is its theoretical growth that is based on an increased depth of understanding and a broadening of the contexts and issues addressed. Information behaviour research has grown substantially over the last 10 years, expanding from a focused exploration of utilitarian features such as problem-focused, work-relat...
Chapter
This chapter explores new and emerging dimensions in our understanding of how information behaviour develops in early childhood. Spink (2010) proposed that information behaviour — when we engage in behaviours to make sense of, seek, avoid, forage, use and organise information — is (1) shaped by both instinctive and environmental dimensions that are...
Article
Limited research has investigated the role of multitasking, cognitive coordination, and cognitive shifts during web search. Understanding these three behaviors is crucial to web search model development. This study aims to explore characteristics of multitasking behavior, types of cognitive shifts, and levels of cognitive coordination as well as th...
Article
Full-text available
Most major Web search engines typically present sponsored and non-sponsored results in separate listing on the search engine results page. In this research, we investigate the effect of integrating both sponsored and non-sponsored results into a single listing. The premise underlying this research is that searchers are primarily interested in relev...
Chapter
Ever since our cognitive make-up allowed it, human beings have used their information behaviour abilities to help them survive. Information behaviour evolved in response to the need by early humans to benefit from information that could not be immediately accessible in the nearby environment or obtained through communication. Humans developed an in...
Article
Panel Description For more than twenty years, many leading social scientists have been exploring the question: How has evolution shaped human cognition and behavior? (Barkow, Tooby & Cosmides, 1992; Buss, 1995). Many social scientists are developing their fields of inquiry within a human evolutionary framework, including evolutionary biology, evolu...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – Web search engines are frequently used by people to locate information on the Internet. However, not all queries have an informational goal. Instead of information, some people may be looking for specific web sites or may wish to conduct transactions with web services. This paper aims to focus on automatically classifying the different us...
Article
Full-text available
This paper outlines the relation between philosophy of information (PI) and human information behavior (HIB). In this paper, we first briefly outline the basic constructs and approaches of PI and HIB. We argue that a strong relation exists between PI and HIB, as both are exploring the concept of information and premise information as a fundamental...
Article
This paper reports results from a study exploring the multimedia search functionality of Chinese language search engines. Web searching in Chinese (Mandarin) is a growing research area and a technical challenge for popular commercial Web search engines. Few studies have been conducted on Chinese language search engines. We investigate two research...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – This paper aims to report findings from an exploratory study investigating the web interactions and technoliteracy of children in the early childhood years. Previous research has studied aspects of older children’s technoliteracy and web searching; however, few studies have analyzed web search data from children younger than six years of...
Article
This book has broadly explored many diverse and interesting issues, and has proposed new theories and ideas. At the beginning of the book we said that such a treatise will probably raise more important and interesting questions than will be answered. Raising important and interesting questions without providing all the answers may be frustrating fo...
Article
The quotation above provides some insight into the nature and importance of information behavior for early humans . Information behavior allowed them to learn about the behavior of animals and to create categories of information that were represented in different types of animals depicted in paleoart on cave walls.
Article
Blumberg’s words provide a valuable insight into the latest thinking on the role of instinct and environment in determining human behavior. A key issue for human behaviorists is examining how instinct versus environment shape human behavior (Blumberg, 2005). The concept of behavior and the role of instinct and what it means has been a major debate...
Article
Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington was obviously a phenomenologist. In the vein of Eddington, this book is a first stab at devising theories to account for origins and reconstructing the creature. But how do we reconstruct such a creature, how do we account for its origins and say what it has become? Based on what we know so far about the origins and dev...
Article
As Pirolli reminds us, many forces shaped the emergence of information behavior and many artifacts were developed over the centuries to support information behavior in different cultures . Information behavior has been an important aspect of human behavior from early humans such as Homo sapiens and also for the people of today.
Chapter
As McBrearty and Brooks (2000) argue above, knowledge sharing and human information behaviors originated in early humans and are not just a twentieth century phenomenon. However in our twenty-first century information society when we think about our behavior we do not generally think about our information-related behavior. When using our informatio...
Article
Blumberg’s words above highlight a key challenge for information behaviorists – How can we understand the developmental patterns of information behavior?
Article
Alexander’s words set the scene for exploring more about the broad nature and attributes of information behavior. In previous chapters we explored how Information behavior emerged in early humans as an evolved cognitive mechanism with instinctive and environmental dimensions underpinned by a motivation to control motivation to control the environme...
Article
Background knowledge has been actively investigated as a possible means to improve performance of machine learning algorithms. Research has shown that background knowledge plays an especially critical role in three atypical text categorization tasks: short-text classification, limited labeled data, and non-topical classification. This chapter explo...
Article
Information behavior has emerged as an important aspect of human life, however our knowledge and understanding of it is incomplete and underdeveloped scientifically. Research on the topic is largely contemporary in focus and has generally not incorporated results from other disciplines. In this monograph Spink provides a new understanding of inform...
Article
The goals of this research were to answer three questions. How predominant is religious searching online? How do people interact with Web search engines when searching for religious information? How effective are these interactions in locating relevant information? Specifically, referring to a US demographic, we analyzed five data sets from Web sea...
Article
Searching for multimedia is an important activity for users of Web search engines. Studying user's interactions with Web search engine multimedia buttons, including image, audio, and video, is important for the development of multimedia Web search systems. This article provides results from a Weblog analysis study of multimedia Web searching by Dog...
Article
The inclusion or not of chat services within Virtual Reference (VR) is an important topic for university libraries. Increasingly, email supported by a Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) database is suggested in the scholarly literature as the preferred, cost-effective means for providing university VR services. This paper examines these issues and id...
Article
Query reformulation is a key user behavior during Web search. Our research goal is to develop predictive models of query reformulation during Web searching. This article reports results from a study in which we automatically classified the query-reformulation patterns for 964,780 Web searching sessions, composed of 1,523,072 queries, to predict the...
Article
Web search models are a significant and important area of Web research. This paper outlines dissertation research to develop a Web search model that integrates processes involving multitasking, cognitive coordination and cognitive shifts. Based on previous studies, we present a preliminary conceptual model of Web search interaction incorporating mu...
Article
Information behavior models generally focus on one of many aspects of information behavior, either information finding, conceptualized as information seeking, information foraging or information sense-making, information organizing and information using. This ongoing study is developing an integrated model of information behavior. The research desi...
Article
The level of commerce related Web search is a major indicator of the growth of e-commerce. Web queries are a key element in how people purchase services and products via the Web. People create Web queries in order to translate their information problems into a demand for products and services. Our paper provides results from studies analyzing Web s...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports results from a study in which we automatically classified the query reformulation patterns for 964,780 Web searching sessions (composed of 1,523,072 queries) in order to predict what the next query reformulation would be. We employed an n-gram modeling approach to describe the probability of searchers transitioning from one query...
Article
In this paper, we use time series analysis to evaluate predictive scenarios using search engine transactional logs. Our goal is to develop models for the analysis of searchers’ behaviors over time and investigate if time series analysis is a valid method for predicting relationships between searcher actions. Time series analysis is a method often u...
Article
In this research, we aim to identify factors that signif- icantly affect the clickthrough of Web searchers. Our underlying goal is determine more efficient methods to optimize the clickthrough rate. We devise a clickthrough metric for measuring customer satisfaction of search engine results using the number of links visited, number of queries a use...
Article
Full-text available
Current multimedia Web search engines still use keywords as the primary means to search. Due to the richness in multimedia contents, general users constantly experience some difficulties in formulating textual queries that are representative enough for their needs. As a result, query reformulation becomes part of an inevitable process in most multi...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports findings from a study investigating the effect of integrating sponsored and nonsponsored search engine links into a single web listing. The premise underlying this research is that web searchers are chiefly interested in relevant results. Given the reported negative bias that web searchers have concerning sponsored links, separat...
Article
Over 2 billion searches are conducted daily on Web search engines. Some Web searches are re-finding what was seen before, but many searches are query reformulation or refinements as attempts to retrieve better results. Previous studies have examined query formulation and reformulation from the mid-seventies to today, including online intermediary a...
Chapter
This chapter outlines and discusses theoretical and methodological foundations for transaction log analysis. We first address the fundamentals of transaction log analysis from a research viewpoint and the concept of transaction logs as a data collection technique from the perspective of behaviorism. From this research foundation, we move to the met...
Article
This paper reports preliminary results from a study modeling the interplay between multitasking, cognitive coordination, and cognitive shifts during Web search. Study participants conducted three Web searches on personal information problems. Data collection techniques included pre- and post-search questionnaires, think-aloud protocols, Web search...
Article
Web search engines are now major tools that people use to find information on the Web. Few studies have examined the extent and functionality of these Web searching tools that support Spanish-speaking users. Our study identified 72 publically available Spanish-language-supporting Web search engines. The research questions are the following: a) What...
Article
Internet and computer addiction has been a popular research area since the 90s. Studies on Internet and computer addiction have usually been conducted in the US, and the investigation of computer and Internet addiction at different countries is an interesting area of research. This study investigates computer and Internet addiction among teenagers...
Article
Recent studies on automatic new topic identification in Web search engine user sessions demonstrated that learning algorithms such as neural networks and regression have been fairly successful in automatic new topic identification. In this study, we investigate whether another learning algorithm, Support Vector Machines (SVM) are successful in term...
Article
No Abstract. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/61334/1/1450440124_ftp.pdf
Article
Information behavior models generally focus on one of many aspects of information behavior, either information finding, conceptualized as information seeking, information foraging or information sense-making, information organizing and information using. This ongoing study is developing an integrated model of information behavior. The research desi...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, the phenomenon of searching for travel information on the Web is reported. The issues of how predominant travel searching is on the Web, how people are searching for travel information on the Web, and what terms people are using to express their travel-related information needs are investigated. In this research, 2,465,145 interact...
Chapter
Special collections, because of the issues associated with conservation and use, a feature they share with archives, tend to be the most digitized areas in libraries. The Nineteenth Century Schoolbooks collection is a collection of 9000 rarely held nineteenth-century schoolbooks that were painstakingly collected over a lifetime of work by Prof. Joh...
Conference Paper
This paper analyzes the computational complexity of finding relevant documents on the Web. Given a search query that has n significant terms, relevant documents retrieved by search engines will contain at least a number k of the significant terms. The threshold k chosen will depend on the collection of documents and is determined experimentally upo...
Conference Paper
The help information provided by search engines can facilitate its user's information seeking process or hinder it. This study analyzed 20 search engines on how their help systems are placed and organized. Help systems are separated into pre-search help system, and post-search help system, and six aspects of help systems were investigated, includin...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we define and present a comprehensive classification of user intent for Web searching. The classification consists of three hierarchical levels of informational, navigational, and transactional intent. After deriving attributes of each, we then developed a software application that automatically classified queries using a Web search...
Conference Paper
Content analysis of search engine user queries is an important task for search engine research, and identification of topic changes within a user search session is a key issue in content analysis of search engine user queries. The purpose of this study is to provide automatic new topic identification of search engine query logs, and estimate the ef...
Chapter
Full-text available
Information retrieval (IR) research in the context of the Web involves a number of complex processes. Some are user-related and include cognitive processes, motivational issues, information needs, technology attitude and adoption; and some are system related and include search engine algorithms and interface design . The field currently lacks a com...
Article
Web search engines are beginning to offer access to multimedia searching, including audio, video and image searching. In this paper we report findings from a study examining the state of multimedia search functionality on major general and specialized Web search engines. We investigated 102 Web search engines to examine: (1) how many Web search eng...
Article
Full-text available
According to the Pew Web Internet and American Life Project (Raine, 2005) search engine use is edging towards overtaking email usage as the primary Internet application for many users. Accessing commerce related information on the Web is becoming an everyday activity for many people in the digital age. The level of commerce related Web searching is...
Article
This chapter emphasizes topic analysis and identification of search engine user queries. Topic analysis and identification of queries is an important task related to the discipline of information retrieval which is a key element for the development of successful personalized search engines. Topic identification of text is also no simple task, and a...
Article
Full-text available
AbstrAct This chapter outlines and discusses theoretical and methodological foundations for transaction log analysis. Wefirst address the fundamentals of transaction log analysis from a research viewpoint and the concept of transaction logs as a data collection technique from the perspective of behaviorism. From this research foundation, we move to...
Article
This chapter summarizes the progress of search engine user behavior analysis from search engine transaction log analysis to estimation of user behavior. Correct estimation of user information searching behavior paves the way to more successful and even personalized search engines. However, estimation of user behavior is not a simple task. It closel...
Article
Search query classification is a necessary step for a number of information retrieval tasks. This chapter presents an approach to non-hierarchical classification of search queries that focuses on two specific areas of machine learning: short text classification and limited manual labeling. Typically, search queries are short, display little class s...
Article
Web log analysis is an innovative and unique field constantly formed and changed by the convergence of various emerging Web technologies. Due to its interdisciplinary character, the diversity of issues it addresses, and the variety and number of Web applications, it is the subject of many distinctive and diverse research methodologies. This chapter...
Chapter
This chapter emphasizes topic analysis and identification of search engine user queries. Topic analysis and identification of queries is an important task related to the discipline of information retrieval which is a key element for the development of successful personalized search engines. Topic identification of text is also no simple task, and a...
Chapter
This chapter outlines and discusses theoretical and methodological foundations for transaction log analysis. We first address the fundamentals of transaction log analysis from a research viewpoint and the concept of transaction logs as a data collection technique from the perspective of behaviorism. From this research foundation, we move to the met...
Article
Purpose – Interactive information retrieval (IR) involves many human cognitive shifts at different information behaviour levels. Cognitive science defines a cognitive shift or shift in cognitive focus as triggered by the brain's response and change due to some external force. This paper aims to provide an explication of the concept of “cognitive sh...
Article
This paper examines patterns and features of query reformulation within a Web searching session. We pursued this study in response to the growing interest in the area of interactions during information searching. In this study, we randomly selected a stratified sample of Web sessions containing 8,030 queries from an AltaVista (www.altavista.com) tr...
Article
Recent studies on automatic new topic identification in Web search engine user sessions demonstrated that neural networks are successful in automatic new topic identification. However most of this work applied their new topic identification algorithms on data logs from a single search engine. In this study, we investigate whether the application of...
Article
Full-text available
Analysis of data from a major metasearch engine reveals that sponsored-link click-through rates appear lower than previously reported. Combining sponsored and nonsponsored links in a single listing, while providing some benefits to users, does not appear to increase clicks on sponsored listings. In a competitive market, rivals continually strive to...
Article
Multitasking information behaviour is the human ability to handle the demands of multiple information tasks concurrently. When we multitask, we work on two or more tasks and switch between those tasks. Multitasking is the way most of us deal with the complex environment we all live in, and recent studies show that people often engage in multitaskin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We examine 2,465,145 interactions from 534,507 users of Dogpile.com submitted 6 May 2005. We compare query reformulation patterns. We investigate the type of query modifications and query modification transitions within sessions. Searchers most often modified their query by changing query terms (nearly 23% of all query modifications). Searchers' qu...
Article
Full-text available
How has human information behavior evolved? Our paper explores this question in the form of notions, models and theories about the relationship between information behavior and human evolution. Alexander's Ecological Dominance and Social Competition/Cooperation (EDSC) model currently provides the most comprehensive overview of human traits in the d...
Article
Purpose – The work presented in this paper aims to provide an approach to classifying web logs by personal properties of users. Design/methodology/approach – The authors describe an iterative system that begins with a small set of manually labeled terms, which are used to label queries from the log. A set of background knowledge related to these la...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The objective of this paper is to explore the state of multimedia search functionality on major general and dedicated Web search engines in Chinese language. The authors studied: a) how many Chinese Web search engines presently make use of multimedia searching, and b) the type of multimedia search functionality available. Specifically, the followin...
Article
Detecting query reformulations within a session by a Web searcher is an important area of research for designing more helpful searching systems and targeting content to particular users. Methods explored by other researchers include both qualitative (i.e., the use of human judges to manually analyze query patterns on usually small samples) and nond...
Article
Metasearch engines are an intuitive method for improving the performance of Web search by increasing coverage, returning large numbers of results with a focus on rele- vance, and presenting alternative views of information needs. However, the use of metasearch engines in an operational environment is not well understood. In this study, we investiga...
Conference Paper
Usability is an important factor for search engine acceptance. This paper examines usability of a long query meta search engine. The engine was designed to accept and process an unlimited size query expressed in natural language. We briefly review current search engine usability research and then apply some of the common metrics to various tasks of...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides preliminary results from a major study of multimedia Web searching by Dogpile meta-search engine users, including queries and session characteristics, and changes or differences in image, video and audio searching. The results are compared with multimedia Web searching studies from 1997 to 2002. Image and sexual queries are domi...
Conference Paper
The Measuring Web Effectiveness: The User Perspective minitrack is a multidisciplinary forum for considering issues related to the effectiveness of Web searching from the user¿s perspective. The minitrack examines the behavior of users seeking information on the Web. This is allows us to bring into the discussion, considerations of the impact that...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Determining the user intent of Web searches is a difficult problem due to the sparse data available concerning the searcher. In this paper, we examine a method to determine the user intent underlying Web search engine queries. We qualitatively analyze samples of queries from seven transaction logs from three different Web search engines containing...
Article
The application of clustering to Web search engine technology is a novel approach that offers structure to the information deluge often faced by Web searchers. Clustering methods have been well studied in research labs; however, real user searching with clustering systems in operational Web environments is not well understood. This article reports...
Article
The Web has become a worldwide repository of information which individuals, companies, and organizations utilize to solve or address various information problems. Many of these Web users utilize automated agents to gather this information for them. Some assume that this approach represents a more sophisticated method of searching. However, there is...
Article
We investigate the occurrence of Web searchers returning the same information course, in this case the Vivisimo Web search engine. We analyze data from a transaction log spanning a roughly 8-day period with approximately 1,200,000 records. During this time 40,227 users made repeated daily visits to the search engine, submitting 648,897 queries. Our...
Article
No Abstract. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/49321/1/1450420146_ftp.pdf
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this research is to show that federated content collections are important for providing access to multiple content repositories, including image, video, audio and Web sites. Design/methodology/approach – This paper presents findings from an analysis of differences in users' Web searching patterns as they access various fede...
Article
The performance and capabilities of Web search engines is an important and significant area of research. Millions of people world wide use Web search engines very day. This paper reports the results of a major study examining the overlap among results retrieved by multiple Web search engines for a large set of more than 10,000 queries. Previous sma...
Article
Multitasking is the human ability to handle the demands of multiple tasks. Multitasking behavior involves the ordering of multiple tasks and switching between tasks. People often multitask when using information retrieval (IR) technologies as they seek information on more than one information problem over single or multiple search episodes. However...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We investigate three methods for defining a session on Web search engines. We examine 2,465,145 interactions from 534,507 Web searchers. We compare defining sessions using: 1) Internet Protocol address and cookie; 2) Internet Protocol address, cookie, and a temporal limit on intra- session interactions; and 3) Internet Protocol address, cookie, and...
Article
Full-text available
Our study examined the overlap among results retrieved by three major Web search engines for a large set of more than 10,316 queries. Previous smaller studies have discussed the lack of overlap in results returned by Web search engines for the same queries. Our large-scale study measured the overlap of first page results (both non-sponsored and spo...