Alwyn H. Gentry's research while affiliated with Missouri Botanical Garden and other places

Publications (33)

Article
We present an analysis of local species richness in neotropical forests, based on a number of 0.1 ha samples of woody plants collected by the late Alwyn Gentry. For each of 69 forests, soils were analysed and climatic data were collated. Using transformed independent variables and interaction terms, multiple regression equations were developed that...
Article
We present a worldwide analysis of humid tropical forest dynamics and tree species richness. New tree mortality, recruitment, and species richness data include the most dynamic and diverse mature tropical forests known. Twenty-five sites show a strong tendency for the most species-rich forests to be dynamic and aseasonal. Mean annual tree mortality...
Article
Tree turnover rates were assessed at 40 tropical forest sites. Averaged across inventoried forests, turnover, as measured by tree mortality and recruitment, has increased since the 1950s, with an apparent pantropical acceleration since 1980. Among 22 mature forest sites with two or more inventory periods, forest turnover also increased. The trend i...
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Full-text available
We present results of applying a simple technique to statistically test several hypotheses in ethnobotany, using plant use data from non-indigenous people in southeast Peru. Hypotheses tested concern: (1) the power of eight different variables as predictors of a plant's use value; (2) comparisons of ethnobotanical knowledge among informants; and (3...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes a new, simple, quantitative technique for evaluating the relative usefulness of plants to people. The technique is then compared to the quantitative approaches in ethnobotany that have been developed recently. Our technique is used to calculate the importance of over 600 species of woody plants to non-indigenous mestizo people...
Article
To understand almost any part of the tropical rain forest's fabulously complex web of life, one must first learn to identify a bewildering array of plants. Alwyn Gentry's landmark book, completed just before his tragic death in 1993, is the only field guide to the nearly 250 families of woody plants in the most species-rich region of South America....
Article
Phytogeographical knowledge of two major patterns important to conservational planning - the distribution of diversity and endemism in tropical forests - are summarized. High diversity forests occur on all three continents and are concentrated in lowland areas with high and evenly distributed rainfall, but with greatest diversity usually occurring...
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Full-text available
The rain forests at Bajo Calima, Colombia are described for woody plant composition. Two upland plots, 1.0 and 0.5 ha in size, were selected and all trees $\geq$ 10 cm dbh were measured and identified. Trees $\geq$ 2.5 cm and $\leq$ 9.9 cm dbh were sampled in 0.1 ha subplots. Biomass was estimated using allometric equations. Biomass levels are low,...
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Full-text available
Exploitation of non-wood resources would provide profits while conserving Amazon forests. Yet little is done to promote their development.
Article
Upper Amazonian data for tree species richness in 1-hectare plots are reported. All plants >/=10 cm diameter were censused and identified in six plots in Amazonian Peru and one on the Venezuela-Brazil border. The two plots from the everwet forests near Iquitos, Peru, are the most species-rich in the world, with approximately 300 species >/=10 cm di...
Article
Trends in community composition and diversity of neotropical forests as measured by a series of samples of (1) plants ≥ 2.5 cm dbh in 0.1 ha, (2) plants over 10 cm dbh in 1-ha plots, and (3) complete local florulas are analyzed as a function of various environmental parameters. These trends are also compared with those found in similar data sets fr...
Article
At Iquitos in the Peruvian Amazon, a plywood industry based on exploitation of Ceiba pentandra developed over the last 15 years. By 1975, five Iquitos lumber mills had been set up to convert Ceiba trees to plywood. The cores of the peeled logs were used for local construction and cabinetry, forming an important secondary industry. By 1983, uncontro...
Article
We report the results of the first complete samples of all plant species and individuals for any lowland tropical forest in the world. The three forests sampled are in western Ecuador; Rio Palenque, Jauneche, and Capeira are, respectively, wet, moist, and dry forests. In each forest we sampled all vascular plants in a 0.1-ha area. At wet forest Rio...
Article
Fevillea is a small neotropical liana genus of the Cucurbitaceae that is well known ethnobotanically as having seeds with purgative and emetic properties. We report here the unusually high oil content of its seeds, first called to our attention by their use as candles by the Campa Indians in Amazonian Peru.Fevillea fruits apparently have a higher s...
Article
At the end of the Cretaceous there was a possibility for relatively direct floristic interchange between South America and tropical North America via island hopping along the proto- Antilles. Uplift of the Andes, mostly in Neogene time, led to an incredible burst of speciation in a number of Gondwanan families. A similar evolutionary explosion in t...
Article
Diversity has been given a central role in attempts to develop a general theory of ecology (Johnson and Raven, 1970). Much attention has been focused on large-scale trends, such as the increase in species diversity with decreasing latitude (Pianka, 1966; Mac Arthur, 1965; Fischer, 1960; Tramer, 1974), but there is surprisingly little documentation...
Article
Field studies in Amazonian Peru show that thePassiflora vitifolia complex, a microcosm of many larger taxa, is concentrated in Amazonia with 4 ecologically separated species. One species is restricted to seasonally inundated forests, a second to non-inundated white sand soils, a third to non-inundated lateritic soils, and the fourth mostly to non-i...
Article
The height of the annual flood crest of the Amazon at Iquitos has increased markedly in the last decade. During this same period, there has been greatly increased deforestation in the upper parts of the Amazon watershed in Peru and Ecuador, but no significant changes in regional patterns of precipitation. The change in Amazonian water balance durin...
Article
A new species of Styloceras (Buxaceae), S. brokawii A. Gentry & R. Foster, is described from lowland Amazonian Peru. This is the first non-Andean species of the genus and provides significant new phytogeographical evidence as to the origins of this remarkable and isolated genus.
Article
Several new species from the Choco region of western Colombia and adjacent Ecuador and from Amazonian Peru are described--Aiphanes chocoensis A. Gentry (Palmae), Freziera dudleyi A. Gentry, F. jaramillot A. Gentry and F. sessiliflora A. Gentry (Theaceae), Schefflera megacarpa A. Gentry (Araliaceae), Bonafousia chocoensis A. Gentry and Mandevilla do...
Article
The neotropical genera of Bignoniaceae are surveyed palynologically and applications of palynology to the taxonomy of the family are reviewed. The family is markedly eurypalynous and pollen morphology is extremely useful taxonomically in generic delimitation. However, most of the divergent pollen types found in the family appear to have evolved ind...
Article
Five generic mergers in Bigoniaceae are proposed, largely as the result of palynological considerations. The proposed mergers are: Orthotheca with Xylophragma, Neves-Armondia with Pithecoctenium, Paradolichandra with Parabignonia, and both Hanburyophyton and Pachyptera with Mansoa. A new species, intermediate between Mansoa and Pachyptera, is descr...
Article
The tropical American region of the Pacific Basin is undoubtedly the Basin’s most poorly known region floristically. It is probably also the richest in number of species. I present here a brief history of floristic work in the area, a review of the region’s ecological geography and a summation of the interaction of history and ecology which has led...
Article
Full-text available
Resumo Foi feita uma mostragem numa área de 1000 m2, na capoeira do INPA (Manaus). Algumas famílias, inclusive as Bignoniaceae, mostram aqui a mesma diversidade e composição de espécies que uma floresta em clímax. Todavia, certas famílias estão sub-representadas (Sapotaceae, Lauraceae, Chrysobalanaceae, entre as árvores, e Apocynaceae, Malpighiacea...
Article
Changes in the Code adopted by the Leningrad Congress necessitate six new combinations in Amphitecna.
Article
Most MadagascarBignoniaceae have indehiscent fruits and have been assigned to the tribeCrescentieae. As thus constituted, theCrescentieae are remarkably disjunct between Central America (and the West Indies) and Madagascar with a single monotypic genus also on continental Africa. This paper analyzes the evolutionary relationships of the MadagascarC...
Article
A lectotype is chosen for Bignonia crucigera L. which proves to be synonymous with Pithecoctenium echinatum (Jacq.) Baill. The new combination Pithecoctenium crucigerum (L.) A. Gentry is proposed for this wellknown neotropical species.
Article
Generic delimitations in the Bignoniaceae are discussed, a number of Central American genera are reduced to synonymy, and a new genusPseudocatalpa is proposed. Generic mergers includeLevya withCydista, Saldanhaea withCuspidaria, Doxantha withMacfadyena, Pseudocalymma withPachyptera, andPhaedranthus withDistictis. New combinations necessitated by th...

Citations

... O trabalho foi realizado no Laboratório de Genética de Abelhas do Grupo de Pesquisas, do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (LGA/GPA/INPA) (S 03° 05' 50,5''; W 59° 59' 06,2''), localizado em floresta secundária, com representantes de espécies vegetais de importância melífera e polinífera (Gentry 1978). O GPA possui um Trigonário (Figura 1), com 52 colmeias de Scaptotrigona xanthotricha Moure, 1950 (Figura 2) também conhecida como abelha-canudo, abelha torce-cabelo ou jandaíra boca-de-cera (Carvalho-Zilse et al. 2005;Bustamante et al. 2008;Barbosa-Costa et al. 2013). ...
... Uvi index is quantitatively used to examine relative significance of the each medicinal plant species based on their relative uses, as presented by Clark (1996) and Phillips et al. (1994) and this index values were calculated by using the formula: ...
... In 2019 alone, almost 2000 new species of plants were discovered according to the "State of the World's Plants and Fungi 2020" report, published by the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. These plants could be potential sources of new phytochemicals that can be used in medicine [7]. ...
... Los datos obtenidos en los registros ubicados por distrito se organizaron en cinco categorías de distribución (Tabla 1). Se calculó la riqueza en taxones por categoría de distribución, nivel jerárquico sistemático (familias (fam), géneros (gen) y taxones infragenéricos (taxa)) y centros evolutivos neotropicales identificados por Gentry (1982) que se han modificado para ajustarlos a Morrone (2001 ...
... Tropical forests contain many forms of plant growth. Trees account for only 25% of all tropical forest species (Gentry & Dodson, 1987;Wright, 2002), and lianas can account for up to 23% of the remaining species (Gentry & Dodson, 1987). Our approach does not take into account the species in the lower layers of the canopy. ...
... Cuatro especies fueron descritas antes de 1869 (no incluyendo Styloceras dombeyanum Baill. un nombre nudum), en 1981 y 1993 se agregaron dos especies (Gentry & Foster, 1981;Gentry & Aymard, 1993) y ahora se describe una especie adicional para el género. Las seis especies reconocidas hasta el presente, no incluyen S. macrostachyum Poepp. ...
... This relationship is further supported by various morphological features such as capsular fruits, and the flat, thin, and winged seeds (Henrickson, 1985;Manning, 2000). These two genera also share pollen grains in tetrads with sculpturing limited to coarsely reticulate areoles, a unique feature in the family (Gentry and Tomb, 1979). The close relationship between these taxa is further supported by their capacity to hybridize (Li et al., 2006;Rusanov, 1991). ...
... There are five major regions of distribution: Central America and western South America, the Guyana region, the lowlands of Amazonia, the Cerrados and Caatingas of Brazil and the Brazilian coastal region, including the Atlantic Forest. Brazil is the most important distribution center of the family (Gentry 1979; Barroso et al. 1991), comprising 416 species and 33 genera in three tribes (Bignonieae, Crescentieae and Tecomeae), which differ in habit and fruit morphology (Bureau & Schumann 1897;Gentry 1980;BGF 2018). ...
... The importance of soils for tree species richness in the Amazon is controversial. Some studies report that species richness was generally negatively cor-related with soil nutrient status, while others report a positive correlation (Faber-Langendoen and Gentry 1991;Phillips et al. 2003;Ruokolainen et al. 2007). In any case, tree species distributions are of ten associated with soil properties. ...
... The characters used by Gentry (1981) to distinguish Schefflera megacarpa from S. confusa do not appear to be consistent, as fruit measurements of S. megacarpa (15-18 3 12-15 mm) fall within the range for S. confusa (14-18 3 13-19 mm), and the number of leaflets is not distinct between these two species (Fiaschi et al., 2008b). Treelets 0.5-2.5 m tall; branchlets 6-10 mm diam., slightly to strongly striate longitudinally, light brown to grayish sericeous, sometimes glabrescent. ...