Alvin K. Klevorick's research while affiliated with Yale University and other places

Publications (8)

Article
The set of technological opportunities in a given industry is one of the fundamental determinants of technical advance in that line of business. We examine the concept of technological opportunity and discuss three categories of sources of those opportunities: advances in scientific understanding and technique, technological advances originating in...
Article
In this paper, we describe the results of an inquiry into the nature of appropriability conditions in over one hundred manufacturing industries, and we discuss how this information has been and might be used to cast light on important issues in the economics of innovation and public policy. Our data, derived from a survey of high-level R&D executiv...
Article
To have the incentive to undertake research and development, a firm must be able to appropriate returns sufficient to make the investment worthwhile. The benefits consumers derive from an innovation, however, are increased if competitors can imitate and improve on the innovation to ensure its availability on favorable terms. Patent law seeks to res...

Citations

... In this respect, managing openness, when it relates to disclosing knowledge assets, is all the more problematic. In effect, by exposing internal knowledge to the outside, firms face increasing risks of losing control over that knowledge, which may result in detrimental expropriation from competitors and thus value destruction (Bogers, 2011;Levin et al., 1987;Liebeskind, 1996). This apparent contradiction between capturing and destroying value has led to what OI scholars termed the paradox of openness (Laursen and Salter, 2014), inspired by Arrow's (1962) work: while firms open up their boundaries to create more value with external sources of innovation, they simultaneously face the risk of seeing their profit eroded by encouraging imitation from competitors. ...
... On the other hand, public disclosure does not always ensure ultimate diffusion of an invention on competitive terms" (LEVIN et al., 1987, p. 783-784). Levin et al. (1987) describe the outcomes of an inquiry into appropriability conditions in more than one hundred manufacturing industries, by emphasizing differences between process and product innovations. Similarly to others contributions by NW, the focus was on the asymmetries. ...
... Their survey findings indicate that, for most manufacturing firms, the most important product innovation (i.e., that new product accounting for the most revenue) accounted for 10% or less of their sales during 2009. Moreover, most innovations are imitated in less than three years (Levin et al., 1987), allowing little time for significant capacity expansion. ...
... Following Levin et al. (1984Levin et al. ( , 1987, appropriability (Appro) is defined as the extent to which the innovative outcomes can be appropriated by the innovators themselves, while technological opportunity denotes the availability of useful information for innovation. The variable for appropriability is calculated based on the survey's scores regarding the effectiveness of nine methods of appropriation (e.g., patents to prevent duplication or to secure royalties, secrecy, lead time). ...
... The DOIL survey employs a representative sample of the population of firms in the U.S. manufacturing sector, with 5175 respondents at the business unit level. Unlike several other innovation surveys (e.g., Cohen et al., 2000;Levin et al., 1987), the DOIL survey is not restricted to R&D performers. It includes innovators, imitators, and firms that do not innovate by asking whether the firms had introduced a new product that is new to the market or new to the firm and requests further information about their key innovations (Arora et al., 2016b). ...
... Technology opportunities enable for companies to cope with swift technological change, preempt emerging technologies, and derive sustainable growth in an uncertain business environment (Klevorick et al., 1995). There have been numerous technology opportunity discovery (TOD) activities to guide organizations toward identifying potential technology opportunities in a systematic manner. ...
... Furthermore, the importance of unpatented innovation has increased significantly since the 1980s and 1990s. (See the 1981-1983 survey of Levin et al. 1987and a 1994survey by Cohen et al. 2000 An important question is why do firms choose not to file for a patent? Survey respondents often cite the fact that their competitors could use the publicly disclosed information in patent applications to legally invent around the patent as an important reason to not file (Levin et al. 1987;Cohen et al. 2000). ...
... Finally, the third characteristic is 'appropriability'. This means that the owner of a resource shall be able to receive a return equal to the value created by that resource (Levin et al. 1987;Teece 1987). However, knowledge is a resource which is particularly subject to problems of appropriability, especially regarding tacit knowledge, which is not directly appropriable. ...