Allen H. Goldstein's research while affiliated with University of California, Berkeley and other places

Publications (374)

Article
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The hydroxyl radical (OH) is the dominant oxidant in the outdoor environment, controlling the lifetimes of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and contributing to the growth of secondary organic aerosols. Despite its importance outdoors, there have been relatively few measurements of the OH radical in indoor environments. During the House Observation...
Article
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Models were developed to treat Criegee chemistry and estimate gas-phase squalene ozonolysis products under different conditions. Relative humidity can significantly impact human exposure to these products.
Article
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Gas- and particle-phase molecular markers provide highly specific information about the sources and atmospheric processes that contribute to air pollution. In urban areas, major sources of pollution are changing as regulation selectively mitigates some pollution sources and climate change impacts the surrounding environment. In this study, a compre...
Article
The organic composition of coastal sea spray aerosol is important for both atmospheric chemistry and public health but remains poorly characterized. Coastal waters contain an organic material derived from both anthropogenic processes, such as wastewater discharge, and biological processes, including biological blooms. Here, we probe the chemical co...
Article
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Volatile methyl siloxanes (VMS) are ubiquitous in indoor environments due to their use in personal care products. This paper builds on previous work identifying sources of VMS by synthesizing time-resolved proton-transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer VMS concentration measurements from four multiweek indoor air campaigns to elucidate e...
Article
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Analytical capabilities in atmospheric chemistry provide new opportunities to investigate indoor air. HOMEChem was a chemically comprehensive indoor field campaign designed to investigate how common activities, such as cooking and cleaning, impacted indoor air in a test home. We combined gas-phase chemical data of all compounds, excluding those wit...
Preprint
Gas- and particle–phase molecular markers provide highly specific information about the sources and atmospheric processes that contribute to air pollution. In urban areas, major sources of pollution are changing as regulation selectively mitigates some pollution sources and climate change impacts the surrounding environment. In this study, a Compre...
Article
Full-text available
The size and frequency of wildfires in the western United States have been increasing, and this trend is projected to continue, with increasing adverse consequences for human health. Gas- and particle-phase organic compounds are the main components of wildfire emissions. Some of the directly emitted compounds are hazardous air pollutants, while oth...
Article
To elucidate the seawater biological and physicochemical factors driving differences in organic composition between supermicron and submicron sea spray aerosol (SSAsuper and SSAsub), carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) measurements were performed on size-segregated, nascent SSA collected during a phytoplankton bloom mesocosm experiment. The δ13C mea...
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The chemical composition of ambient organic aerosols plays a critical role in driving their climate and health-relevant properties and holds important clues to the sources and formation mechanisms of secondary aerosol material. In most ambient atmospheric environments, this composition remains incompletely characterized, with the number of identifi...
Article
Isocyanic acid (HNCO) and other nitrogen-containing volatile chemicals (organic isocyanates, hydrogen cyanide, nitriles, amines, amides) were measured during the House Observation of Microbial and Environmental Chemistry (HOMEChem) campaign. The indoor HNCO mean mixing ratio was 0.14 ± 0.30 ppb (range 0.012-6.1 ppb), higher than outdoor levels (mea...
Preprint
Full-text available
The size and frequency of wildfires in the western United States have been increasing and this trend is projected to continue, with increasing adverse consequences for human health. Gas- and particle-phase organic compounds are the main component of wildfire emissions. Some of the directly emitted compounds are hazardous air pollutants, while other...
Article
Full-text available
Ozone (O3), a potent greenhouse gas that is detrimental to human health, is typically found in elevated concentrations within biomass burning (BB) smoke plumes. The radical species OH, HO2, and RO2 (known collectively as ROx) have central roles in the formation of secondary pollutants including O3 but are poorly characterized for BB plumes. We pres...
Preprint
The chemical composition of ambient organic aerosols plays a critical role in driving their climate and health relevant properties and holds important clues to the sources and formation mechanisms of secondary aerosol material. In most ambient atmospheric environments, this composition remains incompletely characterized, with the number of identifi...
Article
Full-text available
The oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS; CH3SCH3), emitted from the surface ocean, contributes to the formation of Aitken mode particles and their growth to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) sizes in remote marine environments. It is not clear whether other less commonly measured marine-derived, sulfur-containing gases share similar dynamics to DMS an...
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The SeaSCAPE campaign replicated the marine atmosphere in the laboratory to investigate the links between biological activity in the ocean and the properties of primary sea spray aerosols, volatile organic compounds, and secondary marine aerosols.
Article
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Wildfires are an important atmospheric source of primary organic aerosol (POA) and precursors for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) at regional and global scales. However, there are large uncertainties surrounding the...
Article
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Reactive organic carbon (ROC) comprises a substantial fraction of the total atmospheric carbon budget. Emissions of ROC fuel atmospheric oxidation chemistry to produce secondary pollutants including ozone, carbon dioxide, and particulate matter. Compared to the outdoor atmosphere, the indoor organic carbon budget is comparatively understudied. We c...
Article
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Background Microbes can grow in indoor environments if moisture is available, and we need an improved understanding of how this growth contributes to emissions of microbial volatile organic compounds (mVOCs). The goal of this study was to measure how moisture levels, building material type, collection site, and microbial species composition impact...
Article
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Aerosols are a source of great uncertainty in radiative forcing predictions and have poorly understood health impacts. Most aerosol mass is formed in the atmosphere from reactive gas-phase organic precursors, forming secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) (effective saturation concentration, C*, of 10−1–103 µg m−3)...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ozone (O3), a potent greenhouse gas that is detrimental to human health, is typically found in elevated concentrations within biomass burning (BB) smoke plumes. The radical species OH, HO2, and RO2 (known collectively as ROx) have central roles in the formation of secondary pollutants including O3 but are poorly characterized for BB plumes. We pres...
Article
Significance Wildfires are an increasingly large source of particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) in the western United States. Previous characterizations of exposure to wildfire smoke particles were based mainly on outdoor concentrations of PM 2.5 . Since people mainly shelter indoors during smoke events, the infiltration of wildfire PM 2.5 into buildings d...
Preprint
Full-text available
The oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS; CH3SCH3), emitted from the surface ocean, contributes to the formation of Aitken mode particles and their growth to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) sizes in remote marine environments. It is not clear whether other, less commonly measured marine-derived, sulfur-containing gases share similar dynamics to DMS a...
Article
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released from building materials in the indoor, environment at different rates dependent upon relative humidity (RH) level. However, RH indoors commonly fluctuates, and the effects of fluctuating RH on VOC emissions, is unknown. The goal of this study was to characterize VOC emissions from carpet and, drywall u...
Preprint
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p>Wildfires have become the dominant source of particulate matter (PM<sub>2.5</sub>, < 2.5 µm diameter) leading to unhealthy air quality index occurrences in the western United States. Since people mainly shelter indoors during wildfire smoke events, the infiltration of wildfire PM<sub>2.5 </sub>into indoor environments is a key determinant of huma...
Preprint
p>Wildfires have become the dominant source of particulate matter (PM<sub>2.5</sub>, < 2.5 µm diameter) leading to unhealthy air quality index occurrences in the western United States. Since people mainly shelter indoors during wildfire smoke events, the infiltration of wildfire PM<sub>2.5 </sub>into indoor environments is a key determinant of huma...
Article
Quantifying speciated concentrations and emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is critical to understanding the processes that control indoor VOC dynamics, airborne chemistry, and human exposures. Here, we present source strength profiles from the HOMEChem study, quantifying speciated VOC emissions from scripted experiments (with multiple...
Preprint
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Marine aerosols strongly influence climate through their interactions with solar radiation and clouds. However, significant questions remain regarding the influences of biological activity and seawater chemistry on the flux, chemical composition, and climate-relevant properties of marine aerosols and gases. Wave channels, a traditional tool of phys...
Preprint
Marine aerosols strongly influence climate through their interactions with solar radiation and clouds. However, significant questions remain regarding the influences of biological activity and seawater chemistry on the flux, chemical composition, and climate-relevant properties of marine aerosols and gases. Wave channels, a traditional tool of phys...
Article
Full-text available
Snowmelt dynamics are a significant determinant of microbial metabolism in soil and regulate global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients by creating seasonal variations in soil redox and nutrient pools. With an increasing concern that climate change accelerates both snowmelt timing and rate, obtaining an accurate characterization of microb...
Preprint
p>Wildfires have become the dominant source of particulate matter (PM<sub>2.5</sub>, < 2.5 µm diameter) leading to unhealthy air quality index occurrences in the western United States. Since people mainly shelter indoors during wildfire smoke events, the infiltration of wildfire PM<sub>2.5 </sub>into indoor environments is a key determinant of huma...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aerosols are a source of great uncertainty in radiative forcing predictions and have poorly understood health impacts. Most aerosol mass is formed in the atmosphere from reactive gas phase organic precursors, forming secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) (effective saturation concentration, C*, of 10−1–103 μg m−3)...
Article
Full-text available
The Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) is used extensively to study the composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol composition during atmospheric field studies. During two recent studies of indoor environments, HOMEChem and ATHLETIC, the default ambient organic aerosol AMS quantification parameters resulted in a large discrepancy with co...
Article
As stricter regulations continue to reduce vehicular emissions, other emission sources such as evaporative emissions from road building and volatile consumer products have become more important in overall pollutant forming emissions in many urban areas. Emission regulations have historically targeted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to reduce ozon...
Article
Full-text available
Wildfires have become more common and intense in the western US over recent decades due to a combination of historical land management practices and warming climate. Emissions from large-scale fires now frequently affect populated regions such as the San Francisco Bay Area during the fall wildfire season, with documented impacts of the resulting pa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Snowmelt dynamics are a significant determinant of microbial metabolism in soil and regulate global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients by creating seasonal variations in soil redox and nutrient pools. With an increasing concern that climate change accelerates both snowmelt timing and rate, obtaining an accurate characterization of microb...
Article
Full-text available
p>The following authors were omitted from the original version of this Data Descriptor: Markus Reichstein and Nicolas Vuichard. Both contributed to the code development and N. Vuichard contributed to the processing of the ERA-Interim data downscaling. Furthermore, the contribution of the co-author Frank Tiedemann was re-evaluated relative to the co...
Article
Significance It has been suggested that indoor exposure to ozone oxidation products contributes materially to the apparent associations between outdoor ozone concentration and morbidity and mortality. Our current understanding of indoor ozone chemistry derives mainly from studies with test surfaces under controlled conditions. Little is known about...
Article
Squalene can react with indoor ozone to generate a series of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, some of which may be skin or respiratory irritants, causing adverse health effects. Better understanding of the ozone/squalene reaction and product transport characteristics is thus important. In this study, we developed a physical-chemical co...
Article
Despite the central role of reactive organic carbon (ROC) in the formation of secondary species that impact global air quality and climate, our assessment of ROC abundance and impacts is challenged by the diversity of species that contribute to it. We revisit measurements of ROC species made during two field campaigns in the United States: the 2013...
Preprint
Wildfires have become more common and intense in the western US over recent decades due to a combination of historical land management and warming climate. Emissions from large scale fires now frequently affect populated regions such as the San Francisco Bay Area during the fall wildfire season, with documented impacts of the resulting particulate...
Article
Bleach can oxidize volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) indoors. During the House Observations of Microbial and Environmental Chemistry (HOMEChem) campaign, we observed indoor terpene mixing ratios decrease during bleach cleaning periods, with simultaneous increases in oxidized VOC (OVOC) products. Coo...
Article
Reducing the amount of organic aerosol (OA) is crucial to mitigation of particulate pollution in China. We present time and air-origin dependent variations of OA markers and source contributions at a regionally urban background site in South China. The continental air contained primary OA markers indicative of source categories, such as levoglucosa...
Article
Molecular markers in ambient organic aerosols (OA) provide highly specific source information. Their traditional quantification is based on offline analysis of filter samples, and the coarse time resolution and labor-intensive nature hugely limit the utility of the tracer data. In this study, hourly organic molecular markers in fine particulate mat...
Article
Inhalation of particulate matter is associated with adverse health outcomes. The fluorescent portion of supermicron particulate matter has been used as a proxy for bioaerosols.The sources and emission rates of fluorescent particles in residential environments are not wellunderstood. Using an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS), emissions...
Article
Understanding the sources and composition of organic aerosol (OA) in indoor environments requires rapid measurements, since many emissions and processes have short timescales. However, real‐time molecular‐level OA measurements have not been reported indoors. Here we present quantitative measurements, at a time resolution of five seconds, of molecul...
Article
Field campaigns rarely measure individual polar organic compounds online, leaving unexplored their potential in tracking the formation dynamics of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In a three-week-long field campaign in urban Shanghai, we deployed a commercial Thermal desorption Aerosol Gas chromatograph system (TAG) that integrates sampling, in-sit...
Article
Full-text available
Atmospheric aerosols are a significant public health hazard and have substantial impacts on the climate. Secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) have been shown to phase separate into a highly viscous organic outer layer surrounding an aqueous core. This phase separation can decrease the partitioning of semi-volatile and low-volatile species to the organ...
Article
Full-text available
The FLUXNET2015 dataset provides ecosystem-scale data on CO2, water, and energy exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere, and other meteorological and biological measurements, from 212 sites around the globe (over 1500 site-years, up to and including year 2014). These sites, independently managed and operated, voluntarily contributed their...
Article
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It is important to improve our understanding of exposure to particulate matter (PM) in residences because of associated health risks. The HOMEChem campaign was conducted to investigate indoor chemistry in a manufactured test house during prescribed everyday activities, such as cooking, cleaning, and opening doors and windows. This paper focuses on...
Article
Measurements by semivolatile thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatography (SV-TAG) were used to investigate how semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) partition among indoor reservoirs in (1) a manufactured test house under controlled conditions (HOMEChem campaign) and (2) a single-family residence when vacant (H2 campaign). Data for phthalate die...
Article
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Anthropogenic emissions alter secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation chemistry from naturally emitted isoprene. We use correlations of tracers and tracer ratios to provide new perspectives on sulfate, NOx, and particle acidity influencing isoprene-derived SOA in two isoprene-rich forested environments representing clean to polluted conditions-we...
Article
Organic aerosol (OA) constitutes a significant fraction of atmospheric fine particle mass. However, the precursors and chemical processes responsible for a majority of OA are rarely conclusively identified. We use online observations of hundreds of simultaneously measured molecular components obtained from 15 laboratory OA formation experiments wit...
Article
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Iron is the most abundant transition element in airborne particulate matter (PM), primarily existing as Fe(II) or Fe(III). Generally, the fraction of water-soluble iron is greater in urban areas compared to areas dominated by crustal emissions. To better understand the origin of water-soluble iron in urban areas, tailpipe emission samples were coll...
Article
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Human health is affected by indoor air quality. One distinctive aspect of the indoor environment is its very large surface area that acts as a poorly characterized sink and source of gas-phase chemicals. In this work, air-surface interactions of 19 common indoor air contaminants with diverse properties and sources were monitored in a house using fa...
Article
Full-text available
We report elevated levels of gaseous inorganic chlorinated and nitrogenated compounds in indoor air while cleaning with a commercial bleach solution during the House Observations of Microbial and Environmental Chemistry (HOMEChem) field campaign in summer 2018. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), chlorine (Cl2), and nitryl chloride (ClNO2) reached part-per-b...
Poster
Biomass burning events influence photochemistry and ozone production due to substantial emissions of particulate matter, ROx (OH, HO2, and RO2) precursors, VOCs, and NOx. Dependent on these emissions are the key ozone precursor of peroxy radicals (HO2 and RO2). These peroxy radicals are essential in determining tropospheric ozone formation due to t...
Article
Previous work examining the condensed-phase products of squalene particle ozonolysis found that an increase in water vapor concentration led to lower concentrations of secondary ozonides, increased concentrations of carbonyls, and smaller particle diameter, suggesting that water changes the fate of the Criegee intermediate. To determine if this vol...
Preprint
Full-text available
Atmospheric aerosols are a significant public health hazard and have substantial impacts on the climate. Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) have been shown to phase separate into a highly viscous organic outer layer surrounding an aqueous core. This phase separation can decrease the partitioning of semi-volatile and low-volatile species to the organi...
Article
Full-text available
Iron is the most abundant transition element in airborne PM, primarily existing as Fe(II) or Fe(III). Generally, the fraction of water-soluble iron is greater in urban areas compared to areas dominated by crustal emissions. To better understand the origin of water-soluble iron in urban areas, tail-pipe emission samples were collected from 32 vehicl...
Article
Acid-driven multiphase chemistry of isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX), key isoprene oxidation products, with inorganic sulfate aerosol yields substantial amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) through the formation of organosulfur compounds. The extent and implications of inorganic-to-organic sulfate conversion, however, are unknown. In this article,...
Article
Wildland fires in the western United States are projected to increase in frequency, duration, and size. Characterized by widespread and diverse conifer forests, burning within this region may lead to significant terpenoid emissions. Terpenoids constitute a major class of highly reactive secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors, with significant s...
Article
Although ammonia (NH3) is usually found at outdoor concentrations of 1-5 ppb, indoor ammonia concentrations can be much higher. Indoor ammonia is strongly emitted from cleaning products, tobacco smoke, building materials, and humans. Because of ammonia’s high reactivity, solubility in water, and tendency to sorb to a variety of surfaces, it is diff...
Article
Volatile organic chemicals are produced from reactions of ozone with squalene in human skin oil. Both primary and secondary reaction products, i.e., 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (6-MHO) and 4-oxopentanal (4-OPA), have been reported in indoor occupied spaces. However, the abundance of these products indoors is a function of many variables including the a...
Article
Full-text available
Urbanization and deforestation have important impacts on atmospheric particulate matter (PM) over Amazonia. This study presents observations and analysis of PM1 concentration, composition, and optical properties in central Amazonia during the dry season, focusing on the anthropogenic impacts. The primary study site was located 70 km downwind of Man...