Allan Paivio's research while affiliated with The University of Western Ontario and other places

Publications (137)

Article
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In the education of deaf learners, from primary school to postsecondary settings, it frequently is suggested that deaf students are visual learners. That assumption appears to be based on the visual nature of signed languages—used by some but not all deaf individuals—and the fact that with greater hearing losses, deaf students will rely relatively...
Article
The distinction between verbal and nonverbal cognitive abilities has been a defining feature of psychometric theories of intelligence for the past century. Despite their popularity, however, these theories have not included functional connections between verbal and nonverbal systems that are necessary if they are to explain performance in intellect...
Article
Paired-associate learning of lists composed of “specific” and “general” nouns as both stimuli and responses was facilitated by stimulus but not response specificity. Specific nouns were rated superior to general nouns in their capacity to evoke sensory images, and stimulus imagery correlated positively with number of associates correctly recalled....
Article
This book updates the Dual Coding Theory of mind (DCT), a theory of modern human cognition consisting of separate but interconnected nonverbal and verbal systems. Allan Paivio, a leading scholar in cognitive psychology, presents this masterwork as new findings in psychological research on memory, thought, language, and other core areas have flouris...
Article
This chapter updates the dual coding theory (DCT) of the memory systems of bilingual (and multilingual) individuals. DCT is a particular variant of multiple storage views of memory that contrast with common coding (single store) views. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2014. All rights are reserved.
Article
Concrete and abstract nouns differing in rated capacity to evoke imagery served as the common elements in a stimulus equivalence mediation paradigm. The mediation test items were nonsense syllables. Significant mediation effects were obtained in 2 experiments o Relative to control Ss, the concrete mediation group was superior to the abstract in rat...
Article
A previous study showed that pupillary dilation is associated with attempts to generate mental images to stimulus words, image arousal being indicated by a key press. The present study revealed similar but attenuated dilation effects when the key press response was eliminated, The difference can be interpreted in terms of motivational effects of ta...
Article
Two experiments examined larger and smaller judgments of animal and object word pairs. In the pilot experiment, we used the standard tachistoscopic paradigm; in the second experiment, we employed a modified pencil-and-paper version. Congruity effects (i.e., comparative × relative magnitude interactions) were consistently larger with animal than wit...
Article
Pupillary responses (PR) and galvanic skin responses (GSR) were continuously monitored while Ss attempted to generate images suggested by both concrete and abstract words. Ss were required to press a key when an image occurred or at the end of the “image” period if they were unable to generate an image. The results showed a significant difference b...
Article
Word imagery (I), frequency (F), and meaningfulness (m) were independently varied in different lists, and the effect of each investigated in the Brown-Peterson STM paradigm. Consistent with previous findings, overall correct recall was much better for high-I words (66%) than for low-I words (39%). Conversely, low-F words were recalled significantly...
Article
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This study examined the nature of bilinguals’ conceptual representations and the links from these representations to words in L1 and L2. Specifically, we tested an assumption of the Bilingual Dual Coding Theory that conceptual representations include image representations, and that learning two languages in separate contexts can result in differenc...
Article
Noun imagery (I) and meaningfulness (m) were varied over an equivalent range in different paired-associate (PA) lists. In each list, one variable was systematically varied on stimulus and response sides within each of three different levels of the other variable. The results showed highly significant positive effects of I, more so on the stimulus t...
Article
Kousta, Vigliocco, Del Campo, Vinson, and Andrews (2011) questioned the adequacy of dual coding theory and the context availability model as explanations of representational and processing differences between concrete and abstract words. They proposed an alternative approach that focuses on the role of emotional content in the processing of abstrac...
Article
Relatively small satiation effects were found in a study of the effects of instructional variables on semantic satiation. The largest satiation effects were produced when Ss were instructed to consider word meanings during repetition of words, and in addition rated words on semantic differential scales on which the mid-point was defined as indicati...
Article
This investigation of the relationship between occipital EEG and type of imagery differed from most previous studies in that objective performance and rating measures were used to assess individual differences in visual imagery ability independently of performance on tasks during EEG recording, and in its use of a double-blind procedure. Significan...
Article
SS WHO DIFFERED IN IMAGERY ABILITY ACCORDING TO SCORES ON A TEST BATTERY WERE ASKED TO GENERATE MENTAL IMAGES SUGGESTED BY CONCRETE AND ABSTRACT STIMULUS WORDS. PUPILLARY REACTIONS WERE CONTINUOUSLY PHOTOGRAPHED DURING THE TASK. THE RESULTS SHOWED NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECTS ATTRIBUTABLE TO IMAGERY ABILITY. IMAGING TO WORDS WAS ASSOCIATED WITH DILATION...
Article
Findings from two studies demonstrate that a S’s pupils dilate when he attempts to generate mental images to words. Dilation, which may reflect the cognitive difficulty of the imagery task, was greater to abstract than to concrete words, but did not vary with word pleasantness-unpleasantness.
Article
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Article
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We examined ERP responses during the generation of word associates or mental images in response to concrete and abstract concepts. Of interest were the predictions of dual coding theory (DCT), which proposes that processing lexical concepts depends on functionally independent but interconnected verbal and nonverbal systems. ERP responses were time-...
Article
Male and female subjects who differed on measures of imagery ability were tested for incidental recall in two experiments involving pictures and words as stimuli. In one experiment, high-imagery males surpassed their low-imagery counterparts in intentional free recall of words, but the reverse relation occurred with females. No relation was obtaine...
Article
Elman (2009) proposed that the traditional role of the mental lexicon in language processing can largely be replaced by a theoretical model of schematic event knowledge founded on dynamic context-dependent variables. We evaluate Elman's approach and propose an alternative view, based on dual coding theory and evidence that modality-specific cogniti...
Article
The dual coding theoretical (DCT) approach to the mental lexicon differs radically from standard approaches to the concept in linguistics and psychology. The differences are related to a long-standing dispute concerning the nature of the mental representations that mediate perception, comprehension, and performance in cognitive tasks. The issue con...
Article
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Despite nearly 40 years of scientific theorizing about reading, the field remains frag-mented with little progress toward unification. In this article, we (a) emphasize the privileged position of unified theories in all science, (b) compare the growth of theory in cognitive science and reading, (c) identify the phenomenal domain of a unified sci-en...
Article
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The Paivio, Yuille, and Madigan (1968) norms for 925 nouns were extended in two ways. The first extension involved the collecting of a much more extensive and diverse set of properties from original ratings and other sources. Factor analysis of 32 properties identified 9 orthogonal factors and demonstrated both the redundancy among various measures...
Book
Imagery and Text, Second Edition extends the first edition's unified theory of cognition in literacy from the perspective of Dual Coding Theory (DCT), one of the most influential and empirically sound theories of cognition ever developed. This theory provides a comprehensive, systematic account of all major aspects of literacy including decoding, c...
Article
Extending previous research on the problem, we studied the effects of concreteness and relatedness of adjective-noun pairs on free recall, cued recall, and memory integration. Two experiments varied the attributes in paired associates lists or sentences. Consistent with predictions from dual coding theory and prior results with noun-noun pairs, bot...
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In 2 experiments, undergraduates composed written definitions of concrete and abstract nouns that were matched for frequency of usage and meaningfulness. Across both experiments, definitions of concrete words exhibited higher ratings for quality, greater length in words, shorter latencies, and more self-reports of an imagery strategy. Definitions f...
Article
A substantial research literature documents the effects of diverse item attributes, task conditions, and participant characteristics on the case of picture naming. The authors review what the research has revealed about 3 generally accepted stages of naming a pictured object: object identification, name activation, and response generation. They als...
Article
Three experiments examined the mnemonic independence of auditory and visual nonverbal stimuli in free recall. Stimulus lists consisted of (1) pictures, (2) the corresponding environmental sounds, or (3) picture-sound pairs. In Experiment 1, free recall was tested under three learning conditions: standard intentional, intentional with a rehearsal-in...
Article
Two experiments with 194 university students studied the effects of concreteness and relatedness of noun pairs on free recall, cued recall, and memory integration. Dual-coding theory (DCT) implies that concreteness and relatedness should have independent and additive effects on memory performance, whereas relational-distinctiveness processing theor...
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32 factual statements were processed by 140 6th and 7th graders. Half of the statements were consistent with the Ss' prior knowledge, whereas the remaining facts were inconsistent with the Ss' prior knowledge. Half of the Ss were instructed to read the sentences for understanding (reading controls). The remaining Ss were instructed to use their pri...
Chapter
Metaphor and Thought, first published in 1979, reflects the surge of interest in and research into the nature and function of metaphor in language and thought. In this revised and expanded second edition, the editor has invited the contributors to update their original essays to reflect any changes in their thinking. Reorganised to accommodate the...
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For more than a decade, reading research has been influenced by schema theory, which hypothesizes the existence of abstract structures for the representation of knowledge in memory (schemata). This article evaluates schema theory on a variety of grounds and presents dual coding theory as a theoretical alternative. It is argued that schema theory is...
Article
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Dual coding theory (DCT) explains human behavior and experience in terms of dynamic associative processes that operate on a rich network of modality-specific verbal and nonverbal (or imagery) representations. We first describe the underlying premises of the theory and then show how the basic DCT mechanisms can be used to model diverse educational p...
Article
Reviews literature on the dual coding theory (DCT) of memory and cognition, beginning with the origin and development of DCT from 1963 to 1986. General and specific criticisms of DCT and research findings are also addressed, focusing on alternative views that emphasize abstract propositional representations as the basis of cognition. The review dea...
Chapter
The distinction between static and dynamic imagery is familiar to us all at the commonsense level in so far as we are able to imagine not only stationary objects but also action scenes in which objects are in motion or in the process of being rotated or otherwise transformed. This chapter examines the distinction and its implications at several lev...
Book
This work presents a systematic analysis of the psychological phenomena associated with the concept of mental representations - also referred to as cognitive or internal representations. A major restatement of a theory the author of this book first developed in his 1971 book (Imagery and Verbal Processes), this book covers phenomena from the earlie...
Article
Studied the effects of the initial phoneme (either consonant or vowel) of inanimate nouns, and assessed the predictive value of noun endings relative to gender classes on the speed and accuracy of grammatical gender identification. The effect of category labels used to express choice of gender class on gender identification was also examined. Human...
Article
Conducted 2 experiments to study the relative importance of visuospatial (VSAs) and verbal referential abilities (VRAs) to 184 English-speaking children's (aged 4 yrs 11 mo to 8 yrs) crossmodal performance under imagery, naming, and control instructions. Using the Minnesota Paper Form(s) Board Test Revised, imagery instructions induced Ss to implem...
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To shed light on the referential processes that underlie mental translation between representations of objects and words, we studied the reciprocity and determinants of naming and imaging reaction times (RT). Ninety-six subjects pressed a key when they had covertly named 248 pictures or imaged to their names. Mean naming and imagery RTs for each it...
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This article presents an empirical, psychological approach to the distinction between observational and theoretical terms, a persistent and unresolved issue in the study of science. Using relevant theory and evidence from cognitive psychology, we show that the observational–theoretical distinction parallels the concrete–abstract distinction in natu...
Article
Studied the effects of the frequency of use of inanimate nouns and the predictive value of noun endings relative to gender classes on the speed and accuracy of grammatical gender identification. The effects of category labels used to express choice of gender class, and the role of lexical and postlexical processes in identification of noun gender w...
Article
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Norms on 464 metaphors are presented for 10 dimensions representing ratings of comprehensibility, some perceived metaphoric qualities, imagery values, familiarity, and tenor-vehicle relatedness. The items were either literary metaphors selected from works of poetry (N = 204) or nonliterary metaphors generated by the experimenters (N = 260). Analyse...
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Day and Bellezza (1983) rejected a dual coding imagery explanation for the superior recall of concrete words because unrelated concrete pairs were rated lower in composite imagery but were still remembered better than related abstract pairs. We show that dual coding theory explains their results and our new findings using the same paradigm. In Expe...
Article
Rabinowitz and Mandler (1983) found that information organized schematically is better recalled than the same information organized categorically. This was taken as evidence that interitem connections are richer in a schema than in a category. The present experiment replicated this finding and revealed a confound in Rabinowitz and Mandler's studies...
Article
Rabinowitz and Mandler (1983) found that information organized schematically is better recalled than the same information organized categorically. This was taken as evidence that interitem connections are richer in a schema than in a category. The present experiment replicated this finding and revealed a confound in Rabinowitz and Mandler's studies...
Article
A bilingual version of dual-coding theory was tested with French-English bilinguals who free recalled lists of concrete and abstract words repeated at different interitem lags. Repetitions involved the same words, translation equivalents, or same-language synonyms. The results extended previous findings and generally supported predictions from dual...
Chapter
Modern research has generated much positive information on the structure and functions of imagery. Unexpectedly, it has also exposed methodological and conceptual obstacles that impede our progress toward a deeper scientific understanding of imagery and are challenging problems in their own right. An overriding methodological problem is the relativ...
Chapter
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Dual coding theory emerged several decades ago when a systematic research program was undertaken to examine the role of imagery in human cognition and, if warranted, to restore imagery to its “rightful place” alongside the language processes that then dominated the interests of cognitive psychologists. Early research efforts at the University of We...
Article
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A sample of 204 poetic metaphors was rated along 10 scales by 300 participants (30 different people for each of the scales). The scales were identical to ones previously used in a study involving ratings of artificially constructed metaphors, and were chosen on the basis of their relevance to current models of metaphor processing. Three major findi...
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Two rating studies examined several dimensions of metaphorical sentences. A pool of 260 metaphors was constructed, all in the form (noun phrase) is/are (noun phrase). In Study 1 all of the items, and in Study 2, 98 of the items were evaluated on ten scales presumed to be important to the comprehension or interpretation of metaphors: semantic relate...
Chapter
One dictionary defines strategy as “the skillful planning and management of anything”; another as “the use of artifice or finesse in carrying out a project.” Such definitions provide a general orientation for the topic of this chapter, although they encompass rather more than is useful for our purposes. Closer to home is Levin’s use of the term in...
Article
Reviews literature on brain mechanisms underlying episodic and semantic memory functions of nonverbal imagery. Brain functions are inferred from effects of lateralized presentation of different materials or tasks to one or the other cerebral hemisphere of normal Ss and cerebral commissurotomy patients as well as from performance deficits resulting...
Article
Reviews methods, results, and various issues associated with the use of mnemonic techniques in 2nd-language learning. The historical background of mnemonic techniques in 2nd-language learning is reviewed. Two specific imagery-based mnemonics, the keyword and the hook techniques are described with a review of empirical evidence for their effectivene...
Article
Two experiments compared the effects of verbal—nonverbal and bilingual dual coding on recall. Experiment 1 required French—English bilinguals to code a mixed list of pictures, French words, and English words by writing the English names of the pictures, translating the French words, and copying the English words. The participants were then asked un...
Article
The effects of congruity between comparatives and the relative magnitudes of to-be-compared stimuli were investigated in six perceptual comparison experiments. Experiments 1-5 failed to obtain congruity effects in purely perceptual tasks even when subjects had extensive practice with a relatively small stimulus set. Experiment 6 obtained a congruit...
Article
Symbolic comparisons of object brightness and color were investigated in two experiments using words and outline drawings as stimuli. Both experiments yielded orderly symbolic distance effects. Contrary to prediction, no reliable picture advantages emerged. For color comparison, individual differences in word fluency and color memory predicted deci...
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Presents a bilingual version of a dual coding model of language and cognition in which functional relations are specified between the verbal symbolic systems that underlie the bilingual's 2 languages and a 3rd (image) system specialized for processing information about nonverbal objects and events. The 3 systems are assumed to be capable of functio...
Article
Mental images are conscious representations of our knowledge of the world. Like audiovisual aids in instructional programs, they can be intentionally and systematically used as the informational base for cognitive operations and as an aid to new learning. They permit one to make judgments, computations, and inferences that depend upon world knowled...
Article
Symbolic comparisons of animal intelligence and pleasantness were investigated in five experiments using words and pictures as stimuli. Symbolic distance effects occurred in all experiments. Picture-word effects depended on the experimental design. Mean intelligence comparison reaction time (RT) did not differ for pictures and words when the pairs...
Article
Lexical marking and semantic congruity effects were investigated in four symbolic size comparison experiments. Predictions followed from an expectancy hypothesis suggested by results of recent comparative judgment studies. According to the present position, lexical marking and semantic congruity should be mutually exclusive effects in such tasks, a...
Article
This study investigated symbolic comparison of color similarity using a triplet paradigm. Results showed that the time to choose which of two color samples is more similar to a color name was a function of several measures of distance between the samples relative to the focal color for the category name. Since colors appear to be represented in mem...
Article
24 university students with some background in French as a 2nd language used an imagery-based hook mnemonic and rote rehearsal to learn sets of French words. The hook technique involved associating the new items with an overlearned series of French stimulus words and images, which could be retrieved during recall using a number code. The rote condi...
Article
Adult subjects in two experiments were presented pairs of stimuli that differed in varying degree on an abstract semantic attribute, and were required to choose the one with the higher value on the given dimension. Subjects in Experiment 1 chose the more pleasant member of a pair of pictures, concrete nouns, or abstract nouns. Those in Experiment 2...
Article
Single dichotic word pairs were presented for immediate identification. Recognition probability was greater and response latencies shorter for high- than for low-frequency words. Both recognition measures were also affected by the frequency of the word accompanying the target word, performance being facilitated by a high-frequency partner and somet...
Article
Conducted 3 experiments with a total of 280 undergraduates in which content word constituents were reassigned arbitrarily to different sentences in lists of simple sentences. Original and substituted sentences were rated for imagery, comprehensibility, and sensibleness and, in Exps II and III, were tested also for incidental and intentional recall....
Article
24 undergraduates rated a set of concrete and abstract sentences on comprehensibility. They were then given an unexpected memory test, involving recognition confidence ratings of a set of sentences (which included the same ones they had originally rated on comprehensibility), synonyms of those sentences, and new unrelated distractors. With comprehe...
Article
Three experiments investigated whether abstract as well as concrete sentences can be processed in an integrated or holistic manner. In the first two studies, subjects learned a list of concrete or abstract sentences and then were given a cued-recall task in which cues were words which were not explicitly stated but were judged to represent particul...
Article
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The experiment was designed to test differential predictions derived from dual-coding and depth-of-processing hypotheses. Subjects under incidental memory instructions free recalled a list of 36 test events, each presented twice. Within the list, an equal number of events were assigned to structural, phonemic, and semantic processing conditions. Se...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the problem of memory coding, for which dual-coding approach is presented in which the major theoretical distinction is between verbal and nonverbal memory systems. The theory assumes that the two memory systems are functionally independent in a strong sense. This assumption has various empirical implications that are review...
Article
Discusses the resurgence of interest in the concept of mentalism which began in North American psychology during the 1960's. Neomentalism is defined as the objective study of the structure, functions, and development of mental representations. It differs from old introspective mentalism in that it relies on objective, behavioral methods. It differs...
Article
Four experiments tested a theory of memory and cognition which assumes that verbal and nonverbal information are processed in functionally distinct LTM systems. Subjects presented with pairs of pictures or printed names of animals and objects differing in rated real-life size were instructed to choose the conceptually larger member of each pair, th...
Article
Pictures and sounds of familiar objects and their visual and auditory names were compared in free and serial recall tasks. The results of two experiments showed, most notably, that type of task interacted significantly with symbolic (verbal-nonverbal) and sensory (visual-auditory) modalities. Nonverbal items were remembered relatively better in fre...
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Argues that imagery involves synchronously organized informational structures that contribute to the richness of content, flexibility, and speed of thinking. By contrast, verbal processes are characterized by a higher degree of sequential constraint, which limits memory content and flexibility but contributes logical direction to thinking. Specific...
Article
The role of imagery in verbal concept identification was assessed by having subjects rate concept names along an imagery dimension, by presenting instances under imagery-inducing conditions, and by having subjects attain concepts rated as either high or low in imagery. Evidence consistent with the view that some concepts can be coded as images was...
Article
In two experiments, deaf and hearing subjects learned paired associate lists in which rated visual imagery and signability (a measure of the ease with which a word can be represented as a gestural sign) were orthogonally varied. Visual presentation of three alternating study-recall trials resulted in significant positive effects of imagery for both...
Article
Lists containing repeated pictures (PP), repeated words (WW), pictures repeated as words or vice versa (PW), and unrepeated items were recalled following incidental, intentional control, or standard free recall instructions. Theoretical interest centered on the effects of spacing of repetitions and the degree to which the repeated events are additi...
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Ss in three experiments searched through an array of pictures or words for a target item that had been presented as a picture or a word. In Experiments I and II, the pictures were line drawings of familiar objects and the words were their printed labels; in Experiment III, the stimuli were photographs of the faces of famous people and their corresp...
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Reports that estimates of decay time for nonverbal short-term visual memory varied from less than 3 sec to beyond 30 sec in a same-different matching task with 10 male right-handed undergraduates, depending on the physical similarity between target and comparison stimuli. The more dissimilar the stimuli, the higher the memory score at all delays an...
Article
Free verbal recall is generally higher for items presented as pictures than for items presented as words. Possible interpretations of this effect include differential verbal elaboration, superiority of nonverbal imagery as a memory code, and dual encoding favoring pictures. A series of experiments investigated the relative contributions of imaginal...
Article
Investigated verbal discrimination learning (VDL) as a function of the imagery (I) value of items and 3 procedural variables. 96 undergraduates received 6 trials on a 16-pair mixed list of high-I and low-I words presented under (a) study-test or anticipation conditions, (b) pronunciation or no pronunciation of both pair members, and (c) constant or...
Article
Verbal discrimination (VDL) and incidental associative learning were investigated as a function of instructions to (a) image to the correct word of each pair (Single Image), (b) image to both words of a pair and “tag” the image to the correct word as larger (Compound Image), and (c) repeat the correct word aloud several times (Repetition). The Sing...
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The relation between imagery and comprehension of sentences was investigated in two experiments using reaction time measures. Consistent with predictions from a two-process approach to meaning and mediation, one experiment showed that Ss took longer to generate images to abstract than to concrete sentences, but comprehension latencies did not diffe...
Article
Ss differing in imagery ability were required to identify letters, pictures, and geometric forms flashed one at a time to either the left or the right visual field. The three types of items were presented in homogeneous blocks, with different Ss receiving letters, pictures, or forms as their first list of items. Overall, recognition scores were hig...
Article
Paired-associate lists consisting of nouns rated as high or low in auditory and visual imagery were learned by blind and sighted subjects. The associative recall performance of blind subjects was positively affected by auditory but not visual word imagery, whereas the reverse occurred for sighted subjects. These results suggest that learning was me...
Article
Administered 4 study-test trials to 80 17-38 yr. Old students on a verbal discrimination learning (vdl) task where the items varied in imagery (i) value. Ss were then tested for incidental associative learning. The 32-pair mixed list consisted of 8 pairs of high-i and 8 pairs of low-i nouns, and 16 pairs in which 1 item was high-i and the other low...
Article
Systematically varied noun imagery-concreteness and interitem associative overlap within and between noun triads in a L. R. Peterson and M. J. Peterson (see record 1960-05499-001) short-term memory (STM) paradigm. 40 extension school students supplied the free association norms, and 72 summer school students served in the experiment. Although high...
Article
Sequentially presented pictures, concrete nouns, or abstract nouns to 48 undergraduates at rates of 5.3 or 2 items/sec, the faster rate being designed to prevent implicit labeling of pictures during input while permitting them to be recognized and words to be read. Sequential memory was tested by means of a serial reconstruction task. Results show...
Article
Varied frequency (F) and imagery (I) values of words factorially over 2 levels in 4 verbal discrimination learning experiments with a total of 56 undergraduates. High-I pairs were significantly easier than Low-I pairs under both mixed- and unmixed-list conditions, with the effect being restricted to High-F words. Variation in F produced a significa...
Article
Examines RTs of Ss high or low in imagery ability under instructions to elicit a verbal associate or arouse an image to concrete and abstract noun stimuli. 16 high and 14 low imagers were selected from a sample of 77 volunteer undergraduates. Latencies were significantly shorter for high than low imagers, for concrete than abstract words, and for v...
Article
Rated imagery and deep-structure complexity were compared as predictors of the free recall of English nominalizations. Three experiments, involving different lists, showed consistent positive effects of imagery but no effect of deep-structure complexity. Interactions of the two variables were inconsistent across experiments. A correlational analysi...
Article
Used a verbal discrimination (VD) study-test procedure to compare discrimination learning of 14 pairs of pictures, concrete nouns, and abstract nouns in 60 14-20 yr. olds. Pictures were significantly easier to discriminate than concrete nouns, which in turn produced significantly fewer errors than abstract noun pairs. Results are attributed to the...
Article
Investigates the effects of rated imagery (I) and Thorndike-Lorge frequency (F) of nouns in paired-associate (PA) and free-recall (FR) learning. In the PA task, I and F were factorially varied on the stimulus and response sides of 16-pair mixed lists. Ss (77 male high school graduates) had 4 PA study and recall trials with each of 2 such lists. In...

Citations

... One great resource human writers cherish is the ability of imagination, with which they render mental images about an actual or vicarious experience and link knowledge that would later make the writing more concrete, sensible, and intriguing. Cognitive studies show that visual imagery improves comprehension during language processing (Gambrell and Bales, 1986;Joffe et al., 2007;Sadoski and Paivio, 2013), and that mental imagery facilitates humans' written language expression at young ages (Gambrell and Koskinen, 2002). ...
... Since the beginning of figurative language research, many psycholinguistic studies (e.g., Inhoff et al., 1984;Gibbs, 1986Gibbs, , 1990Keysar, 1989;Cronk et al., 1993;Onishi and Murphy, 1993;Schraw, 1995) have compared the temporal sequences involved in accessing the literal and figurative meanings of non-idiomatic (He is an icebox) and idiomatic metaphor (He blew his stack). Based on these comparisons, four models of figurative language processing have been proposed: the literal first model (Searle, 1979;Grice, 1989), the figurative first model (Gibbs, 1980;Estill and Kemper, 1982;Gibbs and Gonzales, 1985), the parallel model (Paivio, 1979;Glucksberg, 1991), and the underspecification model (Frisson andPickering, 1999, 2001). The literal first model is also known as the standard pragmatic view (Grice, 1975;Searle, 1979) or the indirect access model (Lowder and Gordon, 2013). ...
... Cette généralisation soulève néanmoins la question de l'influence de la modalité d'encodage des informations lors de la compréhension en lecture des narrations visuelles. En effet, selon la théorie du double L'année psychologique/Topics in Cognitive Psychology, 2022, 122, 643-686 codage, il existerait deux voies distinctes et très différentes dans le cerveau pour le traitement visuel et le traitement verbal (Sadoski & Paivio, 2004). Ces deux voies s'associeraient et participeraient ainsi à la construction d'un seul et même modèle mental lors de la compréhension en lecture, contenant à la fois des informations issues du texte mais aussi des images (Schüler, Arndt, & Scheiter, 2015). ...
... Indeed, Marschark and Hauser (2012) recommended offering a rich visual-language environment for students with hearing loss to facilitate their academic skills. However, Marschark et al. (2015Marschark et al. ( , 2017 discovered that, as with the general academic population, students with hearing loss are not necessarily primarily visual learners (35.2% had difficulty with visual processing skills). Few studies have specifically measured general processing speed among students with hearing loss, but the studies available have shown that students with hearwww.internationalsped.com ...
... The authors (Sadoski and Paivio, 2013) of this concept also add that the structure and processing potential of dual coding is modified by experiencespecifically, it is thanks to repeated encounters between imagens and logogens that the incoming stimuli are clearly written to memoryotherwise they fade and may vanish as a result. Another example of how these systems operate is the fact that it is possible to compensate low activity of one system by the other onespecifically, if an individual cannot retrieve information from one system, the other one can deliver it (Paivio and Clark, 1986;Paivio and Walsh, 1993). This is thanks to so-called memory pegs, which are an essential part of the Dual Coding Theory, and can be in the form of images, phrases and words, or even individual sentences (e.g., Paivio, 1965;Dilley and Paivio, 1968;Begg, 1972;Sadoski, 1985). ...
... The mnemonic technique under investigation in this study is called keyword method for which we can find different definitions in the literature (Holden, 1999;Hustiljn, 1997;Paivio, 1983;Thompson, 1987) the most comprehensive of which is the definition provided by Hulstijn (1997): ...
... As regards the meaning-making and the interpretation of idioms, Conceptual Metaphor Theory pioneered by shall serve as a principal methodological framework. The motivational aspect of idioms shall be considered in the light of Conceptual Metaphor Theory Kövecses 2006 (Paivio 2014), and Applied Linguistics Theory (Cieślicka 2011;Mcpherron and Randolph 2014;Wood 2015) in an attempt to outline the perspectives for future research of idioms within cognitive linguistic framework. ...
... imagery of a static posture vs. imagery of a temporally extended movement such as walking or jumping). Paivio and Clark (1991) early used this terminology, even though they referred primarily to visual imagery. In the present review, dMI rather referred to motor imagery accompanied by some form of overt body positioning or of bodily movement without entirely performing it, namely an enriched or bodily enhanced motor imagery. ...
... Selon la théorie de l'encodage double (Clark & Paivio, 1987), les représentations verbales et non verbales sont connectées en mémoire à long terme. Ainsi, l'activation d'une forme engendre l'activation de l'autre forme. ...
... Some researchers have proposed that language may play an important role in the generation of complex perceptual representations (e.g. Borghi & Binkofski, 2014;Carruthers, 1996;Gomila, Travieso, & Lobo, 2012;Lupyan & Bergen, 2016;Paivio, 1986;2007;Spelke, 2003;Zwaan & Madden, 2005). For example, Zwaan and Madden (2005) view linguistic sequences as a series of cues that can activate and combine previously stored perceptual features. ...