Alfred DeMaris's research while affiliated with Bowling Green State University and other places

Publications (115)

Article
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We conducted a survey of U.S. respondents using Survey Monkey in July of 2021. Our primary interest was in predicting interest in owning a sex doll. The sample consisted of 569 respondents, roughly split between men and women. The response variable was respondents’ perceived chances of purchasing a sex doll in the future, on a scale from 0 to 100%....
Article
Although several studies have documented a distinct marriage advantage in well-being, it is still unclear what it is about marriage that renders this benefit. We hypothesize that it is due to factors theorized to accrue to matrimony, such as elevated financial status and specific social psychological supports. We examine the trajectory of subjectiv...
Article
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We formulate a MIDUS longitudinal data-based multi-population LISREL model to gauge variation among Black and White Americans in the reciprocal relationship across time between perceived major and everyday discrimination, and psychological distress. Two hypotheses building on prior theory and empirical findings are generated: reciprocity between pe...
Article
Dyadic discussions that directly tap into spouses' views on spirituality and religiousness (S/R) represent an understudied but important facet of marital functioning that may be tied, for better or worse, to marital conflict and resolution processes. This study used longitudinal data gathered from 164 married couples across the transition to parent...
Article
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This study examined the extent to which 164 married heterosexuals’ reports of the sanctification of marriage and spiritual intimacy during pregnancy predicted the trajectory of the couples’ observed intimacy skills during late pregnancy and when their first child was 3, 6, and 12 months old. At each time point, couples were videotaped in their home...
Article
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Strain theory has long argued that many forms of strain, especially pertaining to economic disadvantage, can lead to feelings of anger and frustration. Research has shown that economic disadvantage is associated with a variety of negative outcomes, including violence. While strain theory has made the assumption that social control serves to inhibit...
Article
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Prior empirical research on intimate partner violence (IPV) in adolescence and young adulthood often focuses on exposure to violence in the family-of-origin using retrospective and cross-sectional data. Yet individuals’ families matter beyond simply the presence or absence of abuse, and these effects may vary across time. To address these issues, t...
Article
Research suggests violence in the family-of-origin is a consistent predictor of later intimate partner violence (IPV). However, prior empirical studies have also demonstrated that exposure to violence does not lead deterministically to violent behaviors in young adulthood. Given that family context entails more than simply the presence or absence o...
Article
I investigate whether the marriage advantage in subjective well-being is a true protective effect vs. being attributable to self-selection into (or out of) marriage based on pre-existing mental health. I utilize 1,240 respondents from the GSS panel, a three-wave longitudinal survey collected from 2010–2014. I employ a pseudotreatment approach to in...
Article
This study investigates a potential causal effect of mothers' perceptions of the fairness of infant care on their postpartum depression. Based on the tenets of equity theory, it is hypothesized that, net of controls, mothers who see infant care as fairly apportioned between themselves and their husbands will be less depressed than others. We utiliz...
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This study has two purposes. First, the study evaluates the reliability of self-reports of argumentativeness by comparing self-reported argumentativeness with two other reports of the same target: evaluations by friends and evaluations by intimates. Second, the study examines whether particular characteristics (e.g. gender, relational distance, yea...
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This study assesses whether prior marital quality moderates the impact of divorce or widowhood on subsequent depression. Poor marital quality may buffer depression associated with divorce/widowhood; conversely, the effect of divorce/widowhood on depression could be exacerbated by previous marital quality. Three waves from the National Survey of Fam...
Article
Drawing from cumulative disadvantage theory, we are the first to examine the role of transportation disadvantage among other known challenges for women on community supervision. We create a composite measure of transportation disadvantage using factor analyses and data for 362 women on probation and parole in one Midwestern state: It is used to pre...
Article
Prior work examining intimate partner violence (IPV) among young adults often has emphasized familial characteristics, such as parent–child physical aggression (PCPA), and romantic relationship dynamics, such as jealousy and controlling behaviors, but has not considered these two domains simultaneously. Likewise, research examining how these two do...
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How is the perceived fairness of infant care affected by spouses' relative contributions to it and to other domains of their relationship? Longitudinal data on 178 couples expecting the birth of their first child were collected during a period spanning approximately the first year of the child's life. Overall, wives were more likely than husbands t...
Article
Unmeasured confounding is the principal threat to unbiased estimation of treatment "effects" (i.e., regression parameters for binary regressors) in nonexperimental research. It refers to unmeasured characteristics of individuals that lead them both to be in a particular "treatment" category and to register higher or lower values than others on a re...
Article
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We examined whether 164 heterosexual, married couples' reports of the sanctification of their marriage and their spiritual intimacy predicted their observed behavior across the transition to parenthood, using highly conservative statistical strategies to control for time-invariant factors and time-varying factors (marital love, collaborative commun...
Article
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We analyze the trajectory of racial attitude change among White university students, over a 4-year time period, representing an advancement over previous studies’ use of longitudinal designs alone to test the causal ordering and nature of the relationship between contact and attitudes. Adding to the literature on intergroup friendships, we examined...
Article
This study examines several aspects of the association between engaging in extramarital sex and the disruption of one’s marriage. Panel data on 1,621 respondents followed from 1980 to 2000 in the Marital Instability Over the Life Course survey were used to answer these questions. Interval-censored Cox regression analysis revealed several noteworthy...
Article
Objective: This study examines the relationship between religious and spiritual coping with pregnancy and individual and marital adjustment of married first-time parents. Background: Pregnancy can be a time of heightened stress for fathers and mothers. To cope with these stressors, parents can turn to positive and negative forms of religious and sp...
Chapter
Question: What’s the difference between accountants and statisticians?
Chapter
In the preceding chapters we covered fundamental definitions, concepts, and tests in statistics. In this chapter, we will go beyond the basics to explore more advanced statistical tools. We begin by revisiting the steak-diet data and discussing a nonparametric alternative to the independent-samples, pooled-variance t test that we covered earlier. W...
Chapter
In this chapter we discuss the confidence interval. This is an interval of numbers that, we are very confident, contains the parameter of interest. Such intervals are very useful when our interest is in what the value of the parameter actually is, rather than just whether our hypothesis about it is or is not supported. After that, we revisit hypoth...
Chapter
In this chapter we discuss how to use descriptive statistical techniques, or techniques employed for data description, for summarizing the sample distribution of a variable. Interest will primarily revolve around two tasks. The first is finding the center of the distribution, which tells us what the typical or average score in the distribution is....
Chapter
This chapter takes up the topic of survival analysis, one of the most frequently employed statistical techniques in medical research. This is the statistical tool we use when we follow cases over time to see whether they experience a particular event. Because the event in question is often death, the period of time from inception of risk for the ev...
Chapter
The correlation coefficient discussed in the last chapter is a component of one of the most important techniques in statistics: linear regression modeling. In this section, we introduce this topic and the subject of statistical modeling, in general. We begin with the familiar step of analyzing the association between a study endpoint and one explan...
Chapter
In this chapter we will learn about several additional advanced multivariate statistical techniques that are finding increasing application in medical research. Multiple imputation is a technique that allows us to “fill in” missing data. Often data on the study endpoint or the explanatory variables are missing for subjects in a study. If these subj...
Chapter
This chapter introduces the reader to statistical inference, and in particular, the test of hypothesis. Inference refers to the idea that we will employ the sample data to make inferences about the population. A major means of making inferences is to pose a hypothesis about the population and then examine whether it is supported by one’s sample dat...
Article
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Although attachment theory posits that the use of nonmaternal care undermines quality of mothers' parenting, empirical evidence for this link is inconclusive. Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,233), the authors examined the associations between nonmate...
Article
This study of 164 married couples examined longitudinal links between parents' perceptions of coparenting support and undermining by spouse at 6 months postpartum and infant behaviour problems at the age of 12 months after controlling for marital quality, individual parenting, and infant temperament. Multiple methods (i.e. parent reports and direct...
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This study investigated the associations between fathers' contributions to housework and childcare and both spouses' parenting aggravation. It was hypothesized that greater father contributions to domestic labor would be associated with more paternal aggravation but less maternal aggravation. Data are from a four-wave study of 178 married couples u...
Book
Converting Data into Evidence: A Statistics Primer for the Medical Practitioner provides a thorough introduction to the key statistical techniques that medical practitioners encounter throughout their professional careers. These techniques play an important part in evidence-based medicine or EBM. Adherence to EBM requires medical practitioners to k...
Article
This study investigated differences in the trajectory of marital satisfaction in the first seven years between couples in covenant vs. standard marriages. Data on 707 Louisiana marriages from the Marriage Matters Panel Survey of Newlywed Couples, 1998 - 2004, were analyzed using multivariate longitudinal growth modeling. Restricting the sample to c...
Chapter
Logistic regression is a regression-modeling technique that is optimum when the response variable is categorical. Binary logistic regression applies when the criterion is dichotomous. The probability of an event is modeled as a nonlinear function of the regressor set, although the equation is easily linearized via the logit link function. Exponenti...
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This study examined the best-fitting factor structure for the Verbal Aggressiveness Scale (VAS). Infante and Wigley’s scale is often scored as unidimensional. However, factor analytic studies have offered evidence that the scale is multidimensional. This study (N = 185) adopted a cross-validation approach to factor analysis to ascertain the best-fi...
Article
This study tests two hypotheses regarding factors affecting arrest of the perpetrator in domestic violence incidents. Black’s relational-distance thesis is that the probability of arrest increases with increasing relational distance between perpetrator and victim. Klinger’s leniency principle suggests that the probability of arrest is lower for mal...
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This study examined behavioral, cognitive, and emotional jealousy in India (N = 1,111) and the United States (N = 1,087). Significant differences were found between men and women for all dimensions of jealousy. Indians reported less cognitive and emotional jealousy than Americans. Religion was found to be a significant predictor of jealousy. Hindus...
Article
Considerable debate exists regarding whether religiousness promotes or impedes greater father involvement in parenting. Our study addresses this issue using a Midwestern longitudinal dataset that tracks the transition to first parenthood for 169 married couples. We focus on performance of the "messier" tasks of infant care. We find little evidence...
Article
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Purpose This study sets out to examine conflict style preferences in India and the predictive effects of various demographic variables on conflict style preference. Design/methodology/approach Data were gathered in India ( n =827) among Muslims and Hindus. Conflict was measured using Oetzel's Conflict Style Measure. To answer the research question...
Article
We use the package deal framework to study the trajectory of father involvement over time as a function of union status, while also examining reporting differences in father involvement by parent gender. Data on 4,224 mother-father pairs are from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study. Average father involvement at the child’s first birthd...
Article
I examine the trajectory of marital quality as a function of relationship equity with data from a six-wave panel study of 704 married respondents between 1980 and 2000. Reporting that one "gives more" to the marriage (subjective underbenefit) is more likely for women than men at any given marital duration. Respondent's relative contribution to inco...
Article
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Theory suggests that relationship inequity will be associated with less marital and personal distress among the more religious, and that this interaction effect will be stronger for women than men. Data are from 178 married couples experiencing the third trimester of pregnancy of their first biological child. Five outcome variables were assessed fo...
Article
We examine the extent to which seeking help from social service agencies, family and friends, reporting to the police, or responses by the police might buffer or exacerbate the impact of sexual assault on mental health outcomes among sexual assault victims.The trend in many cases was for help-seeking and police response to exacerbate the impact of...
Article
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Children’s time use—and specifically the time they spend on household chores—is an important arena for understanding social change. However, few studies accurately depict the multiple factors influencing children’s household labor, including parent’s and children’s available time and parent’s levels of work/family stress. We address these gaps by e...
Article
Previous models of the risk of extramarital sex (EMS) rely largely on cross-section samples and retrospective reporting. This may well conflate causes with consequences of EMS in the same model. Instead, this study employs panel data with an event-history approach to re-assess the influences on the risk of EMS. The sample consists of 1,270 married...
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
This study investigates the potential buffering effect of help-seeking in the association between intimate partner assault and women's psychological trauma, and how this, in turn, may depend on the partner's stake in conformity. The sample consists of 374 women reporting the experience of domestic violence from a current intimate partner, drawn fro...
Article
This study examines whether subjective or objective inequity in marriage is associated with later marital disruption. The sample of 1500 couples is from Waves 1 (1987—1988) and 2 (1992—1994) of the National Survey of Families and Households. The only subjective index of inequity associated with disruption is women's sense of being underbenefited, w...
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The major goals of the project were to use survey data about victimization experiences among American women to examine: (a) the consequences of victimization for women's physical and mental health, (b) how the impact of victimization on women's health sequelae is conditioned by the victim's invoking of family and community support, and (c) how amon...
Article
Many cross-sectional studies have found that widowhood is psychologically a more difficult experience for men than for women. However, most longitudinal studies have found either no gender difference or a slightly greater effect for women. The authors attempted to resolve this paradox with data from the first two waves of the National Survey of Fam...
Code
The major goals of the project were to use survey data about victimization experiences among American women to examine: (a) the consequences of victimization for women's physical and mental health, (b) how the impact of victimization on women's health sequelae is conditioned by the victim's invoking of family and community support, and (c) how amon...
Article
This study employs a sample of 7,700 women drawn from the Survey of Violence and Threats of Violence AgainstWomen and Men in the United States 1994 to 1996 to test hypotheses regarding the effects of violent victimization on women's mental and physical health. Violent victimization consisted of physical and sexual assaults, the lifecourse stage in...
Article
This article explores how the association between sexual violence and substance use and mental health differs by race and life course stage. Analyses are based on data (n = 8,000) from the Violence and Threats of Violence against Women and Men in the United States Survey, 1994-1996 (NVAWS). Although sexual violence does not heighten the risk of pro...
Chapter
Chapter 1 introduces the concept of a statistical model, and, in particular, a linear regression model. The discussion then focuses on the major features of the generalized linear model, which subsumes all of the models covered in the book. The chapter then outlines three major components of model evaluation: discriminatory power, empirical consist...
Chapter
Chapter 6 addresses topics of a more advanced nature. It begins by reviewing the matrix representation of the multiple regression model. It then takes up the issue of heteroscedasticity and estimation via weighted least squares (WLS), along with several applications of WLS. The discussion then returns to the issue of omitted-variable bias, showing...
Chapter
Chapter 11 introduces survival models, in which the response is either the survival time in the nonevent state until some event occurs, or, equivalently, the hazard of event occurrence. The chapter begins by defining terms and acquainting the reader with the nature of survival data. The chapter then considers regression models for survival data, be...
Chapter
Chapter 12 expands the toolkit for survival analysis by considering the modeling of multiple events, the modeling of repeated events, and the modeling of data that are discrete or interval-censored. It begins with an exploration of models for multiple events, focusing on the competing risks model. An alternative two-step model is also considered fo...
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Chapter 10 introduces regression models for an event count. It begins by defining count data and presenting probability distributions that are commonly associated with count responses. The chapter then considers why OLS is not optimal for these types of responses, and presents instead the Poisson regression model. Truncated, censored, and sample-se...
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Chapter 5 introduces models in which the response is held to be a nonlinear function of either the explanatory variables or the model parameters. The chapter begins by defining these concepts and giving examples of various ways of incorporating nonlinearity into the model. The text then segues into a lengthy illustration of the use and interpretati...
Chapter
Chapter 7 takes up models for a binary response. It begins by considering the problems encountered in using linear regression for such situations. The chapter next discusses the two most popular alternatives: probit regression and logistic regression. Details of interpretation, estimation, and inference are covered, with analogies to counterparts i...
Chapter
Chapter 2 begins by discussing some real-data examples of linear relationships between two variables. The chapter then provides a formal introduction to the simple linear regression model, its interpretation, and the assumptions required for its estimation via ordinary least squares (OLS). This is followed by an exposition of several theoretical pr...
Chapter
Chapter 4 discusses how to incorporate categorical predictors into a regression model. The chapter begins by outlining two systems of coding for categorical variables: dummy coding and effect coding. The discussion then moves to the handling of oneway and twoway ANOVA via regression, as well as the modeling of interaction between categorical predic...
Chapter
Chapter 9 considers regression models for truncated or censored data. It begins by defining truncation, censoring, and a special variant of truncation—incidental truncation—that gives rise to sample-selection bias. The chapter then introduces the truncated regression model, and shows how it is estimated via maximum likelihood. The discussion then m...
Article
Chapter 8 considers the logistic regression model in greater detail. It begins by outlining the techniques used to investigate interaction effects, including variable-specific interaction terms as well as an analogue to the Chow test. Next, the chapter discusses the modeling of nonlinearity in the relationship between the regressors and the logit....
Article
Does the experience of violence in a cohabiting union lead participants away from marriage and toward separation, or does violence have only minimal impact once other characteristics of unions and their participants are controlled? This issue is examined using a sample of 411 cohabiting couples followed in both waves of the National Survey of Famil...
Article
This study examines the impact that experiencing harsh physical discipline in childhood and engaging in problem behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood have on experiencing and perpetrating intimate violence. Using LISREL 7, we tested a model based on social learning theory, Freudian theory, and theories of deviance. The 608 cases analyzed...
Article
Many studies have established that married people fare better than their never-married counterparts in terms of psychological well-being. It is still unclear, however, whether this advantage is due primarily to beneficial effects of marriage or to the selection of psychologically healthier individuals into marriage. This study employs data on young...
Article
Full-text available
This study uses the job search framework to examine the unemployment experiences of Brazilian immigrants in the North American labour force. Primary data gathered in Canada and the United States is used in these analyses. The model generally used to monitor transitions among the native-born was modified to make it more appropriate to the immigrant...
Article
We employed 4,095 couples from both waves of the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) to test a model of couple violence drawn from several theoretical perspectives. The outcome distinguishes among nonviolent couples and those experiencing either physical aggression or intense male violence. According to the model, background character...
Article
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This article attempted to identify neighborhood- partner- and individual-level factors that may lead to male-to-female partner violence. The relevant dimensions of community context were derived from social disorganization theory that indicates that disorganized areas lack formal and informal controls that inhibit street violence. Social disorganiz...
Chapter
Linear regression is a widely applicable modeling tool, but it is not appropriate when the correct model should be nonlinear in the parameters. Such is the case when the study endpoint is a binary variable. The model becomes nonlinear because what is being modeled is the probability that a case experiences the event of interest or that a case is in...
Article
Full-text available
A continuing debate in sociological criminology involves the association of crime with economic disadvantage at both aggregate and individual levels of analysis. At the aggregate level, data from law enforcement sources suggest that rates of intimate violence are higher in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience high...
Article
R-2 is widely relied on in linear regression to index a model's discriminatory power Many counterparts have been proposed for use in logistic regression, but no single measure is consistently used. Two potential criterion values are relevant: the explained variance in the latent scale underlying the binary indicator of event occurrence and the expl...
Article
Using data from the National Survey of Families and Households, the authors investigate how a stepfather's demand for conformity from a stepchild influences stepfather-stepchild relationship quality. Drawing from normative resource theory as well as from Coleman's theory of social capital, the authors consider whether the effect depends on the soci...
Article
This study documented the stronger adverse effect of widowhood on the psychological well-being of men than that of women and explained why this gender difference in the effect of widowhood exists. Data came from Wave 1 of the National Survey of Families and Households. Married and widowed people aged 65 and older were selected (n = 1,686). The depe...
Article
The focus of this study was the extent to which physical aggression and, to a lesser extent, verbal conflict predict relationship dissolution in a national sample. Data were from a 5- to 7-year follow-up of 3,508 married and cohabiting couples in the National Survey of Families and Households. Controlling for demographic factors and verbal conflict...
Article
The positive relationship between depression and perceptions of inequity is supported strongly by theory and research. Less well understood, however, are the conditions under which individuals in intimate relationships perceive inequity without experiencing depression. Employing ideas developed from equity theory and self theory, and using response...
Article
Couples have been observed to be more sexually active in marriages characterized by violence. Two alternative hypotheses are posed to account for this. The hypersexuality hypothesis is that a pre‐existing propensity for both aggression and violence characterizes both partners in selected marriages. The sexual extortion hypothesis is that male viole...
Article
This study tests the Stark-Bainbridge theory of sect and cult affiliation (1987) using a sample of 12,415 subjects from the National Survey of Families and Households. Polytomous logistic regression was used to determined the log odds of cult, sect, and church affiliation versus no religious preference. Independent variables drawn from the Stark-Ba...
Article
Although women evidently have higher depression levels than men and singles have higher depression levels than the married, the reasons for these differences are yet unclear. This paper investigates whether differences in the stress-producing circumstances of the lives of men and women, and the married and unmarried, might explain the differences i...
Article
Previous explanations of couples' tendency to see their household division of labor as fair primarily support the influence of three factors, net of partners' actual contributions to “female-typed” housework. The three are partners' adherence to a traditional gender role ideology, wives' limited alternatives to the marriage, and equity across key d...
Article
Evolutionary views suggest that stepparents find it more difficult to parent stepchildren than to parent biological children. However, gender stratification perspectives suggest that stepmothers are more likely than are stepfathers to experience role conflict in acting as both a stepparent and a biological parent. Therefore, especially when new bio...
Article
This study employed data from the 1985 National Family Violence Survey to explore the predictors of fear about future abuse among 356 married or cohabiting women whose partners had previously abused them. We found that fear was higher among women whose partners had initiated the violence or who had subjected them to forced sex, or women who felt th...
Article
This article discusses some major uses of the logistic regression model in social data analysis. Using the example of personal happiness, a trichotomous variable from the 1993 General Social Survey (n = 1,601), properties of the technique are illustrated by attempting to predict the odds of individuals being less, rather than more, happy with their...
Article
Coital frequency is studied among couples as a function of marital or cohabiting status, relationship duration, number of children, religious affiliation, income, education, fertility intentions, age, race, self-assessed health, time spent in work, and perceived relationship quality. Data are from the 1987-88 National Survey of Families and Househo...
Article
The present study examines the hypothesis that marital conflict is more frequent in stepfamilies than in biological families. Using nationally representative data on 2,655 Black and White married couples with children, we test this hypothesis by measuring the impact of remarriage and stepchildren on the frequency of marital conflict. Contrary to ou...
Article
A structural model is proposed that explains race differences in interpersonal trust as a function of blacks’ disadvantaged position vis à vis whites in the socioeconomic opportunity structure. This disadvantage, in turn, engenders a sense of alienation that is detrimental to the development of trustin the “generalized other.” Data basedon the 1991...
Article
This article takes issue with propositions tendered in Roncek (1991) regarding the definitions of odds and odds ratios, the interpretation of the partial slope, and an emphasis on using predicted probabilities to convey the impact of categorical predictors in logit analysis. This article correctly defines odds and odds ratios, provides the correct...
Article
This study examines whether the greater instability of marriages begun by premarital cohabitation can be accounted for by cohabitors' greater unconventionality in family ideology. The hypothesis was largely unsupported. Although family attitudes and beliefs tend to predict the attractiveness of a cohabiting lifestyle, they do not account for differ...
Article
Develops a conception of black adolescent social relations which contrasts sharply with the normative portrait of adolescent friendships as particularly intimate and influential, at the time that autonomy from family is negotiated. This normative view has been developed largely through research on White adolescents. As a result, a compensation argu...
Article
Data from a handful of studies suggest that at any given marital duration, premarital cohabitors have a higher risk of ending the first marriage. A recent study of the 1972 high school senior cohort suggests that this difference can be explained in the United States by the greater time cohabitors have spent in a union. This hypothesis was reinvesti...
Article
Examines the influence of number, sex distribution, age distribution, and age spacing of children on the severity of parent–child relationship problems in 912 single-father households, based on fathers' reports. Fathers with custody of preadolescent girls, compared to those rearing both preadolescent and adolescent girls, children of both sexes, or...
Article
Several suggestions have been tendered for interpreting first-order interaction in log-linear analysis. Occasionally these methods result either in a loss of information or in results that are difficult to grasp on an intuitive level. It is argued that interpreting effect parameters in terms of odds ratios provides an elegant and intuitively appeal...
Article
A recent survey of single fathers with custody provides one of the first explorations of the characteristics of those situations wherein the father receives child support. Fathers are more apt to be recipients if the noncustodial mother's income is known, if all the children are living with the father, if the mother earns more than the father, if t...
Article
Drawing upon longitudinal data collected from the same boys and girls in their early (13–14) and later (18–19) years of adolescence, this research models age at sexual debut, contraceptive risk-taking, and teenage pregnancy on the basis of family background and delinquency involvement during the early years of adolescence. The data also allow for c...

Citations

... Past studies of single men have indicated that single, full-time fathers tend to have a higher income and more full-time employment and are less likely to rely on various forms of social welfare than single mothers (Chang & Deinard, 1982;Dowd, 1997;Downey, 1994;Gersick, 1979;Greif, 1985Greif, , 1990Guttman, 1982;Hanson, 1985aHanson, , 1986aHanson, , 1988Meyer & Garasky, 1993;Orthner et al., 1976;Risman, 1986;Santrock & Warshak, 1979). For instance, Greif and DeMaris (1995) surveyed 117 single White dads, and they found that the average income was $7,000 more than the average income for single White men as a group. Meyer and Garasky's 1993 study of Current Population Survey data found custodial dads had an income 187% greater than that of custodial moms. ...
... Social support is a major risk factor for mortality [23]. Married individuals reported greater happiness and life satisfaction than did unmarried individuals; among them, loneliness and isolation appear to be a substantial reason [24]. Thus, the satisfaction and support obtained from marriage or the relationship with the spouse benefit married individuals [25] and can buffer stressful relationships at work [26,27]. ...
... From a policy perspective, "Psychohairapy" (Mbilishaka, 2018) is one promising program that runs mental health resources through the beauty salon. Black Americans disproportionately suffer mental health issues due to structural racism, economic hardship, and other adversities; yet, they are less likely to seek mental health care than their white counterparts (Ault-Brutus, 2012;Del Toro, 2021;Jordan & Dixon, 2021;Oates & DeMaris, 2022). In this regard, we suggest that other counseling or treatment services, such as cognitive behavior therapy, mentorship programs, and life skills training could also run through the barbershop and beauty salon. ...
... What is more, religiosity is linked to a perception of marriage as a holy union. Spiritual intimacy constitutes a resource for the couple, deepening their mutual trust, attachment, emotional safety, and sense of belonging to the spouse (Padgett et al. 2019). ...
... One way of explaining gender disparities in health outcomes and healthcare utilization rates among community supervised populations is through the lens of cumulative disadvantage. Women on community supervision experience multiple levels of adverse circumstances and opportunity gaps that coalesce into significant, cumulative social disadvantages relative to men (Bohmert & DeMaris, 2018), such as having significantly greater risk of experiencing intimate partner violence, having co-occurring mental health disorders, being unable to find employment, and having a history of trauma (Salem, Nyamathi, Idemundia, Slaughter, & Ames, 2013). Programs for women with co-occurring trauma and substance use disorders, such as integrated cognitive behavioral therapy programs implemented within carceral facilities (Zlotnick, Najavits, Rohsenow, & Johnson, 2003) and community settings (Hien et al., 2020), address the complex traumas experienced by justice-involved women with substance use disorders. ...
... Longitudinal studies generally support associations of parent-adolescent relationships with later peer or romantic relationships in early adolescence (Kochendorfer & Kerns, 2017;Rice & Mulkeen, 1995), mid-adolescence (Giordano et al., 1998;Kaufman-Parks et al., 2018), and late adolescence or early adulthood (De Goede et al., 2009;Slominski et al., 2011). However, these studies do not permit conclusions about whether and how these associations change over time. ...
... So alongside the increasingly unequal distribution of child care and household tasks to the disadvantage of mothers in mixed-sex couples across the TTP (DeMaris & Mahoney, 2017;Levy, 2018), mothers seem to also be less supported by their partners when stressed, all the while maintaining their own level of DC. Such inequity of DC to the disadvantage of mothers may have negative effects on individual and relational health. ...
... Household factors, including marital status, presence of children in the home, and household income, influence the risk of stress among adults caused by food security status [17,20,21]. Marriage has been consistently identified as a protective factor for health and well-being, including greater emotional and financial support [22,23]. In families with children, adults may experience challenges associated with accessing and managing food that generate higher levels of stress, psychological distress, and emotional responses, and ultimately impact parenting practices and child development, compared to those who do not experience such challenges [24][25][26][27]. ...
... Social learning theorists emphasize that relationships between parents and between parents and their children model how individuals should behave in relationships with others (Bandura, 1977;Kaufman-Parks et al., 2018), including how to manage conflict and provide emotional support and acceptance. For example, interparental hostility characterized by criticizing, blaming, accusing, and distancing behaviors may influence hostility in children's own intimate relationships in later life (Stocker & Richmond, 2007). ...
... Notably, count (i.e., discrete) data differs from continuous data in that a) it is bound at zero and b) it must be a positive integer (Gardner et al., 1995). Count data typically follow binomial distributions, the most relevant of which to the present study is the negative binomial distribution (DeMaris, 2005;Denham, 2016). Therefore, to address RQ3 a-c and RQ4, the present study utilizes negative binomial regression models (NBRMs) to model expected occurrences of the count data; an analytic tool which has been utilized in prior communication studies to model SNS count data (e.g., Choi, 2014). ...