Alfio Ferlito's research while affiliated with Indian Institute of Head and Neck Oncology and other places

Publications (687)

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Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma forms an anatomically and functionally complex group of malignancies. The significant local aggressiveness and frequent regional relapses motivate ongoing research to identify more reliable and sensitive prognostic and predictive biomarkers. One emerging area of cancer biology is the evaluation of tumor budding...
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Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) represents the most common malignancy in the world, comprising exceedingly common lesions such as basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) and rare lesions such as Merkel cell carcinoma. Risk factors are widely recognized and include ultraviolet (UV) light exposure, radiation exposure,...
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Carotid artery disease has traditionally been assessed based on the degree of luminal narrowing. However, this approach, which solely relies on carotid stenosis, is currently being questioned with regard to modern risk stratification approaches. Recent guidelines have introduced the concept of the “vulnerable plaque,” emphasizing specific features...
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Background: The management of cT3 laryngeal cancers remains controversial, with studies recommending surgical or non-surgical approaches. Despite the many papers that have been published on the subject, there is a lack of studies showing which treatment has better results in terms of survival. Objective: To determine the difference in survival o...
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Introduction: The most common early postoperative complication after total laryngectomy (TL) is pharyngocutaneous fistula (PCF). Rates of PCF are higher in patients who undergo salvage TL compared with primary TL. Published meta-analyses include heterogeneous studies making the conclusions difficult to interpret. The objectives of this scoping rev...
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IntroductionSeveral studies have emphasized the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) and its subfields, such as machine learning (ML), as emerging and feasible approaches to optimize patient care in oncology. As a result, clinicians and decision-makers are faced with a plethora of reviews regarding the state of the art of applications of AI fo...
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We present a thorough review of the literature on Riedel thyroiditis (RT) with emphasis on aetiology, diagnosis and management, using the PubMed, Sinomed, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Although the exact aetiology of RT remains obscure, the histopathological features are consistent with a localized form of IgG4-related syst...
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Simple Summary The most appropriate treatment for local/regional recurrent differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) is surgical excision if feasible, followed by adjuvant radioiodine administration. However, depending on the location or extent of the recurrence, surgical excision may not be possible, thus creating a need for alternative therapeutic int...
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Adequate pain control enhances patients' quality of life and allows a quick return to normal activities. Current pain management practices may contribute to the crisis of opioid addiction. We summarize the evidence that evaluates locoregional interventions to decrease pain and neck discomfort after thyroidectomy. We designed a scoping review. The s...
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Purpose To discuss the role of proton beam therapy (PBT) in the treatment of patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Materials and Methods A review of the pertinent literature. Results Proton beam therapy likely results in reduced acute and late toxicity as compared with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The exten...
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Radiotherapy (RT) continues to play a key role in the management of head and neck cancer (HNC). Xerostomia remains a principal detriment to the quality of life (QoL) for 80 % of surviving patients receiving head and neck radiation. Radiation-induced injury to the salivary glands is dose-dependent, and thus efforts have been focused on decreasing ra...
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Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the seventh most common malignancy, with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) accounting for a majority of cases in the western world. While HNC accounts for only 5% of all cancers in the United States, the incidence of a subset of OPSCC caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is increasing rapidly. The treatment...
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The projected increase in life expectancy over the next few decades is expected to result in a rise in age-related diseases, including cancer. Head and neck cancer (HNC) is a worldwide health problem with high rates of morbidity and mortality. In this report, we have critically reviewed the literature reporting the management of older patients with...
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(1) Background: Hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas usually present with locally advanced disease and a correspondingly poor prognosis. Currently, efforts are being made to improve tumor characterization and provide insightful information for outcome prediction. Radiomics is an emerging area of study that involves the conversion of medical imag...
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Lymph node metastases in non-well differentiated thyroid cancer (non-WDTC) are common, both in the central compartment (levels VI and VII) and in the lateral neck (Levels II to V). Nodal metastases negatively affect prognosis and should be treated to maximize locoregional control while minimizing morbidity. In non-WDTC, the rate of nodal involvemen...
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Vitamin D (VitD) deficiency has garnered significant attention in contemporary medical research. Although the canonical biological activity of VitD manifests itself mainly in the regulation of calcium-phosphorus metabolism, recent studies show that, thanks to the presence of numerous receptors, VitD may also play an important role in regulating the...
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Surgery has been historically the preferred primary treatment for patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma and for selected locoregional recurrences. Adjuvant therapy with radioactive iodine is typically recommended for patients with an intermediate to high risk of recurrence. Despite these treatments, locally advanced disease and locore...
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IntroductionRemote-access thyroidectomy has been reported in the pediatric population in a limited fashion.Methods This was a systematic review in PubMed and Scopus for pediatric remote-access thyroidectomy.Results Seventy-eight articles were identified and screened, of which 13 met the inclusion criteria, including 231 patients; 70% of publication...
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Inadequate resection margins in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma surgery necessitate adjuvant therapies such as re-resection and radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy and imply increasing morbidity and worse prognosis. On the other hand, taking larger margins by extending the resection also leads to avoidable increased morbidity. Oropharyn...
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Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been associated with survival in various cancers, including head and neck cancer. However, there is limited information on its role in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) according to HPV status. This prompted the present meta-analysis. Studies were selected when the prognostic value of NLR prior...
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All treatment modalities for head and neck cancer carry with them a risk of adverse events. Head and neck surgeons are faced with significant challenges to minimize associated morbidity and manage its sequelae. Recognizing situations in which a surgical complication is an adverse event inherent to the procedure can alleviate the psychologic impact...
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Radiotherapy is the primary treatment modality for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Successful curative treatment requires optimal radiotherapy planning and precise beam delivery that maximizes locoregional control while minimizing treatment-related side effects. In this article, we highlight considerations in target delineation, radiation dose, and...
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Introduction Post-paralytic facial synkinesis after facial nerve injury produces functional disabilities and mimetic deficits, but also cosmetic and non-motor psychosocial impairments for the patients. These patients typically have a high and continuous high motivation for rehabilitation. The aim is to inform the affected patients and their therape...
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Introduction Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most lethal diseases known to humans with a median survival of 5 months. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) recently published guidelines for the treatment of this dreadful thyroid malignancy. Areas covered This review presents the current therapeutic landscape of this challenging dise...
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Objectives Evidence to support Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-directed population nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) screening has been growing. Familial aggregation is a well-recognized phenomenon in endemic regions. This systematic review summarizes the role of EBV-directed screening in individuals with a positive family history (FH+) of NPC. Methods We s...
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Background Both anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) and thyroid lymphoma (TL) clinically present as rapidly enlarging neck masses. Unfortunately, in this situation, like in any other thyroid swelling, a routine fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is the first and only diagnostic test performed at the initial contact in the average thyroid practice...
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Salivary gland tumors are a heterogeneous group of tumors originating from the major and minor salivary glands. The pleomorphic adenoma (PA), which is the most common subtype, is a benign lesion showing a remarkable morphologic diversity and that, upon recurrence or malignant transformation, can cause significant clinical problems. Cytogenetic stud...
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Purpose Vascular perfusion research has been dedicated to identify inexpensive, effective, and easy to use methods to assess free flap perfusion for both buried and non-buried flaps. Methods Systematic review of complications in patients underwent Head and Neck microsurgical reconstruction and vascular implantable Doppler monitoring. Results Sixt...
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Benign peripheral non-cranial nerve sheath tumors are rare lesions, including both schwannomas and neurofibromas. These tumors arise from Schwann cells, and may originate from any peripheral, cranial, or autonomic nerve. Most of them are localized and sporadic but multifocal systemic forms can occur. Cervical sympathetic chain, brachial plexus, cer...
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Proton therapy (PT) is a promising development in radiation oncology, with the potential to further improve outcomes for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC). By utilizing the finite range of protons, healthy tissue can be spared from beam exit doses that would otherwise be irradiated with photon-based treatments. Curr...
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This review gives a brief history of the development of head and neck pathology in Europe from a humble beginning in the 1930s to the explosive activities the last 15 years. During the decades before the introduction of immunohistochemistry in the 1980s, head and neck pathology grew as a subspeciality in many European countries. In the late 1940s,...
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In head and neck cancer (HNC) there is a need for more personalized treatment based on risk assessment for treatment related adverse events (i.e. toxicities and complications), expected survival and quality of life. Sarcopenia, defined as a condition characterized by loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, can predict adverse outcomes in HNC pat...
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Carotid atherosclerosis is a major and potentially preventable cause of ischemic stroke. It begins early in life and progresses silently over the years. Identification of individuals with subclinical atherosclerosis is needed to initiate early aggressive vascular prevention. Although carotid plaque appears to be a powerful predictor of cardiovascul...
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Background Voice outcome after carbon dioxide transoral laser microsurgery (CO2TOLMS) for glottic cancer is of prime importance. However, a comprehensive overview according to the European Laryngological Society (ELS) classification of cordectomies is still lacking. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize data on voice outcome associated...
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Introduction: Pharyngocutaneous fistula (PCF) remains the most frequent complication following total laryngectomy (TL). Pharyngeal closure with a surgical stapler (SAPC) has been proposed as an effective closure technique that decreases the rate of PCF, reduces surgical time, decreases the length of hospital stay, and shortens the time required bef...
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Endoscopic endonasal surgery has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of selected cases of sinonasal cancers. However, in cases of locally advanced neoplasms, as well as recurrences, the most appropriate approach is still debated. The present review aims to summarize the current state of knowledge on the utility of open approaches to...
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Introduction: Lymph node metastasis (LNM) from primary tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) is an infrequent condition, and classically it was thought that CNS tumors could not spread via the lymphatic route. Recent discoveries about this route of dissemination make its knowledge necessary for surgeons and pathologists to avoid delays in dia...
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This review focuses on the heterogenous group of clear cell neoplasms of salivary glands and attempts to identify major differential diagnostic features. Within the head and neck region, clear cells are found most commonly in salivary gland tumors, but may also be seen in tumors of squamous or odontogenic epithelial origin, primary or metastatic ca...
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Introduction: Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) are usually confronted with functional changes due to the malignancy itself or its treatment. These factors typically affect important structures involved in speech, breathing, chewing, swallowing, and saliva production. Consequently, the intake of food will be limited, which further contribut...
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Despite the lack of approved anti-angiogenic therapies in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), preclinical and more recent clinical evidence support the role of targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in this disease. Targeting VEGF has gained even greater interest following the recent evidence supporting the role o...
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Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) arising in the mucosal linings of the upper aerodigestive tract are highly heterogeneous, aggressive, and multifactorial tumors affecting more than half a million patients worldwide each year. Classical etiological factors for HNSCC include alcohol, tobacco, and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. C...
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Introduction: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is endemic to Eastern and South-Eastern Asia, and, in 2020, 77% of global cases were diagnosed in these regions. Apart from its distinct epidemiology, the natural behavior, treatment, and prognosis are different from other head and neck cancers. With the growing trend of artificial intelligence (AI), es...
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Graves’ disease (GD) can be managed by antithyroid drugs (ATD), radioactive iodine (RAI) and surgery. Thyroidectomy offers the highest success rates for both primary and persistent disease, yet it is the least recommended or utilized option reaching <1% for primary disease and <25% for persistent disease. Several surveys have found surgery to be th...
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Human papilloma virus (HPV) is a well-established causative factor in a subset of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC). Although HPV can be detected in various anatomical subsites, HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is the most common HPV-related malignancy of the head and neck, and its worldwide incidence i...
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The inherent variability in performing specific surgical procedures for head and neck cancer remains a barrier for accurately assessing treatment outcomes, particularly in clinical trials. While non-surgical modalities for cancer therapeutics have evolved to become far more uniform, there remains the challenge to standardize surgery. The purpose of...
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Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents an aggressive and heterogenous group of cancers whose pathologies remain largely unresolved. Despite recent advances in HNSCC therapeutic strategies, the overall survival of HNSCC patients remains poor and continues to prompt efforts to develop more effective therapies. Exosomes are a subtype...
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Airway involvement by advanced thyroid carcinoma (TC) constitutes a negative prognosticator, besides being a critical clinical issue since it represents one of the most frequent causes of death in locally advanced disease. It is generally agreed that, for appropriate laryngo-tracheal patterns of invasion, (crico-)tracheal resection and primary anas...
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Most cases of thyroid carcinoma are classified as low risk. These lesions have been treated with open surgery, remote access thyroidectomy, active surveillance, and percutaneous ablation. However, there is lack of consensus and clear indications for a specific treatment selection. The objective of this study is to review the literature regarding th...
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Neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) of the head and neck are rare and the experience scanty. The Cancer Registry of Slovenia database was used to identify cases of laryngeal and pharyngeal NECs diagnosed between 1995–2020. Biopsies were analyzed for the expression of standard neuroendocrine markers (synaptophysin, chromogranin, CD56), INSM1, Ki-67, p1...
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Genetic, symptomatic, and biochemical heterogeneity of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) has become apparent in recent years. An in‐depth, evidence‐based review of the phenotypes of PHPT was conducted. This review was intended to provide the resulting information to surgeons who operate on patients with hyperparathyroidism. This revi...
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Approximately 70–80% of patients with cT1-2N0 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) ultimately prove to have no cancer in the cervical lymphatics on final pathology after selective neck dissection. As a result, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has been adopted during the last decade as a diagnostic staging method to intelligently identify patients w...
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The diagnosis is the art of determining the nature of a disease, and an accurate diagnosis is the true cornerstone on which rational treatment should be built. Within the workflow in the management of head and neck tumours, there are different types of diagnosis. The purpose of this work is to point out the differences and the aims of the different...
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IntroductionHürthle cell carcinoma (HCC) comprises about 5% of thyroid carcinoma cases. Partly because of its rarity there is much we still need to know about HCC as compared to other histological cancer subtypes.Methods We conducted a systematic literature review following PRISMA guidelines and meta-analysis, from 2000 to 2020, to investigate the...
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Purpose: To review the current options in the management of Warthin tumors (WTs) and to propose a working management protocol. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed and ScienceDirect database. A total of 141 publications were selected and have been included in this review. Publications were selected based on relevanc...
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Introduction Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an endemic malignancy in Southeast Asia, particularly Southern China. The classical non-keratinising cell type is almost unanimously associated with latent Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection. Circulating plasma EBV DNA can be a useful biomarker in various clinical aspects, but comprehensive recommendat...
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Thermal and chemical ablation are minimally invasive procedures that avoid removal of the thyroid gland and target symptomatic nodules directly. Internationally, Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is among one of the most widely used thermal ablative techniques, and is gaining traction in North America. Surgery remains the standard of care for most thyr...
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Nonsurgical primary treatment of early and advanced laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, employing radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy, is considered a standard of care in many centers throughout the world. When patients have persistent or recurrent disease after non-surgical treatment, salvage surgery is frequently the only remaining potential...
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The presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in the tumor microenvironment has been demonstrated to be of prognostic value in various cancers. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we investigated the prognostic value of TIL in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). We performed a systematic search in PubMed for publications that...
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Cancers of the head and neck region often present with nodal involvement. There is a long‐standing convention within the community of head and neck radiation oncology to irradiate both sides of the neck electively in almost all cases to include both macroscopic and microscopic disease extension (so called elective nodal volume). International guide...
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Up to 85% of the patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma present with regional nodal metastasis. Although excellent nodal control is achieved with radiotherapy, a thorough understanding of the current TNM staging criteria and pattern of nodal spread is essential to optimize target delineation and minimize unnecessary irradiation to adjacent normal t...
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High-grade transformation (HGT) or dedifferentiation has been described in a variety of salivary gland carcinomas, including acinic cell carcinoma, secretory carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, polymorphous adenocarcinoma, low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. High-grade (HG)...
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Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is a local ablative treatment that is based on the reversible electroporation and intracellular accumulation of hydrophilic drug molecules, which greatly increases their cytotoxicity. In mucosal head and neck cancer (HNC), experience with ECT is limited due to the poor accessibility of tumors. In order to review the experi...
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Objectives To describe the evolution and recent series on transoral endoscopic vestibular approach thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy (TOET/PVA). Data sources PubMed, Google Scholar. Review methods Review of the available English literature. Results TOET/PVA may offer several advantages over other remote access thyroidectomy approaches and has...
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Introduction Head and neck cancers (HNC) are relatively fast-growing tumours, and delay in treatment initiation is associated with tumour progression and adverse outcome. An overview of factors contributing to delay can provide critical insights on necessary adjustments to optimize care pathways. This systematic review aims to identify factors asso...
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Thyroid nodules are a very common clinical condition. The 2015 American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines recommend surgical excision for Bethesda IV nodules. The use of intraoperative frozen section (FS) has been recommended as a strategy to tailor the extent of the initial surgery. We critically evaluated the literature that discusses the util...
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Bone and soft tissue tumors of the head and neck are relatively uncommon tumors that often represent a diagnostic challenge because of the wide range of entities that must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Over the past few years, classification of bone and soft tissue tumors has evolved primarily because of substantial contributions fro...
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Occlusion of the internal jugular vein (IJV) can be observed in thyroid cancer either on preoperative imaging with ultrasound or cross-sectional imaging, particularly contrast-enhanced CT-scan, and can be detected during follow-up when using these same imaging modalities. For thyroid cancer, four different causes of occlusion of the IJV can be iden...
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The aim of this review is to analyze the latest trends in the management of non-vestibular skull base and intracranial schwannomas in order to optimize tumor control and quality of life. Non-vestibular cranial nerve schwannomas are rare lesions, representing 5-10% of cranial nerve schwannomas. Management decisions should be individualized depending...
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Purpose of review: In this narrative review, we discuss the indications for elective and therapeutic neck dissections and the postoperative surveillance and treatment options for recurrent nodal disease in patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Recent findings: Increased availability of advanced imaging modalities has led to an increase...
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Purpose of review Observational studies have shown that serum 25-OH vitamin D [25(OH)D] is inversely associated with overall cancer risk in many malignancies. We performed a systematic literature review to determine whether vitamin D deficiency is related to head and neck cancer (HNC) etiology and outcome. Recent findings The search yielded five p...
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Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common salivary gland neoplasm, and its diagnosis is straightforward in the majority of cases. However, not infrequently, PA shows unusual and uncommon histological features that can be confused with those of malignancy. The difficulties in diagnosing PA arise from its ability to mimic invasion, show atypical or...
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Endonasal endoscopic surgery (EES) has been applied to the management of sinonasal (SN) tumors based on recent advances in endoscopic surgical techniques and technologies over the past three decades. EES has been mainly indicated for benign tumors and less aggressive malignant tumors. Notwithstanding this, EES has been gradually adopted for squamou...