Alexandra R. Lucas's research while affiliated with Arizona State University and other places

Publications (57)

Article
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Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an X-linked disease afflicting 1 in 3500 males that is characterized by muscle weakness and wasting during early childhood, and loss of ambulation and death by early adulthood. Chronic inflammation due to myofiber instability leads to fibrosis, which is a primary cause of loss of ambulation and cardiorespiratory insuf...
Article
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Background Viral infections are pervasive and leading causes of myocarditis. Immune-suppression after chemotherapy increases opportunistic infections, but the incidence of virus-induced myocarditis is unknown. Objective An unbiased, blinded screening for RNA viruses was performed after chemotherapy with correlation to cardiac function. Methods Hi...
Article
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Cancers that metastasize to the lungs represent a major challenge in both basic and clinical cancer research. Oncolytic viruses are newly emerging options but successful delivery and choice of appropriate therapeutic armings are two critical issues. Using an immunocompetent murine K7M2-luc lung metastases model, the efficacy of MYXV armed with muri...
Article
Introduction: Chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies can cause severe cardiomyopathy. Chemotherapeutic agents also induce immune suppression increasing the risk of opportunistic infections. Hypothesis: We have hypothesized that immunosuppression after chemotherapy increases opportunistic viral infections, myocarditis and cardiomyopathy. Methods:...
Article
Introduction: Acute respiratory distress syndromes with vascular inflammation and alveolar hemorrhage have high mortality and limited treatment. Autoimmune disease and severe viral infection cause vascular inflammation and hemorrhage. Serine protease coagulation pathways increase inflammatory cell activation and damage. Viruses have evolved highly...
Article
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In the past decade, cancer immunotherapy has achieved great success owing to the unravelling of unknown molecular forces in cancer immunity. However, it is critical that we address the limitations of current immunotherapy, including immune-related adverse events and drug resistance, and further enhance current immunotherapy. Lipids are reported to...
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Purpose: Chemical corneal injuries carry a high morbidity and commonly lead to visual impairment. Here, we investigate the role of Serp-1, a serine protease inhibitor, in corneal wound healing. Methods: An alkaline-induced corneal injury was induced in 14 mice. Following injury, five mice received daily topical saline application while nine mice re...
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In this article, we report a case of a 61-year-old male who was diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring intubation and hemodynamic support, marked D-Dimer and troponin I elevation, worsening ST-elevation myocardial infarction on repeat electrocardiogr...
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The making and breaking of clots orchestrated by the thrombotic and thrombolytic serine protease cascades are critical determinants of morbidity and mortality during infection and with vascular or tissue injury. Both the clot forming (thrombotic) and the clot dissolving (thrombolytic or fibrinolytic) cascades are composed of a highly sensitive and...
Article
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Right atrial (RA) masses are rare, challenging to diagnose, and potentially life-threatening with high mortality if untreated. We present a patient presenting with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the brain that was incidentally found to have a large RA mass. For a better definition of the RA mass, extensive workup using multimodality imaging inclu...
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Progressive neurological damage after brain or spinal cord trauma causes loss of motor function and treatment is very limited. Clotting and hemorrhage occur early after spinal cord (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI), inducing aggressive immune cell activation and progressive neuronal damage. Thrombotic and thrombolytic proteases have direct eff...
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Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is one of the most serious clinical complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The prevalence of DAH is reported to range from 1 to 5%, but while DAH is considered a rare complication there is a reported 50-80% mortality. There is at present no proven effective treatment for DAH and the therapeutics that...
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Objective: We review prior studies on the incidence of hypertension (HTN) after earthquakes and present a retrospective analysis of HTN after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. Methods: Prior reports on HTN incidence were reviewed and a retrospective chart review for diagnosis of HTN in 4,308 patient charts was performed over a 7 year period (five clini...
Book
This detailed volume explores methods and techniques reflecting how viruses can be a beneficial force for all levels of life as well as the mammalian microbiota. Beginning with methods for the development and study of viruses, the book continues with current techniques and approaches used to develop new treatments from virus-derived vaccines to vec...
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Complex dermal wounds represent major medical and financial burdens, especially in the context of comorbidities such as diabetes, infection and advanced age. New approaches to accelerate and improve, or "fine tune" the healing process, so as to improve the quality of cutaneous wound healing and management, are the focus of intense investigation. He...
Article
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is different from other solid tumors because it is commonly associated with the occurrence of intrahepatic metastasis. Additionally, the liver, unlike other organs, is the main site of coagulation and fibrinolytic factor production. Therefore, it was speculated that coagulation and fibrinolytic factors could be associ...
Chapter
Severe inflammatory disease initiated by neurotrauma and stroke is of primary concern in these intractable pathologies as noted in recent studies and understanding of the pathogenesis of spinal cord injury (SCI) in the rat model. Successful anti-inflammatory treatments should result in neuroprotection and limit the loss of neurological function to...
Chapter
Viruses have devised highly effective approaches that modulate the host immune response, blocking immune responses that are designed to eradicate viral infections. Over millions of years of evolution, virus-derived immune-modulating proteins have become extraordinarily potent, in some cases working at picomolar concentrations when expressed into su...
Chapter
Solid tissue transplant is a growing medical need that is further complicated by a limited donor organ supply. Acute and chronic rejection occurs in nearly all transplants and reduces long-term graft survival, thus increasing the need for repeat transplantation. Viruses have evolved highly adapted responses designed to evade the host’s immune defen...
Chapter
Immune modulators play critical roles in the progression of wounds to normal or conversely delayed healing, through the regulation of normal tissue regrowth, scarring, inflammation, and growth factor expression. Many immune modulator recombinants are under active preclinical study or in clinical trial to promote improved acute or chronic wound heal...
Chapter
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) drives early and long-term damage to organs as well as compounding damage from acute transplant rejection and surgical trauma. IRI initiates an aggressive and prolonged inflammation leading to tissue injury, organ failure, and death. However, there are few effective therapeutic interventions for IRI. The destructiv...
Chapter
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multifactorial and heterogeneous autoimmune disease involving multiple organ systems and tissues. Lupus nephritis occurs in approximately 60% of patients with SLE and is the leading cause of morbidity. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a rare but very serious complication of SLE with a greater than 50% ass...
Article
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Spinal cord injury (SCI) initiates a severe, destructive inflammation with pro-inflammatory, CD68+/CD163−, phagocytic macrophages infiltrating the area of necrosis and hemorrhage by day 3 and persisting for the next 16 weeks. Inhibition of macrophage infiltration of the site of necrosis that is converted into a cavity of injury (COI) during the fir...
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Background Currently there is no consensus on the optimal management of small-for-size syndrome following liver transplantation. Here we describe a technique to alleviate portal hypertension and improve the hepatocyte reperfusion in small-for-size liver transplantation in a Lewis rat model. Methods The rats underwent trans-portal vein intra-hepati...
Article
A massive localized trauma to the spinal cord results in complex pathologic events driven by necrosis and vascular damage which in turn leads to hemorrhage and edema. Severe, destructive and very protracted inflammatory response is characterized by infiltration by phagocytic macrophages of a site of injury which is converted into a cavity of injury...
Article
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Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in massive secondary damage characterized by a prolonged inflammation with phagocytic macrophage invasion and tissue destruction. In prior work, sustained subdural infusion of anti-inflammatory compounds reduced neurological deficits and reduced pro-inflammatory cell invasion at the site of injury leading to improve...
Article
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Viruses are widely used as a platform for the production of therapeutics. Vaccines containing live, dead and components of viruses, gene therapy vectors and oncolytic viruses are key examples of clinically-approved therapeutic uses for viruses. Despite this, the use of virus-derived proteins as natural sources for immune modulators remains in the e...
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Immunopathogenesis in systemic viral infections can induce a septic state with leaky capillary syndrome, disseminated coagulopathy, and high mortality with limited treatment options. Murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) intraperitoneal infection is a gammaherpesvirus model for producing severe vasculitis, colitis and lethal hemorrhagic pneumonia in...
Preprint
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The pathogenesis of spinal cord injury (SCI) remains poorly understood and treatment remains limited. Emerging evidence indicates the severity of post-SCI inflammation and an ongoing controversy in the roles of astrocytes with studies identifying astrocytes as associated both with ongoing inflammation and damage as well as potentially having a prot...
Article
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Numerous treatments have been developed to promote wound healing based on current understandings of the healing process. Hemorrhaging, clotting, and associated inflammation regulate early wound healing. We investigated treatment with a virus-derived immune modulating serine protease inhibitor (SERPIN), Serp-1, which inhibits thrombolytic proteases...
Article
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Background: Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is an antigen-independent, innate immune response to arterial occlusion and ischemia with subsequent paradoxical exacerbation after reperfusion. IRI remains a critical problem after vessel occlusion and infarction or during harvest and surgery in transplants. After transplant, liver IRI (LIRI) contribu...
Article
The availability of solid organs for transplantation remains low and there is a substantial need for methods to preserve the viability of grafted tissues. Suppression of solid-organ transplant rejection has traditionally focused on highly effective T cell inhibitors that block host immune lymphocyte responses. However, persistent and destructive in...
Article
Plasma membrane-associated Toll-like receptor (TLR2 and TLR4) signaling contributes to oral microbe infection-induced periodontitis and atherosclerosis. We recently reported that either TLR2 or TLR4 receptor deficiency alters recognition of a consortium of oral pathogens, modifying host responses in periodontitis and atherosclerosis. We evaluated t...
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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and Clostridium difficile infection cause gastrointestinal (GI) distension and, in severe cases, toxic megacolon with risk of perforation and death. Herpesviruses have been linked to severe GI dilatation. MHV-68 is a model for human gamma herpesvirus infection inducing GI dilatation in interleukin-10 (IL-10)-deficie...
Article
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Our aim is to study unanticipated cardiotoxicity associated with the use of anticancer targeted agents, a problem that remains poorly understood. Using diagnosis codes, we retrospectively identified patients with both hematologic malignancies (HM) and cardiovascular diseases (n = 820 patients). Cardiotoxicity was defined per published criteria. The...
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The metastatic activity of breast carcinomas results from complex genetic changes in epithelial tumor cells and accounts for 90% of deaths in affected patients. Although the invasion of the local lymphatic vessels and veins by malignant breast tumor cells and their subsequent metastasis to the lung, has been recognized, the mechanisms behind the me...
Article
INTRODUCTION: Unanticipated cardiotoxicity is now identified as a significant clinical problem associated with new anti-cancer targeted agents. Risk factors and natural history are still poorly understood. We aim to determine potential clinical risk factors for cardiotoxicity among patients with hematologic malignancies (HM) who were treated with t...
Article
Periodontal disease (PD) and atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD) are both chronic inflammatory diseases with a polymicrobial etiology and have been epidemiologically associated. The purpose is to examine whether periodontal bacteria that infect the periodontium, can also infect vascular tissues and enhance pre-existing early aortic atherosclero...
Article
INTRODUCTION: Unanticipated cardiac toxicity has been reported with anti cancer targeted and biological treatments. In this retrospective study, we aim at identifying the number of cardiac toxicity cases among patients with hematologic malignancies (HM) who were treated with targeted therapies over 10-year period with emphasis on natural history an...
Article
Toll-like-receptors (TLRs) play a significant role in the generation of a specific innate immune response against invading pathogens. TLR2 and TLR4 signaling contributes to infection-induced inflammation in periodontal disease (PD) and atherosclerosis. Increased observational studies points towards a relationship between PD and atherosclerosis, but...
Data
Distribution of ApoE-/- mice heart, aorta samples positive for T. denticola and F. nucleatum by PCR. (DOC)
Article
Introduction: Atherosclerosis is characterized by ongoing chronic inflammation, cell damage, apoptosis and scar formation all of which can initiate plaque growth and arterial occlusion. These proteases are controlled by serine protease inhibitors, or serpins, which regulate apoptotic and inflammatory pathways. Complex DNA viruses, such as myxomavir...

Citations

... The large and stable MYXV genome also allows it to be armed with various therapeutic transgenes via genetic recombination [9]. Such modal constructs can be powerful tools against various neoplasms [10][11][12][13]. ...
... The effects of lipids on infection development play a pivotal role. The function of lipids was gradually decrypted, which was used as an alternative source in pathologic conditions (Olsen et al., 2021), and was involved in the virus infection, was involved in transport of cell membrane, and activated intricate signaling pathways related to the immune system (Yu et al., 2021). Lipid metabolism dysfunction in the host has extensive effects on immune cells. ...
... Treatment with purified native Serp-1 has demonstrated both acute and long-term efficacy in modulating inflammation in a wide range of inflammatory disorders and injuries, including atherosclerosis, transplant, wound healing, and spinal cord injury [39][40][41][42]. More recently, a modified Serp-1 protein, PEGSerp-1, with a longer halflife (~8 h), was shown to reduce inflammation and fibrosis in healing corneal wounds, and reduced macrophage invasion of alveoli in a mouse model of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage [43][44][45]. Based on these previous studies, we examined whether the pegylated version of the viral Serp-1 protein, PEGSerp-1, would ameliorate the chronic inflammatory pathology of DMD. ...
... Undeniably, the presence of microthrombi in the circulation poses a great risk of myocardial ischemia, infarction, and necrosis development [89][90][91]. However, commonly in COVID-19, the thrombi develop after the impairment of heart contractility function due to direct viral invasion to cardiac endothelial/myocardial cells, excessive immune response, hypoxemia, and hypovolemia, which leads to conduction disorders and an increase in myocardium demand for nutrients [92]. ...
... A PEGylated version of the Myxomavirus derived SERPIN Serp-1 has also been developed demonstrating improved efficacy in a mouse model of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (259). Serp-1 is a broad acting SERPIN with anti-inflammatory and antifibrinolytic activities (260). In addition, however, Serp-1 also functions as a heparin dependent inhibitor of thrombin (261,262). ...
... Thrombin, a widely studied serine protease targeted by NM, is a bioactive enzyme involved in multiple functions and restricted from the CNS under physiological conditions [10]. Recent research has proved its crucial role in traumatic brain injury (TBI), SCI, neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases) and ischemic stroke [11,12]. ...
... Treatment with purified native Serp-1 has demonstrated both acute and long-term efficacy in modulating inflammation in a wide range of inflammatory disorders and injuries, including atherosclerosis, transplant, wound healing, and spinal cord injury [39][40][41][42]. More recently, a modified Serp-1 protein, PEGSerp-1, with a longer halflife (~8 h), was shown to reduce inflammation and fibrosis in healing corneal wounds, and reduced macrophage invasion of alveoli in a mouse model of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage [43][44][45]. Based on these previous studies, we examined whether the pegylated version of the viral Serp-1 protein, PEGSerp-1, would ameliorate the chronic inflammatory pathology of DMD. ...
... Furthermore, the Great East Japan Earthquake was noted to influence early morning homebased BP management among patients who did not live near the epicenter of the earthquake 3 . Fath et al. 29 reported a transient increase in BP after just 1-2 weeks after the earthquake, and a return to original BP levels more than 1 month after the earthquake. Mechanical (e.g., cold, noise and radiation), biological (e.g., inflammation, infection and hunger), chemical (e.g., air pollution and drugs) and psychological (e.g., sadness, anger and anxiety) factors can induce stress. ...
... Full orthotopic kidney transplants in mice requires extensive training in microsurgery, as well as a large number of mice, and the surgeries are technically complex due to their small size. These alternative and simpler approaches in animal models using subcapsular and subcutaneous transplants may offer similar benefits in the evaluation of inflammation and response to treatment, while having lower costs, surgical preparation time and quantity of surgical supplies [46]. ...
... In the experiments using the subdural infusion of dexamethasone, M-T7 and Serp-1, the Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor test used to evaluate SCI rats [63] by others was substituted by a simpler hind end locomotor test and supplemented by a hind end pinch withdrawal test developed by the author [22,23,64] to allow for a more detailed analysis of the neurologic function of SCI rats every day after the SCI. While both tests detected neurological improvements in rats treated with anti-inflammatory infusions in a 7 days long study [22], this was not the case in the follow-up study involving 56 days of treatment with Serp-1 despite the lowering effect of this treatment on the numbers of phagocytic macrophages in the COI [23]. ...