Albert Bandura's research while affiliated with Stanford University and other places

Publications (165)

Article
Social cognitive theory is founded on an agentic perspective. This article reviews the core features of human agency and the individual, proxy, and collective forms in which it is exercised. Agency operates through a triadic codetermination process of causation. Knowledge from this line of theorizing is widely applied to effect individual and socia...
Article
The Big Five personality traits and self-efficacy independently relate to a multitude of outcomes across domains of functioning. Yet, only a small number of studies examined these variables together as part of the same conceptual model, and findings are mixed. We revisit their joint relationships, and test three conceptual models of influence on ac...
Article
The present commentary addresses issues raised in four replies to my editorial on the functional properties of perceived self-efficacy (Bandura, 2012). In my comments on the paper by Jackson, Hill, and Roberts (2012), I discuss the arbitrary nature of “disposition” and question whether an essentially atheoretical computer-structured inventory based...
Article
This experiment examined the role of two forms of visual guidance in facilitating the translation of cognitive representations into action. Subjects matched a modeled action pattern either concurrently with the model or after the modeled display. They then either did or did not visually monitor their actions during tests of production accuracy in t...
Article
This commentary addresses the functional properties of perceived self-efficacy in the context of a set of studies contending that belief in one’s capabilities has debilitating or null effects. It encompasses four theoretical orientations. These include social cognitive theory rooted in an agentic perspective, control theory grounded in a cybernetic...
Article
The present study tested with 142 families a structural model of the interplay of perceived dyadic and collective forms of efficacy within the interdependent family system, and how these different forms of efficacy are structurally related to quality of family functioning and satisfaction with family life. Dyadic parent–child efficacy, dyadic spous...
Article
A major challenge to von Hippel & Trivers's evolutionary analysis of self-deception is the paradox that one cannot deceive oneself into believing something while simultaneously knowing it to be false. The authors use biased information seeking and processing as evidence that individuals knowingly convince themselves of the truth of their falsehood....
Article
This article addresses positive psychology from the agentic perspective of social cognitive theory. There is a difference between pursuing happiness and achieving it through meaningful pursuits. Perceived well-being and satisfaction are derived from how one lives one's life not just from episodic good feelings or transient pleasures. Social cogniti...
Chapter
Self-efficacy is defined and refined initially and most notably in the work of behavioral psychologist A. Bandura as the belief or judgment made by an individual that they can succeed or accomplish an identified task. Three decades of research have further developed the concept of generalized self-efficacy as the belief that one could be successful...
Chapter
Psychological theories have traditionally emphasized learning through the rewarding and punishing effects that actions produce. Natural endowment provides humans with enabling biological systems but few inborn skills. Competencies must be developed over long periods and altered to fit changing conditions over the life course. Direct experience is a...
Article
We analyze mechanisms of moral disengagement used to eliminate moral consequences by industries whose products or production practices are harmful to human health. Moral disengagement removes the restraint of self-censure from harmful practices. Moral self-sanctions can be selectively disengaged from harmful activities by investing them with social...
Article
The present study examined the developmental course of perceived efficacy for self-regulated learning and its contribution to academic achievement and likelihood of remaining in school in a sample of 412 Italian students (48% males and 52% females ranging in age from 12 to 22 years). Latent growth curve analysis revealed a progressive decline in se...
Chapter
Vicarious Extinction of Phobic BehaviourVicarious Extinction as a Function of Multiple ModellingComparative Efficacy of Modelling and Desensitization Treatment ApproachesMechanisms Underlying Vicarious ExtinctionSUMMARY
Article
This chapter reconstrues "free will" in terms of the exercise of personal control through cognitive and self-regulative processes. In this conception, psychosocial functioning is the product of a dynamic triadic interplay of intrapersonal, behavioral, and environmental determinants. Within this triadic determination, deliberative thought not only a...
Article
Full-text available
AB The present study examined the developmental course of perceived efficacy for self-regulated learning and its contribution to academic achievement and likelihood of remaining in school in a sample of 412 Italian students (48% males and 52% females ranging in age from 12 to 22 years). Latent growth curve analysis revealed a progressive decline in...
Article
Cahill, Gallo, Lisman, and Weinstein (2006) adopta conception of "ability" as possessing rudimentary components in a behavioral repertoire. This view is at odds with what constitutes an ability and misrepresents the construct of perceived self-efficacy. To verify their hypothesis concerning the relation between ratings of ability and willingness in...
Article
The present paper documents the influential role played by selective moral disengagement for social practices that cause widespread human harm and degrade the environment. Disengagement of moral self-sanctions enables people to pursue detrimental practices freed from the restraint of self-censure. This is achieved by investing ecologically harmful...
Article
This article presents an agentic theory of human development, adaptation, and change. The evolutionary emergence of advanced symbolizing capacity enabled humans to transcend the dictates of their immediate environment and made them unique in their power to shape their life circumstances and the courses their lives take. In this conception, people a...
Article
In this commentary, I review diverse lines of research conducted at both the macrosocial and microbehavioral level that dispute the view that cruelty is inherently gratifying. Expressions of pain and suffering typically inhibit rather than reinforce cruel conduct in humans. With regard to functional value, cruelty has diverse personal and social ef...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined the relation between disengagement of moral self-sanclions and support of military force. The modes of moral disengagement included moral sanctioning of lethal means, disavowal of personal responsibility for detrimental effects accompanying military campaigns, minimization of civilian casualties, and attribution of blame...
Article
Full-text available
The present study tested the proposition that disengagement of moral self-sanctions enables prison personnel to carry out the death penalty. Three subgroups of personnel in penitentiaries located in three Southern states were assessed in terms of eight mechanisms of moral disengagement. The personnel included the execution teams that carry out the...
Article
In this prospective study, we tested a structural model in which adolescents' perceived self-efficacy to manage parental relationships affected their satisfaction with family life both directly, and indirectly, through its impact on family practices. Findings based on 380 Italian adolescents showed that perceived filial self-efficacy was linked dir...
Article
The recent years have witnessed a major change in the conception of health from a disease model to a health model. It emphasizes health promotion rather than mainly disease management. By managing their health habits, people can live longer, healthier, and retard the process of aging (Bandura, 2004; Fuchs, 1974). Self-man-agement is good medicine....
Article
Full-text available
Nurse care management programs for patients with chronic illness have been shown to be safe and effective. To determine whether a telephone-mediated nurse care management program for heart failure reduced the rate of rehospitalization for heart failure and for all causes over a 1-year period. Randomized, controlled trial of usual care with nurse ma...
Article
The present article integrates findings from diverse studies on the generalized role of perceived coping self-efficacy in recovery from different types of traumatic experiences. They include natural disasters, technological catastrophes, terrorist attacks, military combat, and sexual and criminal assaults. The various studies apply multiple control...
Article
Full-text available
Standard office-based approaches to controlling hypertension show limited success. Such suboptimal hypertension control reflects in part the absence of both an infrastructure for patient education and frequent, regular blood pressure (BP) monitoring. We tested the efficacy of a physician-directed, nurse-managed, home-based system for hypertension m...
Article
In their article on gender development, C. L. Martin, D. N. Ruble, and J. Szkrybalo (see record 2002-18663-003) contrasted their conception of gender development with that of social cognitive theory. The authors of this commentary correct misrepresentations of social cognitive theory and analyze the conceptual and empirical status of Martin et al.'...
Article
This article traces the transformative paradigm shift in the theory and practice of personal change. Within a decade, new conceptual models, analytic methodologies and modes of treatment were created. Treatments were altered in the content, locus, and agents of change. This enterprising period also witnessed a sweeping shift in the public acceptanc...
Article
This article examines health promotion and disease prevention from the perspective of social cognitive theory. This theory posits a multifaceted causal structure in which self-efficacy beliefs operate together with goals, outcome expectations, and perceived environmental impediments and facilitators in the regulation of human motivation, behavior,...
Article
In a recent book titled Everybody Does It!, Gabor (1995) documents the pervasiveness of disengagement of moral self-sanctions from harmful conduct by people of all statuses in all walks of life. A full understanding of human morality must explain not only how people come to behave morally but also how they selectively disengage moral self-sanctions...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the psychometric properties of four scales designed to assess efficacy beliefs that family members hold about their role as spouse, parent, and child, as well as about the functioning of family as a holistic system. The sample includes about 600 parents and about 1000 adolescents. Psychometric properties of the scales are examin...
Article
This prospective study with 464 older adolescents (14 to 19 years at Time 1; 16 to 21 years at Time 2) tested the structural paths of influence through which perceived self-efficacy for affect regulation operates in concert with perceived behavioral efficacy in governing diverse spheres of psychosocial functioning. Self-efficacy to regulate positiv...
Article
Full-text available
The authors address the verification of the functional properties of self-efficacy beliefs and document how self-efficacy beliefs operate in concert with goal systems within a sociocognitive theory of self-regulation in contrast to the focus of control theory on discrepancy reduction. Social cognitive theory posits proactive discrepancy production...
Article
Psychological theories have traditionally emphasized learning from direct experi-ence. If knowledge, values, and competencies could be acquired only by trial and error, human development would be greatly retarded, not to mention exceedingly tedious and hazardous. Moreover, limited time, resources, and mobility impose se-vere limits on places and ac...
Article
This article presents the basic tenets of social cognitive theory. It is founded on a causal model of triadic reciprocal causation in which personal factors in the form of cognitive, affective and biological events, behavioral patterns, and environmental events all operate as interacting determinants that influence one another bidirectionally. With...
Article
Modeling Modeling is not merely a process of behavioral mimicry. Highly functional patterns of behavior, which constitute the proven skills and established customs of a culture, may be adopted in essentially the same form as they are exemplified. There is little leeway for 25 improvisation on how to drive automobiles or to perform arithmetic operat...
Article
Moral agency has dual aspects manifested in both the power to refrain from behaving inhumanely and the proactive power to behave humanely. Moral agency is embedded in a broader socio-cognitive self-theory encompassing affective self-regulatory mechanisms rooted in personal standards linked to self-sanctions. Moral functioning is thus governed by se...
Article
La théorie socio-cognitive adopte une perspective d’action pour ce qui est du développement, de l’adaptation et du changement humains. Cette théorie distingue trois types d’action: l’action personnelle exercée individuellement, l’action par procuration où l’on s’assure de bénéfices désirés en incitant autrui a intervenir en sa faveur, et l’action co...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined the longitudinal impact of perceived self-regulatory efficacy and parental communication on violent conduct. Adolescents' perceived efficacy to resist peer pressure for transgressive activities counteracted engagement in violent conduct both directly and by fostering open communication with parents. Parental communication...
Article
The extraordinary advances in electronic technologies and global human interconnectedness present novel adaptational challenges and expanded opportunities for people to shape their social future and national life. The present article analyzes these pervasive transformational changes from an agentic theoretical perspective rooted in the exercise of...
Article
A model positing that perception of another's affective state automatically generates matching emotional and instrumental responses predicts more than has ever been observed. Reflexive empathicness would produce emotional exhaustion, inhibitory strain, and debilitate everyday functioning. Self-regulation of empathic responses involves, not only rea...
Article
Full-text available
Two samples of family caregivers (Study 1: N = 169; Study 2: N = 145) of cognitively impaired older adults were used to revise, extend, and evaluate a measure of perceived self-efficacy for caregiving tasks. The Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy measures 3 domains of caregiving self-efficacy: Obtaining Respite, Responding to Disruptive Pat...
Article
Full-text available
This study tested a structural model regarding the impact of socioeconomic status on people's perceived individual efficacy and its link to their perceived collective efficacy. In sociodemographic analyses younger participants, compared to their older counterparts. judged themselves less efficacious to manage their worklife, intimate partnerships,...
Article
Full-text available
Following instruction in basic skills for electronic search, participants who practiced in a guided exploration mode developed stronger self-efficacy and greater satisfaction than those who practiced in a self-guided exploratory mode. Intrinsic motivation was not affected by exploration mode. On 2 post-training tasks, guided exploration participant...
Chapter
The present chapter addresses environmental sustainability through deceleration ofpopulation growth. Serial dramatizations founded on social cognitive theory serve as the principal vehicle for personal and society-wide changes. These mass media productions inform people, enable them with effective strategies and resilient efficacy beliefs, and guid...
Article
To assess the 1- and 2-year health status, health care utilization and self-efficacy outcomes for the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP). The major hypothesis is that during the 2-year period CDSMP participants will experience improvements or less deterioration than expected in health status and reductions in health care utilization. L...
Article
Full-text available
Investigated the replicability of the factor structure of the Children's Perceived Self-Efficacy scales in Italy, Hungary, and Poland. The findings of this cross-national study support the generalizability of the factor structure of children's social and academic efficacy (aged 10–15 yrs). Perceived efficacy to resist peer pressure to engage transg...
Article
Societies today are undergoing drastic social, informational, and technological changes. The revolutionary advances in electronic technologies and globalization are transforming the nature, reach, speed, and loci of human influence. These rapidly evolving realities place increasing demands on the exercise of personal and collective agency to shape...
Article
The capacity to exercise control over the nature and quality of one's life is the essence of humanness. Human agency is characterized by a number of core features that operate through phenomenal and functional consciousness. These include the temporal extension of agency through intentionality and forethought, self-regulation by self-reactive influ...
Article
Full-text available
This longitudinal research examined a structural model of the self-regulatory mechanisms governing transgressive conduct. Perceived academic and self-regulatory efficacy concurrently and longitudinally deterred transgressiveness both directly and by fostering prosocialness and adherence to moral self-sanctions for harmful conduct. The impact of per...
Article
This prospective study tested with 272 children a structural model of the network of sociocognitive influences that shape children's career aspirations and trajectories. Familial socioeconomic status is linked to children's career trajectories only indirectly through its effects on parents' perceived efficacy and academic aspirations. The impact of...
Article
The present longitudinal research demonstrates robust contributions of early prosocial behavior to children's developmental trajectories in academic and social domains. Both prosocial and aggressive behaviors in early childhood were tested as predictors of academic achievement and peer relations in adolescence 5 years later. Prosocialness included...
Article
Social cognitive theory adopts an agentic perspective in which individuals are producers of experiences and shapers of events. Among the mechanisms of human agency, none is more focal or pervading than the belief of personal efficacy. This core belief is the foundation of human agency. Unless people believe that they can produce desired effects and...
Article
Corporate transgression is a well-known phenomenon in today's business world. Some corporations are involved in violations of law and moral rules that produce organizational practices and products that take a toll on the public. Social cognitive theory of moral agency provides a conceptual framework for analyzing how otherwise pro-social managers a...
Article
A substantial body of evidence verifies that perceived self-efficacy operates as a common mechanism through which changes are achieved by diverse modes of influence, across markedly diverse spheres of functioning, with heterogeneous populations, and under differing life conditions. The scope of the organizational applications of perceived self-effi...
Chapter
Aufgrund der einflussreichen Rolle, die die Massenmedien in der Gesellschaft spielen, gewinnt das Verstehen der psychosozialen Mechanismen, durch die symbolische Kommunikation menschliches Denken, Fühlen und Handeln bestimmt, besondere Bedeutung. Die Sozial-Kognitive Theorie vermittelt einen theoretischen Rahmen, in dem man die Determinanten und Me...
Article
Full-text available
Human differentiation on the basis of gender is a fundamental phenomenon that affects virtually every aspect of people's daily lives. This article presents the social cognitive theory of gender role development and functioning. It specifies how gender conceptions are constructed from the complex mix of experiences and how they operate in concert wi...
Article
This article presents a social-cognitive theory of substance abuse. The exercise of self-regulatory agency plays a central role in this approach. Perceived self-efficacy is the foundation of human agency. Unless people believe they can produce desired effects by their actions, they have little incentive to act. Self-efficacy beliefs promote desired...
Article
Full-text available
This prospective research analyzed how different facets of perceived self-efficacy operate in concert within a network of sociocognitive influences in childhood depression. Perceived social and academic inefficacy contributed to concurrent and subsequent depression both directly and through their impact on academic achievement, prosocialness, and p...
Article
This study explored whether self-efficacy and time perspective of homeless adults (N= 82) living in a shelter affected their coping strategies related to obtaining housing and employment. Participants with high self-efficacy searched more for housing and employment and stayed at the shelter for a shorter duration, whereas participants with low self...
Article
This study evaluated the effectiveness (changes in health behaviors, health status, and health service utilization) of a self-management program for chronic disease designed for use with a heterogeneous group of chronic disease patients. It also explored the differential effectiveness of the intervention for subjects with specific diseases and como...
Article
Moral agency is manifested in both the power to refrain from behaving inhumanely and the proactive power to behave humanely. Moral agency is embedded in a broader sociocognitive self theory encompassing self-organizing, proactive, self-reflective, and self-regulatory mechanisms rooted in personal standards linked to self-sanctions. The self-regulat...
Article
and Creative ModelingModeling is not simply a process of response mimicry as commonly believed. Modeledjudgments and actions may differ in specific content but embody the same rule. For example, amodel may deal with moral dilemmas that differ widely in the nature of the activity but apply thesame moral standard to them. Modeled activities thus conv...
Article
This article examines health promotion and disease prevention from the perspective of social cognitive theory. The areas of overlap with some of the most widely applied psychosocial models of health are identified. The models of health promotion and disease prevention have undergone several generational changes. We have shifted from trying to scare...
Article
The present study tested the hypothesis that perceived self-efficacy to resist peer pressure for high-risk activities is related to transgressive conduct, both directly and through the mediation of open familial communication. Adolescents rated their self-regulatory efficacy, openness of communication with parents, and their involvement in delinque...
Article
Full-text available
Tested the hypothesis that perceived self-efficacy to resist peer pressure for high-risk activities is related to transgressive conduct, both directly and through the mediation of open familial communication. 324 adolescents (aged 14–18 yrs) rated their self-regulatory efficacy, openness of communication with parents, and their involvement in delin...
Article
To describe the development of a computer-based system for dietary management of hyperlipidemia and to evaluate its efficacy for lowering plasma cholesterol level. Using a stepwise approach, we developed and tested a three-part self-management system in five consecutive clinical studies. Each study assessed plasma cholesterol levels before and afte...
Article
The present commentary discusses the scientific legitimacy of theories confined to correlations of observables and those that specify the mechanisms governing the relations between observable events. Operant analysts frame the theoretical differences misleadingly when the operant approach is portrayed as addressing environmental influence for effec...
Article
Full-text available
This research examined the role of mechanisms of moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency. Regulatory self-sanctions can be selectively disengaged from detrimental conduct by converting harmful acts to moral ones through linkage to worthy purposes, obscuring personal causal agency by diffusion and displacement of responsibility, misrepre...
Article
This research analyzed the network of psychosocial influences through which efficacy beliefs affect academic achievement. Parents' sense of academic efficacy and aspirations for their children were linked to their children's scholastic achievement through their perceived academic capabilities and aspirations. Children's beliefs in their efficacy to...
Article
This research analyzed the network of psychosocial influences through which efficacy beliefs affect academic achievement. Parents' sense of academic efficacy and aspirations for their children were linked to their children's scholastic achievement through their perceived academic capabilities and aspirations. Children's beliefs in their efficacy to...
Article
Hawkins reiterates the familiar behavioristic doctrine that psychology should banish factors that cannot be directly observed. He seems to be unaware that the very operant theory he is espousing is heavily invested in internal determinants that do not lend themselves to direct observation. Because behavior is often unaffected by its immediate situa...
Chapter
This brief commentary is testimony to Maddux’s resilient sense of efficacy. Because of a burdensome load of commitments, I repeatedly thwarted his requests to prepare a commentary for this edited volume. An editor of lesser efficacy would have long accepted the futility of further enlistment efforts. However, as the clinching efficacious act, Maddu...
Article
Full-text available
The role of self-efficacy beliefs concerning the academic attainment and regulation of writing, academic goals, and self-standards on writing course achievement was studied with college freshman using path analysis. These self-regulatory variables were measured at the beginning of a writing course and related to final course grades. Students’ verba...
Article
Social cognitive theory provides an agentic conceptual framework within which to analyze the determinants and psychosocial mechanisms through which symbolic communication influences human thought, affect and action. Communications systems operate through two pathways. In the direct pathway, they promote changes by informing, enabling, motivating, a...
Article
Prevention of infection with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) virus requires people to exercise influence over their own behavior and their social environment. Societal efforts designed to control the spread of AIDS have centered mainly on informing the public about how the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is transmitted and how to s...
Article
In this article, I review the diverse ways in which perceived self-efficacy contributes to cognitive development and functioning. Perceived self-efficacy exerts its influence through four major processes. They include cognitive, motivational, affective, and selection processes. There are three different levels at which perceived self-efficacy opera...
Article
This study tested predictions about development of gender-related thought and action from social cognitive theory. Children at 4 levels of gender constancy were assessed for their gender knowledge, personal gender standards, and gender-linked behavior under different situational conditions. Irrespective of gender constancy level, all children engag...
Article
This study tested predictions about development of gender-related thought and action from social cognitive theory. Children at 4 levels of gender constancy were assessed for their gender knowledge, personal gender standards, and gender-linked behavior under different situational conditions. Irrespective of gender constancy level, all children engag...
Article
Full-text available
The causal role of students' self-efficacy beliefs and academic goals in self-motivated academic attainment was studied using path analysis procedures. Parental goal setting and students' self-efficacy and personal goals at the beginning of the semester served as predictors of students' final course grades in social studies. In addition, their grad...
Article
The recent years have witnessed a resurgence of interest in the nature, origins, and functions of human agency. Among the mechanisms of personal agency, none is more central or pervasive than people's beliefs in their capability to regulate their own functioning and to manage events that affect their lives. Such self-beliefs affect how people think...
Article
affective modeling is the major vehicle for conveying information in the process of social referencing [in child development] / addresses the mechanisms governing the different functions of affective modeling vicarious activation [vicarious activation and expressive cues, cognitive mediation of vicarious arousal, vicarious arousal and predictive...
Article
Self-control theories have focused on various aspects of the processes involved in exerting self-control. In the present paper, we intend to add to this literature by demonstrating that exerting self-control leads one to narrow one's attention and cognition, inducing a narrow mindset. We demonstrate this in three studies. Participants who exerted s...
Article
This study tested the hypothesis that conceptions of ability affect self-regulatory processes and the acquisition rate of a perceptual-motor skill. Subjects performed a rotary pursuit task under induced cognitive sets that task performance reflected inherent aptitude or acquirable skill. Their perceived self-efficacy, affective self-reactions, and...
Article
This study tested the hypothesis that different patterns of social comparison would affect performance attainments in a simulated organization through their impact on mediating self-regulatory mechanisms. Ss served as organizational decision makers under prearranged comparative feedback that they performed as well as their comparators, consistently...
Article
Responds to the comments of W. T. Powers (see record 1991-18393-001); W. Rottschaefer (see record 1991-18397-001); and K. J. Corcoran (see record 1991-18358-001) concerning A. Bandura's (see record 1990-01275-001) article on human agency in social cognitive theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
abstractions and idealization of autonomy come out looking morally underdeveloped even though in their moral conduct they may exhibit fewer inhumanities than Western societies that are ranked as morally superior Kohlberg's (1971b) prescriptive stance that moral education in the classroom should consist of moving children through the stages of moral...
Article
This experiment examined the impact of experimentally varied perceived self-efficacy in exercising control over stressors on components of the immunological system. Immunological changes while coping with phobic stressors were measured within an intrasubject control design that included a baseline phase, an efficacy-acquisition phase, and a maximal...

Citations

... O processo de autogerenciamento é compreendido como um dispositivo interno consciente e voluntário de controle, que atua na administração do comportamento, dos pensamentos e dos sentimentos individuais, possuindo como modelo metas e padrões específicos de atuação (ROSA; ROSA, 2020). Esse mecanismo de autorregulação opera por meio de três subprocessos cognitivos, a auto-observação, os processos de julgamento e a autorreação, que precisam ser desenvolvidos e impulsionados para transformações direcionadas aos objetivos que se pretendem alcançar (BANDURA, 2008(BANDURA, , 2019 , 2005). Esse instrumento dispõe de perguntas com padrão de resposta dicotômica entre "sim" e "não", com escore total máximo de 15 pontos, sendo que de "0 a 5 pontos" representa inexistência de depressão, "6 a 10 pontos", estado de depressão leve ou moderado, "11 a 15 pontos", estado de depressão grave (PINHO et al., 2010). ...
... Although moral disengagement and need for popularity have been mainly addressed as trait-like characteristics at between-person level, established over adolescence (Paciello et al., 2008;Dawes & Xie, 2017), both may also have state-like qualities at a within-person level. Moral disengagement implies a process of applying moral disengagement mechanisms (Bandura, 2018), and it has been argued that moral disengagement should not be considered only as a relatively stable characteristic of a person, but also as a process that assumes that an individual may exhibit differences in the expression of moral disengagement depending on the behavior, situation or context (Runions & Bak, 2015;Schaefer & Bouwmeester, 2020). This state-like characteristic of moral disengagement permits an understanding of how morally healthy individuals may engage in unethical behavior. ...
... Self-efficacy and independent agency are essential to successful behavior change and clinical outcomes. [10][11][12] Examples of language that indicate self-efficacy: expressing confidence in achieving a new goal, overcoming a known barrier to success, and believing they control their destiny or future. ...
... In addition, it would be interesting to take advantage of the meta-analytical structural equations modelling (e.g. Morren & Grinstein, 2021;Stajkovic et al., 2018) to explore the possible effect of confounding variables in the same model, as well as test Table 2 Summary effect sizes for correlation between refusal selfefficacy and alcohol variables AC = Alcohol Consumption. k = number of independent samples; CI = 99% confidence interval; Q = heterogeneity between studies. ...
... 4.4.9. Carer self-efficacy Self-efficacy is the individual's belief that they are able to influence successfully domains that affect their lives [64]. For carers in dementia, self-efficacy may be dominated by an individual's confidence in coping effectively with different caring tasks. ...
Citing chapter
... In addition, this study adopted self-efficacy to food waste reduction as a moderator on the path from the moral norm for food waste reduction to food waste reduction intention. Self-efficacy is a self-appraisal of one's capacity to organize and guide the actions essential to deal with certain situations [19]. Therefore, it follows that when customers believe they are capable of behaving in the ways required to mitigate food waste, their moral norm will drive them more strongly to form food waste reduction intention. ...