Alayn R. Waldorf's research while affiliated with California State University and other places

Publications (12)

Chapter
Mononuclear phagocytes and granulocytes readily kill many potentially infectious fungi, even in the nonimmune individual. Phagocytic cells, macrophages, monocytes, or polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) interact with fungi in several ways. If the fungal particle is phagocytized, it may either be killed, or in some instances remain viable and replica...
Article
Full-text available
Four antigen preparations from Rhizopus arrhizus were made and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and column chromatography. Electrophoretic analyses of these antigens indicated that there are 18 to 28 component bands with a molecular mass range of approximately 10,500 to 83,000 daltons. Seven of these...
Article
Aspergillosis and mucormycosis are opportunistic fungal infections that share several unique features. The etiologic agents of aspergillosis and mucormycosis are ubiquitous in the environment, but are opportunistic organisms and usually infect only patients predisposed by some underlying disease or treatment. These infections are typically characte...
Article
With the induction of germination, Rhizopus oryzae spores and Aspergillus fumigatus conidia activate the complement system and induce neutrophil chemotaxis. In contrast, freshly isolated R. oryzae spores did not induce neutrophil migration into lung tissue of mice after intranasal inoculation. Moreover, in microchemotaxis assays neither fresh R. or...
Article
To assess the influence of diabetes mellitus in predisposing to pulmonary mucormycosis, a murine model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes was used. Intranasal inoculation of Rhizopus oryzae into diabetic mice resulted in mucormycotic infection with histopathology resembling pulmonary mucormycosis observed in humans. There was no mortality nor infec...
Article
Rhinocerebral involvement is the most common form of mucormycosis in uncontrolled diabetic patients. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic and normal mice were challenged by intrasinus inoculation of Rhizopus oryzae to determine their susceptibility to infection by this route. Ninety percent of diabetic mice and no normal mice died after inoculation with...
Article
Following intranasal inoculation of mice, Rhizomucor pusillus spores are gradually cleared from the lung, with the clearance complete at 30 days. Incubation of R. pusillus spores in vivo for up to 14 days after intranasal inoculation resulted in pulmonary mucormycosis when the mice were then treated with cortisone. Spore-agglutinating IgM antibodie...
Article
Results using homogenate antigens of Rhizomucor pusillus against immunized rabbit sera, mouse ascites fluid and sera from mucormycotic-infected mice, detected by immunodiffusion and complement fixation assays are presented. Using immunodiffusion techniques, common antigens and unique antigens from Rh. pusillus, Rhizopus oryzae and Absidia corymbife...
Article
Antibody raised in mice against mycelial homogenates of Rhizomucor pusillus was effective in passive immunization against pulmonary and disseminated mucormycosis (phycomycosis) in immunocompromised mice. Mice intranasally inoculated and infected with Rh. pusillus and treated with antisera had a statistically significant increased resistance to infe...
Article
Intranasal inoculation of Rhizomucor pusillus sporangiospores into cortisone-treated mice produced pulmonary and disseminated mucormycosis (phycomycosis). Evidence for infection in cortisone treated mice was obtained by recovery of Rh. pusillus from homogenates of tissue. Confirmation of infection was shown histologically. The 50% infectious dose w...
Article
The fatty acid content of depot fat samples from 15 northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) were determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Callorhinus ursinus has a high proportion of short chain saturated acids: C10, C11, C12, C13, C15. Unsaturated longer chain acids C16:1, and C16:2, and C18:1 also were found. Results obtained are compared to a p...
Article
The fatty acid content of depot fat samples from 15 northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) were determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Callorhinus ursinus has a high proportion of short chain saturated acids; ClO, Cli, C12, C13, C15. Unsaturated longer chain acids C16:1, and C16:2, and C18:1 also were found. Results obtained are compared to a p...

Citations

... The high incidence of IPA in leucopenic and agranulocytic patients highlights the importance of phagocytosis for clearance of A. fumigatus conidia from the lung (Cohen et al., 1981;Gerson et al., 1984). Phagocytosis of A. fumigatus conidia by monocytes, alveolar macrophages, and polymorphonuclear leucocytes has been demonstrated in vitro (Lehrer and Jan, 1970;Levitz and Diamond, 1985;Washburn et al., 1986;Robertson et al., 1987;Levitz and Farrell, 1990;Waldorf, 1991), and complement components are known to play an important role in opsonizing conidia for optimal phagocytosis by peripheral blood phagocytes (Murphy, 1990). Sturtevant and Latge (1992a) have reported that an intact alternative complement pathway is required for optimal recognition of conidia by polymorphonuclear cells. ...
... Cutaneous lesions are a common issue in captive and 32 free-ranging pinnipeds, associated with several infec-33 tious agents, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites and 34 fungi [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. Their thick stratum corneum and fatty 35 acid secretions grant pinnipeds a relative resistance to 36 fungal skin infections [9,10]. Nevertheless, several 37 cases of fungal infections caused by molds have been 38 reported in captive pinnipeds, including Microsporum 39 canis in a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) [11], Microspo-40 rum gypseum in Australian (Neophoca cinerea) and 41 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) [ 8,12] 42 and Trichophyton mentagrophytes in gray (Hali-43 choerus grypus) and harbor seals and in a captive 44 Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) [13,14]. ...
... 16,17 However, swollen spores in the Rhizopus genus are often no more readily phagocytosed than resting spores, and R. microsporus spores are phagocytosed at lower rates than other well studied fungal spores. [18][19][20][21] While in some species, larger spore size (12.3 mm) reduces phagocytosis, the small spore size of R. microsporus (5 mm, comparable with other wellphagocytosed particles) makes this unlikely to explain the observed reduced uptake. 22,23 A common strategy fungi employ to evade phagocytosis is through masking cell wall ligands. ...
... Thus, surgical debridement or resection removes a focus of infection that cannot be treated adequately by systemic medication alone. Even with successful treatment, Mucorales can become dormant and reappear during future courses of chemotherapy and neutropenia (19). More recently, hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been introduced in the treatment of rhinocerebral and atypical forms of mucormycosis. ...
... Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays [96], immunoblots [97], and immunodiffusion tests [98] are being tried with varying degrees of success. An enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) test identified Mucorales specific T lymphocytes in three hematological patients with invasive mucormycosis [66]. ...
... Two groups of three rabbits each were immunized by intramuscular injections of either the homogenate antigen or the metabolic precipitate antigen. Each rabbit was injected with a 1-ml emulsion of the antigen (containing 0.5 mg of carbohydrate) dissolved in sterile saline and Freund incomplete adjuvant (13,18). For intravenous injections, each antigen contained 0.5 mg of carbohydrate per ml of saline. ...
... Thus, if humoral immunity plays a role in host defense, antibodies directed against the hyphal forms are more effective than those directed against spores. Passive transfer of specific antisera produced against mycelial homogenates increases the resistance to morbidity of mice with mucormycosis, although spore germination and infection occur (17). The mechanism(s) by which the antisera increased the resistance to fatal mucormycosis is unknown, and the fungal antigens with which the antibodies react are also unknown. ...
... The impaired function of PMN cells in a mouse model of diabetes, along with intracerebral mucormycosis, led to 90% of the animals died after 11 days after receiving R. oryzae intra-sinus injection [16] . In histopathological lesions of diabetic mice, the spores were preceded by the inflammation including infiltration of macrophages and PMN [11] . ...
... Most of the classification profiling in fungal species is carried out through slide agglutination techniques [42]. The absorbed and monospecific antisera are homologous to the antigens of all related species, whereas the reciprocal and successive absorption of antigen is evaluated to confirm the antigenic structure. ...
... According to clinical and experimental data, individuals who lack phagocytes or have impaired phagocytic functions have a higher risk of developing mucormycosis [5,6,46]. The present in vitro observations indicated that peritoneal macrophages from the most resistant strain (BALB/c) had increased production of inflammatory mediators, such as H 2 O 2 and TNF-α [47], in the first contact with R. oryzae antigen. ...