Alan MacLeod's research while affiliated with Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and other places

Publications (78)

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The EFSA Plant Health Panel performed a pest categorisation of Xylella taiwanensis, a Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the Xanthomonadaceae. The pathogen is a well-defined taxonomic entity, and it is the causal agent of the pear leaf scorch. X. taiwanensis is present in subtropical and temperate areas of the island of Taiwan, where it affects l...
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Managing outbreaks of alien plant pests is key to preserving biodiversity and safeguarding crop production. Zoning strategies are applied by plant health authorities to tailor measures to the risk of spread in relation to distance from the outbreak epicentre and the biology of the pest. Here we synthesize information on outbreak management to evalu...
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The European Commission requested the EFSA Panel on Plant Health to prepare and deliver risk assessments for commodities listed in Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/2019 as ‘High risk plants, plant products and other objects’. This Scientific Opinion covers plant health risks posed by plants of Prunus persica and P. dulcis, as budwood/gr...
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The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Nipaecoccus viridis (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae), the spherical scale, for the EU. It is of Asian origin and occurs widely in southern Asia, Africa and tropical Australia. It has been introduced to a few countries in the Americas. In the Mediterranean basin it is found...
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The European Commission requested the EFSA Panel on Plant Health to prepare and deliver a scientific opinion on the efficacy of a postharvest treatment aiming to eradicate all developmental stages of Guatemalan potato tuber moth Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in ware potatoes. The Panel evaluated the scientific publication describing t...
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The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Resseliella maxima (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), the soybean gall midge, for the EU. This midge was first described in 2018 and is widespread in north-western United States. It is not listed in Annex II of Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2072. Larvae feed on and develop in s...
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The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Icerya aegyptiaca (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Monophlebidae), the Egyptian fluted scale, for the EU. This insect is established in several countries in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Within the EU, the pest has not been reported. It is not listed in Annex II of Commis...
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The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Urocerus japonicus (Hymenoptera: Siricidae), the Japanese horntail, for the territory of the EU. U. japonicus is not listed in Annex II of Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2072 but was identified as an actionable pest in a commodity risk assessment of Pinus thunbergii art...
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Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a risk assessment of Xanthomonas citri pv. viticola (Xcv). This pest causes bacterial canker of grapevine and is reported from Brazil and India. Two scenarios were considered: scenario A0 (current practice) and A2 (additional control measures). For the fresh...
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The EFSA Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest categorisation of chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CpCDV) for the EU territory. The identity of CpCDV, a member of the genus Mastrevirus (family Geminiviridae) is established. Reliable detection and identification methods are available. The pathogen is not included in the EU Commission Implementing Reg...
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Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest risk assessment of Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the navel orangeworm, for the EU. The quantitative assessment considered two scenarios: (i) current practices and (ii) a requirement for chilled transport. The assessment focused on path...
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The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Neomaskellia andropogonis (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), the sugarcane whitefly, for the EU territory. N. andropogonis is a tropical and subtropical species that originates in south central Asia and has recently established in Iran and Iraq. N. andropogonis is not listed in Commission Imp...
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The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Dendrolimus spectabilis (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), a moth, also known as the Japanese pine caterpillar, for the European Union (EU). D. spectabilis is native to China, Japan and Korea. Its larvae primarily feed on the needles of Pinus densiflora and P. thunbergii and can also feed...
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The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Penthimiola bella (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), the citrus leafhopper, for the European Union (EU). P. bella is native to the Afrotropical region; it has spread to Israel (first reported in 1974), Lebanon, and was reported from Morocco in 2018. Within the EU, P. bella is established in...
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The EFSA Plant Health Panel performed a pest categorisation of Coleosporium phellodendri Kom., a basidiomycete fungus belonging to the order Pucciniales, causing rust diseases on Pinus spp. (aecial host) and on Phellodendron spp. (telial host). C. phellodendri has been reported only from Asia (namely, China, Republic of Korea, Japan and Russia) and...
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The EFSA Plant Health Panel performed a pest categorisation of Stenocarpella maydis, a clearly defined fungus causing seedling blight, stalk and ear rot in maize, its only confirmed main host. The pathogen occurs in many countries of North, Central and South America, Africa, Asia and Oceania where maize is grown commercially. It is present in the E...
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The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Matsucoccus massonianae (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae), the Massonian pine bast scale, for the EU territory. M. massonianae occurs in western China and has been reported as a pest of Pinus massoniana (Chinese red pine) and P. thunbergii (Japanese black pine). These hosts occur in the EU...
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The EFSA Plant Health Panel performed a pest categorisation of Colletotrichum aenigma, C. alienum, C. perseae, C. siamense and C. theobromicola, five clearly defined fungi of the C. gloeosporioides complex causing anthracnose. The pathogens are widely distributed in at least three continents. C. aenigma and C. siamense are reported from Italy and C...
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The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Pulvinaria psidii (Hemiptera: Coccidae), the green shield scale, for the EU. P. psidii was originally described from Hawaii on Psidium sp. and it is now established in many countries in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Within the EU, the pest has been reported from main...
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The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Dendrolimus superans Butler (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), the larch caterpillar, for the EU territory. D. superans is a major pest of conifer forests in Japan, northeast China and non-European Russia. However, reports of damage are to conifer species not grown in EU forestry. Larix g...
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The European Commission requested the EFSA Panel on Plant Health to prepare and deliver risk assessments for commodities listed in Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/2019 as 'High risk plants, plant products and other objects'. This Scientific Opinion covers plant health risks posed by plants of Prunus domestica grafted on Prunus cerasife...
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The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Prostigmata: Tetranychidae), the persea mite, for the EU. O. perseae is a tropical species that originated in Mesoamerica and has now spread and established in California, Florida, Hawaii, Morocco, southern Europe and Israel. Within the EU, it is establish...
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The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Russellaspis pustulans (Hemiptera: Asterolecaniidae), the oleander pit scale, for the EU. R. pustulans occurs widely in tropical and subtropical areas of the world and is restricted to indoor plantings in cooler temperate regions. Within the EU, it has been reported in some literatur...
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The EFSA Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest categorisation of Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) for the EU territory. The identity of CaCV, a member of the genus Orthotospovirus (family Tospoviridae), is established and reliable detection and identification methods are available. The pathogen is not included in the EU Commission Implementing Regu...
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Abstract The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed the pest categorisation of the ulluco weevil, Amathynetoides nitidiventris (Hustache), for the EU territory. This species is not included in EU Commission Implementing Regulation 2019/2072. However, its only substantiated host, ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus), is included in Annex I of Regulation EU 2018...
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Abstract The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Atalodera andina (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) for the European Union (EU) territory. A. andina belongs to the order Rhabditida, subfamily Ataloderinae. This species has not been reported from the EU. It is not included in the EU Commission Implementing Regulation 2019/2072. It...
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The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Platypus apicalis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae), an ambrosia beetle, also known as a pinhole borer, for the EU territory. P. apicalis is a polyphagous pest native to New Zealand. The majority of its life cycle is spent inside tree wood, but it does not directly feed on pl...
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Abstract The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Tetraleurodes perseae (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), the red‐banded whitefly, for the territory of the EU. T. perseae is a tropical and subtropical species that originated in the Neotropical region and has now spread and established in the USA (California and Florida), Israel and...
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Abstract The EFSA Plant Health Panel performed a pest categorisation of Fusarium pseudograminearum O'Donnell & T. Aoki. F. pseudograminearum is a soil‐borne fungal pathogen, able to cause a disease known as Fusarium crown rot (FCR, also known as foot and root rot) and occasionally Fusarium head blight on small grain cereals, particularly Triticum a...
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Abstract The European Commission requested the EFSA Panel on Plant Health to prepare and deliver risk assessments for commodities listed in the Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/2019 as ‘High‐risk plants, plant products and other objects’. This Scientific Opinion covers plant health risks posed by potted plants (2–3 years old) of Berberi...
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The European Commission requested the EFSA Panel on Plant Health to prepare and deliver risk assessments for commodities listed in Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/2019 as 'High risk plants, plant products and other objects'. This Scientific Opinion covers plant health risks posed by dormant grafted plants, rootstocks, budwood and scion...
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The EFSA Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest categorisation of High Plains wheat mosaic virus (HPWMoV) for the EU territory. The identity of HPWMoV, a member of the genus Emaravirus (family Fimoviridae), is well established and reliable identification methods are available. The pathogen is not included in the EU Commission Implementing Regulatio...
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The European Commission requested the EFSA Panel on Plant Health to prepare and deliver risk assessments for commodities listed in Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/2019 as 'High risk plants, plant products and other objects'. This Scientific Opinion covers plant health risks posed by 2-year-old bare rooted plants for planting of Acer pa...
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The European Commission requested the EFSA Panel on Plant Health to prepare and deliver risk assessments for commodities listed in Commission Implementing Regulation EU/2018/2019 as 'High risk plants, plant products and other objects'. This Scientific Opinion covers plant health risks posed by unrooted cuttings of Jasminum polyanthum that are impor...
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The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Aulacaspis tubercularis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), the white mango scale, for the EU. A. tubercularis is a tropical species that originates from Asia but is now established in several tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. It also occurs within the EU and is establishe...
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The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), the citriculus mealybug, for the EU. P. cryptus originates from Southeast Asia but is now established in East Africa, the Middle East and South America. The pest is not currently known to occur in the EU (there was a record onc...
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The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae), the African fig fly for the territory of the EU. This species successfully colonised the Indian subcontinent more than four decades ago, and more recently South and North America. Within the EU, the pest occurs in Cyprus, Malta, Portugal (...
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The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Sirex nitobei (Hymenoptera: Siricidae), the nitobe horntail, for the territory of the EU. S. nitobei is not listed in Annex II of Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2072 but was identified as a potential regulated pest in a commodity risk assessment of Pinus thunbergii arti...
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The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Plicosepalus acaciae (Zuccarini) Wiens & Polhill), the acacia strap flower, a hemiparasitic plant of the family Loranthaceae parasitising woody plants. Host plants include several species of the genera Vachellia, Tamarix and Ziziphus and various fruit crops. P. acaciae is present in...
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The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Toumeyella parvicornis (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) for the EU territory. This species is not included in EU Commission Implementing Regulation 2019/2072. T. parvicornis is a soft-scale insect native to North America and has been introduced to the Caribbean region and the EU. It...
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Abstract The European Commission requested the EFSA Panel on Plant Health to prepare and deliver risk assessments for commodities listed in Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/2019 as ‘High risk plants, plant products and other objects’. This Scientific Opinion covers plant health risks posed by defoliated and in dormant phase, grafted bar...
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Abstract The European Commission requested the EFSA Panel on Plant Health to conduct a pest categorisation of Malacosoma disstria Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), commonly known as the forest tent caterpillar, for the territory of the EU. M. disstria is a North American polyphagous leaf‐eating pest primarily feeding on deciduous trees belonging...
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The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) for the EU territory. B. hilaris, known as the bagrada bug or painted bug, is a polyphagous pest feeding on at least 25 plant families including several economically important brassica crops such as broccoli, cabbage and cauliflower. Other ec...
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The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Thecodiplosis japonensis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) for the EU territory. This species is not included in the EU Commission Implementing Regulation 2019/2072. T. japonensis Uchida & Inouye is a well-defined species, native to a large part of Japan, which was introduced to the Republic...
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The European Commission requested the EFSA Panel on Plant Health to prepare and deliver a scientific opinion on the risk posed by bonsai plants from China consisting of Pinus parviflora grafted on Pinus thunbergii taking into account the available scientific information, including the technical information provided by China. All pests associated wi...
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The EFSA Plant Health Panel performed a pest categorisation of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4), an ascomycete fungus causing Fusarium wilt (Panama disease) on Musa spp. Foc TR4 is pathogenic to the commercial banana varieties including those of the 'Cavendish' group and is considered as the most destructive among Foc hap...
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Following a request from the EU Commission, the EFSA Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest categorisation of Apium virus Y (ApVY) for the EU territory. The identity of the ApVY, a member of the genus Potyvirus (family Potyviridae), is well established and reliable detection methods are available. The pathogen is not included in EU Commission Imple...
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The European Commission requested the EFSA Panel on Plant Health to prepare and deliver risk assessments for commodities listed in the Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/2019 as 'High-risk plants, plant products and other objects'. This Scientific Opinion covers plant health risks posed by potted plants (2-4 years old) of specified Lonice...
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The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), the pink hibiscus mealybug, for the EU. M. hirsutus is native to Southern Asia and has established in many countries in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. Within the EU, the pest has been reported from Cyprus a...
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The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the Japanese grape leafhopper, Arboridia kakogawana (Matsumura, 1932) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), for the EU territory. This species is not included in the EU Commission Implementing Regulation 2019/2072. Adults of A. kakogawana overwinter in broad-leaved and mixed forests and move to...
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Abstract The EFSA Plant Health Panel performed a pest categorisation of Xanthomonas citri pv. viticola (Nayudu) Dye, a Gram‐negative bacterium belonging to the Xanthomonadaceae family. The pathogen is a well‐defined taxonomic unit and is the causal agent of the leaf spot and bacterial canker of Vitis vinifera. This bacterium is present in India and...
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Abstract Following a request from the EU Commission, the EFSA Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest categorisation of carrot thin leaf virus (CTLV) for the EU territory. The identity of CTLV, a member of the genus Potyvirus (family Potyviridae), is well established and reliable detection methods are available. The pathogen is not included in the E...
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Abstract The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Xylotrechus chinensis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) for the EU territory. This species is not included in the EU Commission Implementing Regulation 2019/2072. X. chinensis is native to China, Japan, the Korean peninsula and Taiwan. It has recently been reported from Spain (Cata...
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The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the mango red spider mite, Oligonychus mangiferus (Rahman and Sapra, 1940) (Acari: Prostigmata: Tetranychidae), for the territory of the EU. This species is not included in the EU Commission Implementing Regulation 2019/2072. The polyphagous mite feeds on more than 50 host plants inc...
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Abstract The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the black vine thrips, Retithrips syriacus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), for the EU territory. This species is not included in EU Commission Implementing Regulation 2019/2072. This polyphagous species feeds, among others, on apple, avocado, banana, cotton, grapevine, persimmon,...
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Abstract The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the snout moth Leucinodes pseudorbonalis Mally, Korycinska, Agassiz, Hall, Hodgetts & Nuss (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), for the territory of the EU. This species is not included in the EU Commission Implementing Regulation 2019/2072. This oligophagous species, which feeds on fr...
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The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the eggplant fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guenée, (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), for the territory of the EU. L. orbonalis is a tropical and sub-tropical species native to Asia and Australia with India considered its centre of origin. Following taxonomic revision, literatur...