Alan Baddeley's research while affiliated with CUNY Graduate Center and other places

Publications (312)

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Debate continues regarding the possible role of the hippocampus across short-term and working memory tasks. The current study examined the possibility of a hippocampal contribution to precise, high-resolution cognition and conjunctive memory. We administered visual working memory tasks featuring a continuous response component to a well-established...
Article
Recent findings demonstrate that selective retrieval practice (SRP), specifically the retrieval of subparts of material, not just retrieval of the entire encoded material, can enhance later memory performance. We present two experiments that investigated whether SRP enhances memory performance among older adults. We also examined to what extent thi...
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In a seminal study, Slamecka and McElree showed that the degree of initial learning of verbal material affected the intercepts but not the slopes of forgetting curves. However, more recent work has reported that memories for central events (gist) and memory for secondary details (peripheral) were forgotten at different rates over periods of days, w...
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Research from a working memory perspective on the encoding and temporary maintenance of sequential instructions has established a consistent advantage for enacted over verbal recall. This is thought to reflect action planning for anticipated movements at the response phase. We describe five experiments investigating this, comparing verbal and enact...
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It is commonly assumed that the rate of forgetting depends on initial degree of learning. Hence, comparison of forgetting across groups is usually carried out equating initial performance. However, these matching procedures add confounding variables. In four experiments, following Slamecka and McElree (1983, Exp 3), we challenge this assumption thr...
Article
Research from a working memory perspective on the encoding and temporary maintenance of sequential instructions has established a consistent advantage for enacted over verbal recall. This is thought to reflect action planning for anticipated movements at the response phase. We describe five experiments investigating this, comparing verbal and enact...
Article
The evolution of the concept of a multicomponent working memory is described with particular reference to the contribution from neuropsychology. Early evidence from patients with the classic amnesic syndrome, together with others showing the opposite deficit of impaired short-term but preserved long-term memory argued strongly for a separation betw...
Article
While many memory disorders occur with normal rates of forgetting, an accelerated rate of long-term forgetting (ALF) may occur, sometimes in the absence of a learning deficit. Detecting ALF presents a problem as it is desirable that the learned material is re-tested after each of several delays. This may result in earlier retrievals confounding lat...
Article
A broad functional approach is taken to the analysis of human memory. The overall importance of episodic memory, the capacity to remember specific events, is illustrated by the devastating effect that loss of this aspect of memory has on the capacity to cope in the case of densely amnesic patients. Recent applied research has however focussed heavi...
Article
Most patients with memory disorders appear to forget at a relatively normal rate. Hence testing retention beyond the initial test session becomes unnecessary. However, it is now well established that a subsample of patients, most notably people with epilepsy, can show substantially increased forgetting rates even when acquisition rate is normal, ra...
Chapter
The multicomponent model aims to provide a broad theoretical framework enabling both more detailed fractionation and analysis of its components, and a capacity for it be used fruitfully beyond the laboratory. In its current form it comprises four interacting components. Two of these are modality-specific memory storage systems, one verbal-acoustic,...
Article
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Though there is substantial evidence that individuals can prioritize more valuable information in visual working memory, little research has examined this in the verbal domain. Four experiments were conducted to investigate this and the conditions under which effects emerge. In each experiment, participants listened to digit sequences and then atte...
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Working Memory Binding (WMB) entails the integration of multiple sources of information to form and temporarily store unique representations. Information can be processed through either one (i.e., Unimodal WMB) or separate sensory modalities (i.e., Crossmodal WMB). Objective: In this study, we investigated whether Crossmodal WMB is differentially...
Article
Objectives: Whether people with Alzheimer's Disease present with accelerated long term forgetting compared to healthy controls is still debated. Typically, accelerated long term forgetting implies testing the same participants repeatedly over several delays. This testing method raises the issue of confounding repetition effects with forgetting rat...
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We review our research on the episodic buffer in the multicomponent model of working memory (Baddeley, 2000), making explicit the influence of Anne Treisman’s work on the way our research has developed. The crucial linking theme concerns binding, whereby the individual features of an episode are combined as integrated representations. We summarize...
Article
Tests of early reading in English speakers typically rely on the capacity to read irregularly spelled words. The approach is not feasible for more regularly spelled languages. The Reading Decision Test is a group-administered test, initially developed to study reading in Kiswahili speakers. It was subsequently validated by comparing an English lang...
Article
We explored the proposal that overt repetition of verbal information improves the acquisition of a native accent in a second language. Mandarin‐speaking Chinese learners of English were recorded while repeating and reading out English sentences before and after one of three treatments: (1) Repeating native English sentences subvocally, "covert repe...
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Immediate serial recall of sentences has been shown to be superior to that of unrelated words. This study was designed to further explore how this effect might emerge in recall and to establish whether it also extends to serial recognition, a different form of response task that has relatively reduced output requirements. Using auditory or visual p...
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The term “modal model” reflects the importance of Atkinson and Shiffrin’s paper in capturing the major developments in the cognitive psychology of memory that were achieved over the previous decade, providing an integrated framework that has formed the basis for many future developments. The fact that it is still the most cited model from that peri...
Article
Multitasking, a common feature of everyday life, requires simultaneous maintenance and operation of a range of action-controlling task sets. We attempt to investigate the role of working memory in multitasking by means of the embedded task paradigm. This involves setting up a primary task with a variable task set, which then has to be maintained th...
Article
We regard our multicomponent model of working memory as reflecting a hierarchy of buffer stores with buffer storage providing an effective way of combining information from two or more streams that may differ in either the speed of input or in the features coded. We illustrate this through the case of the phonological loop component of the model. W...
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Previous research on memory for a short sequence of visual stimuli indicates that access to the focus of attention can be achieved in either of two ways. The first is automatic and is indexed by the recency effect, the enhanced retention of the final item. The second is strategic and based on instructions to prioritize items differentially, a proce...
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In visual working memory tasks, memory for an item is enhanced if participants are told that item is relatively more valuable than others presented within the same trial. Experiment 1 explored whether these probe value boosts (termed prioritization effects in previous literature) are affected by probe frequency (i.e. how often the more valuable ite...
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While most individuals who have problems acquiring new information forget at a normal rate, there have been reports of patients who show much more rapid forgetting, particularly comprising a subsample of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Currently available tests are generally not designed to test this since it requires multiple different tests...
Article
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It is well established that digit span in native Chinese speakers is atypically high. This is commonly attributed to a capacity for more rapid subvocal rehearsal for that group. We explored this hypothesis by testing a group of English-speaking native Mandarin speakers on digit span and word span in both Mandarin and English, together with a measur...
Article
Immediate serial recall of verbal material is highly sensitive to impairment due to phonological similarity. While this has traditionally been interpreted as a within-sequence similarity effect, Engle (2007) proposed an interpretation based on interference from prior sequences, a phenomenon analogous to that found in the Peterson short-term memory...
Article
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Recent research (Bengson & Luck, 2015) has indicated that visual working memory capacity for unidimensional items might be boosted by focusing on all presented items, as opposed to a subset of them. However, it is not clear whether the same outcomes would be observed if more complex items were used which require feature binding, a potentially more...
Preprint
Recent research has demonstrated that, when instructed to prioritize a serial position in visual working memory, adults are able to boost performance for this selected item, at a cost to non-prioritized items (e.g. Hu et al., 2014). While executive control appears to play an important role in this ability, the increased likelihood of recalling the...
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Recent research has demonstrated that, when instructed to prioritize a serial position in visual working memory, adults are able to boost performance for this selected item, at a cost to non- prioritized items (e.g. Hu et al., 2014). While executive control appears to play an important role in this ability, the increased likelihood of recalling the...
Article
The concept of modularity is used to contrast the approach to working memory proposed by Truscott with the Baddeley and Hitch multicomponent model. This proposes four sub components comprising the central executive, an executive control system of limited attentional capacity that utilises storage based on separate but interlinked temporary storage...
Article
The concept of Levels of Processing (LOP), proposing that deep coding enhances retention, has played a central role in the study of episodic memory. Evidence has however been based almost entirely on retention of individual words. Across five experiments, we compare LOP effects between visual and verbal stimuli, using judgments of pleasantness as a...
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The contents of visual working memory are likely to reflect the influence of both executive control resources and information present in the environment. We investigated whether executive attention is critical in the ability to exclude unwanted stimuli by introducing concurrent potentially distracting irrelevant items to a visual working memory par...
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We examined the role of executive control in stimulus-driven and goal-directed attention in visual working memory using probed recall of a series of objects, a task that allows study of the dynamics of storage through analysis of serial position data. Experiment 1 examined whether executive control underlies goal-directed prioritization of certain...
Article
The study of human long-term memory has, for over 50 years been dominated by research on words. This is partly due to lack of suitable non-verbal materials. Experience in developing a clinical test suggested that door scenes can provide an ecologically relevant and sensitive alternative to the faces and geometrical figures traditionally used to stu...
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Abstract The concreteness effect in verbal short-term memory (STM) tasks is assumed to be a consequence of semantic encoding in STM, with immediate recall of concrete words benefiting from richer semantic representations. We used the concreteness effect to test the hypothesis that semantic encoding in standard verbal STM tasks is a consequence of c...
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Testes rápidos (screenings) de avaliação de leitura são instrumentos essenciais para professores e profissionais no âmbito educacional. Este estudo adaptou para o português o subteste de leitura de palavras do Reading Decision Test (RDT), o qual tem duas formas equivalentes, compostas por palavras e pseudopalavras. O processo de adaptação seguiu as...
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A visual object can be conceived as comprising a number of features bound together by their joint spatial location. We investigate the question of whether the spatial location is automatically bound to the features or whether the two are separable using a previously developed paradigm whereby memory is disrupted by a visual suffix. Participants wer...
Article
From vocabulary learning to imitating sequences of motor actions, the ability to plan, represent, and recall a novel sequence of items in the correct order is fundamental for many verbal and nonverbal higher level cognitive activities. Here we review phenomena of serial order documented across the verbal, visual, and spatial short-term memory domai...
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A visual object can be conceived of as comprising a number of features bound together by their joint spatial location. We investigate the question of whether the spatial location is automatically bound to the features or whether the two are separable, using a previously developed paradigm whereby memory is disrupted by a visual suffix. Participants...
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Four experiments studied the interfering effects of a to-be-ignored ‘stimulus suffix’ on cued recall of feature bindings for a series of objects. When each object was given equal weight (Experiment 1) or rewards favored recent items (Experiments 2 and 4), a recency effect emerged that was selectively reduced by a suffix. The reduction was greater f...
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How does executive attentional control contribute to memory for sequences of visual objects, and what does this reveal about storage and processing in working memory? Three experiments examined the impact of a concurrent executive load (backward counting) on memory for sequences of individually presented visual objects. Experiments 1 and 2 found di...
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The spatiotemporal profile of activation of the prefrontal cortex in verbal and non-verbal recognition memory was examined using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Sixteen neurologically healthy right-handed participants were scanned whilst carrying out a modified version of the Doors and People Test of recognition memory. A pattern of significant prefr...
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It has become increasingly clear that some patients with apparently normal memory may subsequently show accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF), with dramatic loss when retested. We describe a constrained prose recall task that attempts to lay the foundations for a test suitable for detecting ALF sensitively and economically. Instead of the usual na...
Article
Recent attempts to assess the practical impact of scientific research prompted my own reflections on over 40 years worth of combining basic and applied cognitive psychology. Examples are drawn principally from the study of memory disorders, but also include applications to the assessment of attention, reading, and intelligence. The most striking co...
Article
Raven's Matrices Test was developed as a "pure" measure of Spearman's concept of general intelligence, g. Subsequent research has attempted to specify the processes underpinning performance, some relating it to the concept of working memory and proposing a crucial role for the central executive, with the nature of other components currently unclear...
Article
Recent research has suggested that keeping track of a task goal in rapid task switching may depend on the phonological loop component of working memory. In this study, we investigated whether the phonological loop plays a similar role when a single switch extending over several trials is required after many trials on which one has performed a compe...
Article
A broad theory of depression is proposed based on a blend of Hume's (D. Hume, 1978, A Treatise of Human Nature. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Original work published 1739) concept of a valenced world and Damasio's (A. R. Damasio, 1994, Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. New York, NY: Putnam) somatic marker hypothesi...
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Purpose Closing the eyes during recall can help witnesses remember more about a witnessed event. This study examined the effectiveness of eye-closure in a repeated recall paradigm with immediate free recall followed 1 week later by both free and cued recall. We examined whether eye-closure was more or less effective during the second free-recall at...
Article
Previous studies, using a modified version of the sequential Corsi block task to examine the impact of symmetry on visuospatial memory, showed an advantage of vertical symmetry over non-symmetrical sequences, but no effect of horizontal or diagonal symmetry. The present four experiments investigated the mechanisms underlying the encoding of vertica...
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We aimed to resolve an apparent contradiction between previous experiments from different laboratories, using dual-task methodology to compare effects of a concurrent executive load on immediate recognition memory for colours or shapes of items or their colour–shape combinations. Results of two experiments confirmed previous evidence that an irrele...
Article
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) has long been associated with memory impairment. Recently, two specific forms of memory complaint in this population have been identified: accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) and transient epileptic amnesia (TEA). This paper presents neuropsychological data (standard neuropsychological tests and experimental measures...
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Previous research has shown that closing the eyes can facilitate recall of semantic and episodic information. Here, two experiments are presented which investigate the theoretical underpinnings of the eye-closure effect and its auditory equivalent, the "ear-closure" effect. In Experiment 1, participants viewed a violent videotaped event and were su...
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Self-regulation is a core aspect of adaptive human behavior that has been studied, largely in parallel, through the lenses of social and personality psychology as well as cognitive psychology. Here, we argue for more communication between these disciplines and highlight recent research that speaks to their connection. We outline how basic facets of...
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In an attempt to account for the impact of emotion on cognition, Baddeley (2007) proposed the existence of a hedonic detection system. Malfunctioning of this system was assumed to play a crucial role in depression. Exploring this hypothesis requires a simple and rapid way of assessing the neutral point of proposed hedonic detector. We describe two...
Article
In this chapter, Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch provide an account of the history of the working memory concept and of their own substantial contributions, in addition to summaries of their ongoing research programmes. The broad scope of their chapter offers contexts for many, if not all of the chapters that follow. © Oxford University Press, 2014....
Article
Recent studies have shown that individuals with Down syndrome (DS) are poorer than controls in performing verbal and visuospatial dual tasks. The present study aims at better investigating the dual task deficit in working memory in individuals with DS. Forty-five individuals with DS and 45 typically developing children matched for verbal mental age...
Article
A number of studies suggest an important role for the hippocampus in tasks involving visuospatial or relational working memory. We test the generality of this proposal across tasks using a battery designed to investigate the various components of working memory, studying the working memory performance of Jon, who shows a bilateral reduction in hipp...
Article
Three experiments investigated the contribution of phonological short-term memory (STM) to grammar learning by manipulating rehearsal during study of an auditory artificial grammar made up from a vocabulary of spoken Mandarin syllables. Experiment 1 showed that concurrent, irrelevant articulation impaired grammar learning compared with a nonverbal...
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Closing the eyes helps memory. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the eyeclosure effect by exposing 80 eyewitnesses to different types of distraction during the witness interview: blank screen (control), eyes closed, visual distraction, and auditory distraction. We examined the cognitive load hypothesis by comparing any type of distraction (...
Article
Two studies that examine whether the forgetting caused by the processing demands of working memory tasks is domain-general or domain-specific are presented. In each, separate groups of adult participants were asked to carry out either verbal or nonverbal operations on exactly the same processing materials while maintaining verbal storage items. The...