Alan B. Krueger's research while affiliated with Princeton University and other places

Publications (260)

Article
This study summarizes and analyzes the gender and racial discrimination that musicians may face in the music labor market of the United States, with a focus on exploring gender and race interactions’ effects on the economic return of musicians. This study is based on a survey of 1,227 musicians in the United States in 2018, which was conducted by t...
Article
The nature of self-employment is changing in most OECD countries. Solo self-employment is increasing relative to self-employment with dependent employees, often being associated with the development of gig economy work and alternative work arrangements. We still know little about this changing composition of jobs. Drawing on ad-hoc surveys run in t...
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This article discusses trends in alternative work arrangements in the United States using data from the Contingent Worker Survey (CWS) supplements to the Current Population Survey (CPS) for 1995 to 2017, the 2015 RAND-Princeton Contingent Work Survey, and administrative tax data from the Internal Revenue Service for 2000 to 2016. Based on cyclicall...
Book
The author of this book was one of the most respected economists of his generation, advising two presidents and helping to instill greater empiricism in economics. In this book, he argues that if we are to correctly assess the root causes of terrorism and successfully address the threat, we must think more like economists do. The book examines the...
Article
To monitor trends in alternative work arrangements, the authors conducted a version of the Contingent Worker Survey as part of the RAND American Life Panel in late 2015. Their findings point to a rise in the incidence of alternative work arrangements in the US economy from 1995 to 2015. The percentage of workers engaged in alternative work arrangem...
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There has been a recent upsurge of interest in self-reported measures of wellbeing by official statisticians and by researchers in the social sciences. This paper considers data from a wellbeing supplement to the American Time Use Survey (ATUS), which parsed the previous day into episodes. Respondents provided ratings of five experiential wellbeing...
Article
Uber, the ride-sharing company launched in 2010, has grown at an exponential rate. Using both survey and administrative data, the authors provide the first comprehensive analysis of the labor market for Uber’s driver-partners. Drivers appear to be attracted to the Uber platform largely because of the flexibility it offers, the level of compensation...
Article
The share of U.S. workers in alternative work arrangements has increased substantially in recent decades. Micro longitudinal analyses show that unemployed workers are much more likely to transition into alternative work arrangements than other workers. Macro time-series evidence shows that weak labor market conditions lead to an increase in non-tra...
Article
We document that rotation group bias-the tendency for the unemployment rate to vary systematically by month in sample-in the Current Population Survey (CPS) has worsened over time. Estimated unemployment rates for earlier rotation groups have grown sharply relative to later rotation groups; both should be nationally representative samples. This bia...
Article
In most cities, the taxi industry is highly regulated and utilizes technology developed in the 1940s. Ride sharing services such as Uber and Lyft, which use modern internet-based mobile technology to connect passengers and drivers, have begun to compete with traditional taxis. This paper examines the efficiency of ride sharing services vis-a-vis ta...
Article
This paper provides evidence on the behavior of reservation wages over the spell of unemployment, using high-frequency longitudinal data on unemployed workers in New Jersey. In comparison to a calibrated job search model, the reservation wage starts out too high and declines too slowly, on average, suggesting that many workers persistently misjudge...
Book
David Card and Alan B. Krueger have already made national news with their pathbreaking research on the minimum wage. Here they present a powerful new challenge to the conventional view that higher minimum wages reduce jobs for low-wage workers. In a work that has important implications for public policy as well as for the direction of economic rese...
Article
The rescue of the US automobile industry amid the 2008–2009 recession and financial crisis was a consequential, controversial, and difficult decision made at a fraught moment for the US economy. Both of us were involved in the decision process at the time, but since have moved back to academia. More than five years have passed since the bailout beg...
Article
Progress in science requires new tools for measuring phenomena previously believed unmeasurable, as well as conceptual frameworks for interpreting such measurements. There has been much progress on both fronts in the measurement of subjective well-being (SWB), which “refers to how people experience and evaluate their lives and specific domains and...
Article
Long-term transition rates calculated from the Current Population Survey, the Survey of Income and Program Participation, and Rutgers University’s Work Trends Survey indicate that the long-term unemployed have a 20 to 40 percent lower probability of being employed 1 to 2 years in the future than do the short-term unemployed. In comparison with the...
Article
We estimate the labor market effect of attending a highly selective college, using the College and Beyond Survey linked to Social Security Administration data. We extend earlier work by estimating effects for students that entered college in 1976 over a longer time horizon (from 1983 through 2007) and for a more recent cohort (1989). For both cohor...
Article
One of the most troubling features of the Great Recession has been the dramatic increase in long-term unemployment. As Alan Krueger, Judd Cramer, and David Cho note in this paper, the share of the unemployed who have been out of work 6 months or more averaged more than 40 percent in 2010, 2011, and 2012. Even as late as the middle of 2014, those ou...
Article
Most existing work on the demand for health insurance focuses on employees' decisions to enroll in employer-provided plans. Yet any attempt to achieve universal coverage must focus on the uninsured, the vast majority of whom are not offered employer-sponsored insurance. In the summer of 2008, we conducted a survey experiment to assess the willingne...
Article
Some workers bargain with prospective employers before accepting a job. Others face a posted wage as a take-it-or-leave-it oppor-tunity. Both modes of wage determination have generated large bodies of research. We surveyed a representative sample of U.S. workers to inquire about the wage determination process at the time they were hired into their...
Article
This paper provides new evidence on the time use and emotional well-being of unemployed individuals in the weeks before and after starting a new job. The major findings are: (1) time spent on home production drops sharply at the time of re-employment, even when controlling for individual fixed effects; (2) time spent on leisure-related activities,...
Article
This paper assesses the ability of a static labor supply model to predict the impacts of a welfare policy change by studying two state welfare reform experiments conducted in Minnesota and Vermont. This type of labor supply models have been commonly used for hypothetical welfare policy simulations, but their extrapolation ability has been un-derexp...
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This paper examines whether there is a counter-cyclical pattern in the quality of children. In particular, we study the relationship between the unemployment rate and several measures of parental characteristics, parental behavior behavior, and child health. Using data from the Natality files, including panel level data of mothers, we find evidence...
Article
We estimate the monetary return to attending a highly selective college using the College and Beyond (C&B) Survey linked to Detailed Earnings Records from the Social Security Administration (SSA). This paper extends earlier work by Dale and Krueger (2002) that examined the relationship between the college that students attended in 1976 and the earn...
Article
Following the financial crisis of 2008, unofficial tabulations of Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) data were the most timely government source of information on employment trends by establishment size; this article discusses how JOLTS data can be used to shed light on employment patterns among small businesses and also evaluates the a...
Article
: This paper presents findings from a survey of 6,025 unemployed workers who were interviewed every week for up to 24 weeks in the fall of 2009 and winter of 2010. We find that the amount of time devoted to job search declines sharply over the spell of unemployment; we do not observe a rise in job search or job finding around the time that extended...
Article
This paper uses administrative earnings data to the effect of attending a highly selective college on future earnings. It extends the work of a previous paper—that examined the 1995 earnings of a cohort of students who entered college in 1976. Using earnings data from a longer time horizon (from 1983 through 2007) as well as data for a more recen...
Article
This paper presents findings from a survey of 6,025 unemployed workers who were interviewed every week for up to 24 weeks in the fall of 2009 and spring of 2010. Our main findings are: (1) the amount of time devoted to job search declines sharply over the spell of unemployment; (2) the self-reported reservation wage predicts whether a job offer is...
Article
This paper presents findings from a survey of 6,025 unemployed workers who were interviewed every week for up to 24 weeks in the fall of 2009 and winter of 2010. We find that the amount of time devoted to job search declines sharply over the spell of unemployment; we do not observe a rise in job search or job finding around the time that extended u...
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Full-text available
Views expressed here are solely those of the authors and not of the institutions with which they are affiliated, and all errors are our own.
Article
Full-text available
Views expressed here are those of the authors and not of the institutions with which they are affiliated.
Article
Climate change is expected to cause mass human migration, including immigration across international borders. This study quantitatively examines the linkages among variations in climate, agricultural yields, and people's migration responses by using an instrumental variables approach. Our method allows us to identify the relationship between crop y...
Article
The recent economic crisis has highlighted significant weaknesses in our economic and financial indicators. This paper documents what the crisis has revealed regarding some of the more critical shortcomings of our existing statistical infrastructure, and proposes a way in which these shortcomings could be mitigated.
Article
This paper provides new evidence on job search intensity of the unemployed in the U.S., modeling job search intensity as time allocated to job search activities. The major findings are: 1) the average U.S. unemployed worker devotes about 41 min to job search on weekdays, which is substantially more than their European counterparts; 2) workers who e...
Article
That markers of socioeconomic status (SES) such as household income and educational attainment are associated with major health outcomes is a compelling finding, although the cause(s) of the association are unknown.¹ The SES gradient in serious health problems is well established in the United States and other countries.² It is less clear if SES is...
Chapter
A study using the Day Reconstruction Method (DRM) was carried out to examine the determinants of two aspects of well-being: experienced happiness and life satisfaction. Participants were 770 women in Columbus, Ohio and 700 women in Rennes, France. Results are generally similar in the two cities. Life satisfaction reflects the global circumstances o...
Article
Some workers bargain with prospective employers before accepting a job. Others face a posted wage as a take-it-or-leave-it opportunity. Theories of wage formation point to substantial differences in labor-market equilibrium between bargained and posted wages. We surveyed a representative sample of U.S. workers to inquire about the wage determinatio...
Article
Predicting Terrorism? Terrorists may be extremists whose opinions do not reflect the mainstream views in their country. Alternatively, public opinion could provide a useful indicator of the likelihood of terrorism. Krueger and Malečková (p. 1534 ) used data from the Gallup World Poll of public opinion and the National Counter Terrorism Center to de...
Article
This paper reports on a household survey specially designed to measure what we call the “offshorability” of jobs, defined as the ability to perform the work duties from abroad. We develop multiple measures of offshorability, using both self-reporting and professional coders. All the measures find that roughly 25% of U.S. jobs are offshorable. Our t...
Article
This study examines the extent and influence of occupational licensing in the U.S. using a specially designed national labor force survey. Specifically, we provide new ways of measuring occupational licensing and consider what types of regulatory requirements and what level of government oversight contribute to wage gains and variability. Estimates...
Article
This chapter describes how National Time Accounting (NTA) can be used to compare groups of individuals, countries, and eras. NTA provides a method for tracking time allocation and assessing whether people are experiencing their daily lives in more or less enjoyable ways. Tracking the U-index over time, either at the episode level or at the activity...
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This paper compares the characteristics of 63 alleged homegrown Islamic terrorists in the U.S.A. to a representative sample of 1000+ Muslim Americans. The alleged terrorists have about average level of education. Those with higher education were judged closer to succeeding.
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This paper tests whether providing information about the work incentives created by the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) ampli…es its e¤ects on labor supply. We conducted a randomized …eld experiment with 43,000 EITC claimants at H&R Block in which half the clients were provided simple, personalized information about the EITC schedule. We obtain thr...
Article
Some workers bargain with prospective employers before accepting a job. Others could bargain, but find it undesirable, because their right to bargain has induced a sufficiently favorable offer, which they accept. Yet others perceive that they cannot bargain over pay; they regard the posted wage as a take-it-or-leave-it opportunity. Theories of wage...
Article
This study provides the first nation-wide analysis of the labor market implications of occupational licensing for the U.S. labor market, using data from a specially designed Gallup survey. We find that in 2006, 29 percent of the workforce was required to hold an occupational license from a government agency, which is a higher percentage than that f...
Article
Social scientists and policymakers have long been interested in comparing the subjective well-being (SWB) of populations over time and across countries, although SWB is hard to define and measure. Nevertheless, attempts have been made to rank countries based on SWB (e.g., Veenhoven 1996; OECD 2005). Cross-country data have also been used to study t...
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Pain is costly and a major reason for seeking medical care. Our aim was to assess the proportion of people experiencing pain, and the severity of pain, at randomly selected times in a representative sample of individuals in the USA. A community-based telephone survey was designed that attempted to contact about 10 700 individuals by random-digit di...
Article
Tickets for many live entertainment events are distributed in a primary market and then resold on a secondary market. How big is the secondary market? Why does it exist? To answer these questions, we analyze data from a set of surveys that we conducted at 30 scientifically selected concerts in the U.S. from August to October 2006. Over 3,000 fans w...
Article
Introduction Popular wisdom in the burgeoning literature on terrorism focuses on the economic motivations of terrorists. “We fight against poverty,” President George W. Bush explained in Monterrey, Mexico, on March 23, 2002, “because hope is an answer to terror.” Stern (2003) also draws a direct connection between poverty and terrorism. Though pove...
Article
The authors describe a new, Web-based survey instrument that may serve as an aide for teachers and as an interactive exercise for high school economics students. The questionnaire asks students about their involvement with the economy, inquiring about employment, consumption, and living standards, and includes a few hypothetical consumer-demand que...
Article
The research agendas of psychologists and economists now have several overlaps, with behavioural economics providing theoretical and experimental study of the relationship between behaviour and choice, and hedonic psychology discussing appropriate measures of outcomes of choice in terms of overall utility or life satisfaction. Here we model the rel...
Article
Since unification, the debate about Germany's poor economic performance has focused on supply-side weaknesses, and the associated reform agenda sought to make low-skill labour markets more flexible. We question this diagnosis using three lines of argument. First, effective restructuring of the supply side in the core advanced industries was carried...
Article
Increases in college enrollment cause changes in the distribution of ability among college and high school graduates. This paper estimates a semiparametric selection model of schooling and wages to show that a 14% increase in college participation, which is analogous to the increase observed in the 1980s, reduces the college premium by 11% and incr...
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This paper tests a central implication of the theory of equalizing differences, that workers sort into jobs with different attributes based on their preferences for those attributes. We present evidence from four new time-use data sets for the United States and France on whether workers who are more gregarious, as revealed by their behavior when th...
Article
This paper studies the test–retest reliability of a standard self-reported life satisfaction measure and of affect measures collected from a diary method. The sample consists of 229 women who were interviewed on Thursdays, two weeks apart, in Spring 2005. The correlation of net affect (i.e., duration-weighted positive feelings less negative feeling...
Article
ARE AMERICANS SPENDING THEIR time in more or less enjoyable ways today than in earlier generations? The answer to this question is central for understanding economic and social progress yet has been elusive and controversial. From 1965–66 to 2005, for example, working-age Ameri-can women increased the amount of time spent working for pay, watching...
Article
Many popular ideas about terrorists and why they seek to harm us are fueled by falsehoods and misinformation. Leading politicians and scholars have argued that poverty and lack of education breed terrorism, despite the wealth of evidence showing that most terrorists come from middle-class, and often college-educated, backgrounds. In What Makes a Te...
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The belief that high income is associated with good mood is widespread but mostly illusory. People with above-average income are relatively satisfied with their lives but are barely happier than others in moment-to-moment experience, tend to be more tense, and do not spend more time in particularly enjoyable activities. Moreover, the effect of inco...
Article
In Grutter v. Bollinger, Justice O’Connor conjectured that in 25 years affirmative action in college admissions will be unnecessary. We project the test score distribution of black and white college applicants 25 years from now, focusing on the role of black–white family income gaps. Economic progress alone is unlikely to narrow the achievement gap...
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The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from CIRANO, the National Science Foundation (SBR-93-21053 and SBER-96-18111 to the NBER) and the Fonds pour la Formation de Chercheurs et l'Aide à la Recherche (97-NC-1676 to Margolis). We would like to thank Abstract We use longitudinal individual wage and employment data in France and the Unit...
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To date, diurnal rhythms of emotions have been studied with real-time data collection methods mostly in relatively small samples. The Day Reconstruction Method (DRM), a new survey instrument that reconstructs the emotions of a day, is examined as a method for enabling large-scale investigations of rhythms. Diurnal cycles were observed for 12 emotio...
Article
Direct reports of subjective well-being may have a useful role in the measurement of consumer preferences and social welfare, if they can be done in a credible way. Can well-being be measured by a subjective survey, even approximately? In this paper, we discuss research on how individuals' responses to subjective well-being questions vary with thei...
Article
In Grutter v. Bollinger (2003), Justice Sandra Day O'Connor conjectured that in 25 years affirmative action in college admissions will be unnecessary. We project the test score distribution of black and white college applicants 25 years from now, focusing on the role of black-white family income gaps. Economic progress alone is unlikely to narrow t...
Article
The rate at which racial gaps in pre-collegiate academic achievement can plausibly be expected to erode is a matter of great interest and much uncertainty. In her opinion in Grutter v. Bollinger, Supreme Court Justice O'Connor took a firm stand: "We expect that 25 years from now, the use of racial preferences will no longer be necessary . . ." We e...
Article
This chapter considers economic issues and trends in the rock and roll industry, broadly defined. The analysis focuses on concert revenues, the main source of performers' income. Issues considered include: price measurement; concert price acceleration in the 1990s; the increased concentration of revenue among performers; reasons for the secondary t...
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A large central government providing numerous public services has long been a hallmark of Swedish society, which is also well-known for its pursuit of equality. Yet in the 1990s, Sweden moved away from this tradition in education, introducing market-oriented reforms that decentralized authority over public schools and encouraged competition between...
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This paper provides evidence on the role of a child's peers in determining the decision to acquire education. Such social interactions may be important because children enjoy being similar to others or learn from other children. Identification is based on a randomized interven-tion that grants a cash subsidy encouraging school attendance among a su...
Article
Beginning in 1997, the price of concert tickets took off and ticket sales declined. From 1996 to 2003, for example, the average concert price increased by 82%, while the CPI increased by 17%. Explanations for price growth include (1) the possible crowding out of the secondary ticket market, (2) rising superstar effects, (3) Baumols and Bowen's dise...
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Between 1996 and 1998 California and Texas eliminated the use of affirmative action in college and university admissions. At the states' elite public universities admission rates of black and Hispanic students subsequently fell by 30-50% and minority representation in the entering freshman classes declined. This study investigates whether the elimi...
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The Day Reconstruction Method (DRM) assesses how people spend their time and how they experience the various activities and settings of their lives, combining features of time-budget measurement and experience sampling. Participants systematically reconstruct their activities and experiences of the preceding day with procedures designed to reduce r...
Article
Although terrorism is a top U.S. concern, the State Department's annual terrorism report was riddled with errors. If Washington wants to win the war, it needs to get its facts straight.
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Full-text available
The research agendas of psychologists and economists now have several overlaps, with behavioural economics providing theoretical and experimental study of the relationship between behaviour and choice, and hedonic psychology discussing appropriate measures of outcomes of choice in terms of overall utility or life satisfaction. Here we model the rel...
Article
Although schools across the country are investing heavily in computers in the classroom, there is surprisingly little evidence that they actually improve student achievement. In this paper, we present results from a randomized study of a well-defined use of computers in schools: a popular instructional computer program, known as Fast ForWord, which...
Article
Public opinion influences politicians, and therefore influences public policy decisions. What are the roles of self-interest, knowledge, and ideology in public opinion formation? And how do people learn about economic issues? Using a new, specially-designed survey, we find that most respondents express a strong desire to be well informed on economi...
Article
This paper provides a case study of the effect of labor relations on product quality. We consider whether a long, contentious strike and the hiring of replacement workers at Bridgestone/Firestone's Decatur, Illinois, plant in the mid-1990s contributed to the production of defective tires. Using several independent data sources and looking before an...

Citations

... This important theoretical work has been complemented by a number of empirical studies analyzing the effect of incentives on teamwork and cooperation with single firm case studies or employer-employee data sets (Drago and Garvey, 1998;Knez and Simester, 2001;Berger, Herbertz, and Sliwka, 2011;Friebel et al., 2017;Deversi, Kocher, and Schwieren, 2020;Delfgaauw et al., 2022) or documenting differences in helping 4 Other work documenting a positive association between social preferences and the level of cooperation in a natural field context includes Rustagi, Engel, and Kosfeld (2010). Krueger and Schkade (2008) show that workers who are more gregarious tend to be employed in jobs that involve more social interactions. ...
... Occupational licensing affects about 32% of workers and has grown substantially in recent decades (BLS, 2018). Adequate occupational licensing may enhance quality and safety; however, it can restrict the supply of workers (Kleiner & Soltas, 2018) and increase wages for licensed professionals (Kleiner & Krueger, 2008). ...
... Licensure was initially limited to a small number of high-status professions, but it has now spread throughout large swathes of the economy (NCSL 2022;Kleiner and Krueger 2013). ...
... Another important question concerns disparities in the effects of the pandemic on population mental health. We know from previous research that the component stressors caused by the pandemic, including job loss, 95 death of a loved one, 96 social isolation, 97 and a combination of multiple such stressors, 98 have negative effects on mental health. Given that exposure to these experiences during the pandemic has been significantly higher in some already disadvantaged segments of the population 99,100 and that the psychological impact of pandemic-related stressors might have been greater among already disadvantaged segments of the population, 101 we might expect that prepandemic health disparities would be magnified by the pandemic. ...
... Last, we publish a new and massive document corpus of mandatory franchise disclosure documents and present a start-to-finish analysis to enable a full replication of our process. We detect thousands more plausibly illegal "no poach clauses" that could violate state and federal antitrust law than found in earlier research [77]. We release a rectangular dataset that represents the prevalence of suspected no poach clauses that restrict the ability of franchise firms to recruit employees from other companies that belong to a franchise system. ...
... This has resulted in increased in-work poverty (Schulten and Luebker, 2019). In response, LW advocates have mobilized research evidence that shows that higher wages need not lead to increased unemployment or business closures (Card and Krueger, 1995;Luce, 2004). In promoting decent pay as a solution to in-work poverty, LW campaigners have also mobilized broader social justice notions of business ethics, social license, equity, socioeconomic inclusion, and human dignity (Luce, 2004;Stabile, 2008). ...
... Primary research could also focus on those individuals who work only part-time, as this study provided insights only from employed and self-employed who work full-time. We call for more research on the multiple jobs holding phenomenon (Boeri et al., 2020), asking if some dependent self-employed combine their primary job with other occupations and how they cope with it. This includes individuals who combine their main paid job with entrepreneurial activity, linked in the scholarly literature with the term hybrid entrepreneurs (Pollack et al., 2019;Dvouletý and Bögenhold, 2022;Asante et al., 2022). ...
... The proportion of this contingent labour is on the rise globally. Katz and Krueger (2019) report a modest upward jump in the US's proportion of independent workers. As of December 2020, India has around 15 million independent workers in IT, HR and designing (Business Line, 2020). ...
... GLOBALIZATION AND BUSINESS 13 მათ მიაჩნიათ, რომ რადგან ძალიან ბევრი პა-რტნიორი ჰყავთ, რომლებიც არა მხოლოდ მათ- 9 Cook, C., R. Diamond, and P. Oyer 19 საქართველოს ...
... 24 21 For example, Buchmeuller (1999) fnds that employers that ofer richer benefts packages to full-time workers make greater use of parttime workers for tasks that require lower levels of skill, so as to avoid providing the same benefts to lower-skilled workers. 22 See Krueger (2018). 23 This is not to discount the benefts of working for a small or medium-sized enterprise. ...