Alain Le Faou's research while affiliated with University of Lorraine and other places

Publications (108)

Article
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Introduction: The emergence of HIV-1 recombinant forms and drug combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) resistance are frequent in the therapeutic course of HIV-infected children in Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC) precisely in Central African Republic (CAR) as evidenced by studies carried out in the Bangui capital. Vertical transmission rate...
Article
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In nanomedicine, hybrid nanomaterials stand out for providing new insights in both the diagnosis and treatment of several diseases. Once administered, engineered nanoparticles (NPs) interact with biological molecules, and the nature of this interaction might directly interfere with the biological fate and action of the NPs. In this work, we synthes...
Article
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Objectives Rubella cases in the Central African Republic (CAF) are currently identified during measles surveillance. This study aimed to investigate rubella epidemiology between 2015 and 2016 and to provide baseline genotype data for monitoring future rubella control efforts. Methods 831 measles IgM negative or equivocal sera from 2015/2016 were t...
Poster
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This poster is about cART resistance mutations transmitted by parents to their children from birth in the first life time which made the treatment inefficient (ART used and unused in CAR, in rural environment) confirming the observed virological and immunological failure. We highlighted the CRF02_AG genotype emerging variant cluster by strongly det...
Preprint
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Introduction: The emergence of HIV-1 recombinant forms and Drug combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) resistance are frequent in the therapeutic course of HIV-infected children in Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC) precisely in Central African Republic (CAR) as evidenced by studies carried out in the Bangui capital. Vertical transmission rate...
Article
The pulmonary toxicological properties of inhaled titanium dioxide were studied using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cytology and proteomics analyses. Fischer 344 rats were exposed to 10 mg/m3 of TiO2 nanostructured aerosol by nose-only inhalation for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Lung samples were collected up to 180 post-exposure days. A...
Article
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Human exposure to airborne carbon nanotubes (CNT) is increasing because of their applications in different sectors; therefore, they constitute a biological hazard. Consequently, developing studies on CNT toxicity become a necessity. CNTs can have different properties in term of length, size and charge. Here, we compared the cellular effect of multi...
Article
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This review is about the avian influenza French epizootic that occurred between 2015 and 2017 in the South-West France
Presentation
Interaction cellules/nanoparticules polymériques : apport de la toxicogénomique.
Article
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Introduction. The number of Salmonella isolated from clinical samples that are resistant to multiple antibiotics has increased worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of resistant Salmonella enterica isolated in Bangui. Methods. All enteric Salmonella strains isolated from patients in 2008 were identified and serotyped, and...
Article
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Aim: S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) is a good candidate for nitric oxide (NO•) delivery, and its nanoformulation improves NO• stability and bioavailability. We have compared the effect of empty Eudragit® nanoparticles (eENP), GSNO-loaded ENP (gENP), and free GSNO on THP-1 human monocytic cell line. Materiels & methods: We investigated cellular viabili...
Conference Paper
Although nanoparticles (NPs) are more and more used in medicine (diagnosis, imaging, drug targeting), few studies on their possible undesirable effects have been conducted. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of polymeric NPs Eudragit® RL (ENPs) loaded or not with S-nitroso-glutathione (GSNO, 57564-91-7) as nitric oxide donor on monocy...
Poster
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Action of polymeric nanoparticles on cell viability, gene expression and internalization as a function of cell line.
Article
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Applications of polymeric nanoparticles (NP) in medical fields are rapidly expanding. However, the influence of polymeric NP on cell growth and functions is widely underestimated. Therefore, we have studied cell and polymeric NP interactions by addressing two cell types with two endpoints (viability and gene expressions). Rat NR8383 and human THP-1...
Article
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The efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been established. The objective of the present study was to compare the efficacy and safety in the Central African Republic (CAR) of three commercially available artemisinin-based combinations, artemether + lumefantrine (AL), artesunate + sulphamethoxypyrazine-pyrimethamine (AS-SMP) an...
Article
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As most data on hepatitis in resource-poor countries relate to urban communities, surveys in the rural environment are necessary to determine the 'true' prevalence of these viral infections. We undertook a survey to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in an apparently healthy rural population in the Central African Republi...
Article
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We evaluated whether B cell-derived immune defenses of the gastro-intestinal tract are activated to produce HIV-specific antibodies in children continuously exposed to HIV via breast-feeding. Couples of HIV-1-infected mothers (n = 14) and their breastfed non HIV-infected (n = 8) and HIV-infected (n = 6) babies, and healthy HIV-negative mothers and...
Article
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Despite rampant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) outbreaks in Africa since decades, the information about the genetic characteristics of the virulent strains circulating in West and Central Africa is still scarce. In this study, 96 complete NDV fusion gene sequences were obtained from poultry sampled in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoir...
Article
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Background Although chicken anemia virus (CAV) has been detected on all continents, little is known about this virus in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to detect and characterize CAV for the first time in Central African Republic and in Cameroon. Results An overall flock seroprevalence of 36.7% was found in Central African Republic during the...
Article
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Both treatment and prevention strategies are recommended by the World Health Organization for the control of malaria during pregnancy in tropical areas. The aim of this study was to assess use of a rapid diagnostic test for prompt management of malaria in pregnancy in Bangui, Central African Republic. A cohort of 76 pregnant women was screened syst...
Article
Rabies is endemic in the Central African Republic (CAR) and a neglected enzootic disease which represents a serious public health problem. Before April 2009, rabies was not a notifiable disease in CAR. Vaccination of animals is expensive and not commonly done. In 2005, none rabies case was recorded in Bangui. To understand how rabies was introduced...
Article
Drug delivery nanosystems are currently used in human therapy. In preliminary studies we have observed that Eudragit RS nanoparticles, prepared by nanoprecipitation or double emulsion techniques, are cytotoxic for NR8383 rat macrophages. In this study, we expand our previous analysis and suggest that unloaded Eudragit RS nanoparticles prepared by n...
Data
This file details timing of different antimalarials prescriptions (along with intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine or IPT-SP) and the number of each of those antimalarials prescriptions according to gestational age (in months). Schematically, the global distribution of antimalarial prescriptions according to gestational...
Article
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The Central African Republic (CAR) is a country with a high burden of tuberculosis (TB). Although its national tuberculosis programme is effective, there is no continuous surveillance system for anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in place. To establish base-line anti-tuberculosis drug resistance data to allow for future monitoring of trends and evol...
Article
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Introduction. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of malaria among women giving birth in Bangui. Association between sociodemographic characteristics of those women and malaria, as well as prevention compliance (use of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTsp) and insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs)),...
Article
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Introduction. The aim of this study was to identify the antimalarials prescribed during the pregnancy and to document their timing. Method. From June to September 2009, a survey was conducted on 565 women who gave birth in the Castors maternity in Bangui. The antenatal clinics cards were checked in order to record the types of antimalarials prescri...
Article
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Shigellosis is still a major public health problem in sub-Saharan countries, especially among children. The prevalence of shigellosis in children presenting with diarrhoea in the Complexe Pédiatrique de Bangui, Central African Republic, was determined. Stools were analyzed in the bacteriology laboratory of the Institut Pasteur de Bangui, Central Af...
Article
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains were identified in 40% of 54 strains from patients presenting with tuberculosis (TB) treatment failure or relapse in Bangui, Central African Republic. Results obtained with the MTBDRplus line-probe assay or rpoB sequencing were 86% concordant with rifampicin (RMP) resistant phenotypes, while the amplification refra...
Article
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To the Editor: Buruli ulcer, the third most common mycobacterial disease of humans after tuberculosis and leprosy, is an important disfiguring and disabling cutaneous infection disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Buruli ulcer was declared an emerging skin disease of public health concern by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1998. Althoug...
Article
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National malaria management policy is based upon the availability of effective and affordable antimalarial drugs. This study was undertaken to evaluate the quality of the treatment of uncomplicated malaria cases in Bangui, an area with multidrug-resistant parasites, at a time preceding implementation of a new therapeutic policy relying on the artem...
Article
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To describe clinical, biological characteristics and virological aspects of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sera obtained from consent patients with clinical suspicion of HCC. Routine biochemical tests and serological markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis D virus (HDV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) were searched. A hepatic ultra...
Article
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Apolipoprotein E (apo E) polymorphism is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and Alzheimer diseases, making its genotyping of potentially predictive value. We developed a rapid, reliable and specific method for determining APOE genotypes by fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) over a high number of samples in a single run using...
Article
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Because of the previous high prevalence of resistance to usual antibiotics among uropathogens in Bangui, Central African Republic (CAR), a survey focused on Enterobacteriaceae, the most prevalent group responsible for urinary tract infections (UTIs), was conducted. The aim was to help health authorities revise antibiotic policies. We performed a re...
Article
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Background: This paper reports for the first time, the antimalarial efficacy of a five-day course of paediatric formulation of "vocamine" named MMH8 ® from Millenia Hope Inc ® for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium fal-ciparum malaria. Methods: We used the standard 14-day WHO protocol to assess therapeutic responses in children less than 5 y...
Article
The tumor suppressor gene TP53 has been localized to the short arm of chromosome 17. It is frequently the site of point mutations in different human tumors (colon, lung, breast, liver). The frequency of this mutation is between 14 and 60%.The mutation leads to the accumulation of an altered form of p53 protein, detectable by immunohistochemistry. W...
Article
Apolipoprotein E (apo E) polymorphism is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and Alzheimer diseases, making its genotyping of potentially predictive value. We developed a rapid, reliable and specific method for determining APOE genotypes by fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) over a high number of samples in a single run using...
Article
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The ultimate goal of toxicologic investigation of synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs) is to provide essential input for the assessment of human risk to their exposure. Toxicity of mineral fibers is usually evaluated by testing biopersistence in rodent model. However, a cellular model would be much appreciated in order to reduce, refine, and replace an...
Article
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The toxicity of mineral fibers, whether they are natural or man made (MMMF), is usually evaluated in vivo using biopersistence tests in rodents. Development of an in vitro cellular model would be worthwhile in order to reduce, refine and finally replace animal models. For this purpose, we developed an in vitro assay using human monocytic cell line...
Article
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Genotyping of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) strains from patients in Central African Republic and comparison with results obtained in other African countries. Sera were collected from patients admitted with symptoms of acute or chronic hepatitis to the "Hôpital de l'Amitié de Bangui", Central African Republic (CAR). The complete sequence of preS2/S gene...
Article
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A human monocytes cell line, U-937, incubated in the presence of filtered medium from Escherichia coli culture (FS) has been previously reported to degrade man made mineral fiber and it has been indicated as a good paradigm of in vivo fiber biopersistence evaluation (manuscript accepted for publication). In the present paper, a study is reported ai...
Article
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To precis the aetiologies of children meningitis and the susceptibility to antibiotics of bacteria responsible for meningitis in Bangui, we conducted a prospective study between October 2004 and September 2005, at the ‘Complexe Pédiatrique de Bangui’, Central African Republic (CAR). Children from 1 day to 16 years with suspected meningitis and who...
Article
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Homocysteine metabolism is linked to DNA methylation, a mechanism potentially involved in the course of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We evaluated the association of determinants of homocysteine metabolism with the outcome of HBV infection. Four hundred and fifty-five healthy adults from Togo and Benin were tested for HBV serologic markers, HL...
Article
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Recent studies have shown that Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype E predominates in a vast crescent in West-Africa spanning from Senegal to Angola. To determine whether HBV strains in the Central African Republic (CAR) belong predominately to the homogeneous West-African genotype E or whether they are more closely related to genotypes found in East A...
Article
The genus Orthobunyavirus is composed of segmented, negative-sense RNA viruses that are responsible for mild to severe human diseases. To date, no molecular studies of bunyaviruses in the genus Orthobunyavirus from central Africa have been reported, and their classification relies on serological testing. Four new primer pairs for RT-PCR amplificati...
Article
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a member of the Alphavirus genus, represents a real public health problem in tropical regions of the Southeast Asia and Africa. It is transmitted to the man by Aedes mosquitoes and the illness, known as Chikungunya, is characterized by fever, eruptions and invalidating arthralgia. An increased surveillance in tropical and...
Article
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One hundred and twenty-two new hepatitis B virus (HBV) preC/C sequences and three complete genomes from three major countries in West Africa were analysed. The majority of sequences were of genotype E and the only other genotype found was genotype A. Although for genotype E sequences, the genetic diversity of the preC/C gene was about two to three...
Article
Evaluating the pathogenic potentials of man-made mineral fibers (MMMF) is an important task performed by the European Community. Noting that it has been proposed that the use of laboratory animals for scientific tests should be reduced or phased out, macrophages then become the cells of choice for conducting in vitro studies. We have evaluated the...
Article
The common observation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viremia in pediatric recipients of renal transplants and the occurrence of an EBV-related pulmonary leiomyoma prompted us to intensify the follow-up of EBV infections from 1995 to October 2000. Follow-up included serology and detection of viral DNA in blood using a semi-quantitative nested polymera...
Article
The aim of this work was to characterise interactions between ribavirin (RBV) and native cyclodextrins (CDs). The extent of complexation in solution has been evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR...
Article
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Sub-Saharan Africa suffers from an excessively high endemicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV), but little is known about the prevalent genotypes. In this study, we investigated the PreS1/PreS2/S genes of 127 viruses obtained from 12 locations in Mali, Burkina Faso, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Except for those o...
Article
Despite vaccination, measles remains a burden in both developed and developing countries and complications may necessitate an efficient therapy. Measles virus (MEV) is susceptible to ribavirin (RBV), but the use of this drug is limited by its toxicity. Cyclodextrins (CDs) can form complexes with numerous molecules, improving their bioavailability a...
Article
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Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common in the general population and among immunocompromised patients. Acyclovir (ACV) is an effective treatment which is widely used. We deemed it essential to conduct a wide and coordinated survey of the emergence of ACV-resistant HSV strains. We have formed a network of 15 virology laboratories whic...
Article
To evaluate the prevalence of sulfate-reducing bacteria in septic processes, we searched for these bacteria by culture in 100 consecutive abdominal and pleural pus specimens. Twelve isolates were obtained from abdominal samples and were identified by a multiplex PCR as Desulfovibrio piger (formerly Desulfomonas pigra) (seven strains), Desulfovibrio...
Article
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Magnesium and zinc are both involved in a high number of enzymic activities vital for mammals. They are found in prostate in remarkably high concentrations and released into seminal fluid. Furthermore, drastic reduction of Zn and Mg concentrations in the semen fluid may lead to disorders in male fertility. We aimed to analyse the differences in Mg...
Article
Sulfate-reducing bacteria have recently been associated with periodontitis and proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of this chronic inflammatory process. Eight isolates of sulfate-reducing bacteria belonging to the genus Desulfovibrio were obtained from the periodontal pockets of five out of seven patients presenting with active periodontiti...
Article
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The growth characteristics, DNA G+C content and sequences of 16S rDNA and the transcribed 16S-23S rDNA internal spacer were determined for Desulfomonas pigra ATCC 29098T, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans subsp. desulfuricans strains Essex 6T (= ATCC 29577T) and MB (= ATCC 27774) and 'Desulfovibrio fairfieldensis' ATCC 700045. Despite phenotypic differen...
Article
Despite the increased safety of blood components, achieved through improved donor selection and testing, transfusion recipients remain at risk of transfusion-associated diseases. Transfusion of cellular blood components has been implicated in transmission of viral, bacterial and protozoan diseases. Investigators have studied a myriad of processes f...