Adital Ben-Ari's research while affiliated with University of Haifa and other places

Publications (73)

Article
This study explores the experiences of single gay men and gay men who raise children in couples who have created their families through surrogacy procedures in different countries and cultural contexts. The analysis of 39 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with these fathers suggests that the effects of medicalized reproduction on these men are t...
Article
The present study aims to explore gay Israeli fathers’ responses and resistance to societal criticism on their decision to become parents through transnational surrogacy. The authors interviewed 39 Israeli gay men who became parents via transnational gestational surrogacy using in-depth, semistructured interviews. Analysis of the interviews suggest...
Article
This article is a pilot study in which we analyzed interviews with 16 inhabitants of the Tel Aviv area. We show that Israeli adults’ views of refugees are shaped by the political discourse of threat and otherness. Yet the findings also suggest that individuals may resist the prevailing discourse and advocate for refugees’ inclusion within Israeli s...
Article
The literature regarding mixed-orientation relationships (MORs) focuses on individual and relationship aspects. Our study, informed by the social construction of reality theory, illuminates social aspects by examining social attitudes toward MORs as they are experienced and perceived by individuals of MOR. Within the scope of this study, we focused...
Article
The GLBT family is a new postmodern phenomenon demonstrating the accomplishments of marginal groups seeking acceptance within mainstream society. The article is based on a qualitative phenomenological study conducted in Israel during 2012, providing a theoretical model combining a vast number of GLBT parenting options ranging from surrogacy, sperm...
Article
The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the lived experience of married Jewish religious men who are also gay. Twenty in-depth interviews were conducted with participants, living in Israel, who defined themselves as orthodox Jews and gay men married to women. Phenomenological analysis revealed 3 key themes: a sense of social obligation to...
Article
This article focuses on Israeli male same-sex family, as a case study which provides an opportunity to understand the relationships between LGBT family, parenthood and the state. Based on the analysis of 39 in-depth semi-structured interviews with gay fathers, we show that although gay fathers use homonormative discourse they resist homonationalist...
Article
This work focuses on the effects of dominant concepts of parenthood and gender on gay men who became parents through surrogacy. Based on the analysis of 39 in-depth, semistructured interviews with gay fathers, we show that gay fathers' parenting experiences are shaped by the heteronormative discourse on parenthood, yet they resist its gendered attr...
Article
Until recently, the literature that addressed the phenomenon of mixed-orientation relationships, in which the female partner is straight and the male partner is non-straight, has focused mainly on the men’s perspective. Most of the studies have employed a pessimistic tone, underscoring the obstacles faced by each of the spouses. This study was desi...
Article
The phenomenon of mixed-orientation marriages, in which one of the partners is straight and the other is non-straight, is invisible, yet not insignificant. Focusing on gay and bisexual men who are married to straight women, this paper was designed to explore one of the essential themes in their relationship: the dynamics between secrecy and opennes...
Article
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Reflexivity is defined as the constant movement between being in the phenomenon and stepping outside of it. In this article, we specify three foci of reflexivity-the researcher, the participant, and the encounter-for exploring the interview process as a dialogic liminal space of mutual reflection between researcher and participant. Whereas research...
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This article explores the forces altering the political dimension of social work in one specific sphere – multicultural social work education. Politics in social work is those relationships and activities that reflect power and value differences, and which influence critical decisions about the distribution of resources, rights, access, opportuniti...
Article
The issue of divorced women in the Israeli ultra-Orthodox Jewish community represents an important case in the study of divorced women in religious collective cultures. The unique nature of the ultra-Orthodox Israeli community, dealing with questions of segregation and internalization, conservatism and modernity, as well as inequality of women, mig...
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In recent years, the role of social work in conflict-ridden areas has become a relevant issue in the professional discourse, both theoretically and practically. However, questions regarding social work education in the context of political conflict have remained mainly unanswered. In this paper, we present findings from a research project that exam...
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In recent decades, social work has become increasingly engaged with issues related to multiculturalism on theoretical, practical and pedagogical levels. However, discussions regarding the ways in which discourses of multiculturalism are constructed have received little professional attention. In this paper, we present findings from a research proje...
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The aim of this research was to examine the unique contribution of intergroup dialogue encounters, held in an international context, to multicultural social work education. We conducted a qualitative study based on fifteen in-depth interviews with Israeli social work students who had participated in a German–Israeli intergroup encounter. The analys...
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In this article we suggest a theoretical framework of knowledge construction by employing the concept of dialectics to power relationships between researcher and participants. Power distribution in research is perceived as dichotomous and asymmetrical in favor of the researcher, creating unequal power relations that make exploitation possible. Ackn...
Article
In this article, the author presents a theoretical scheme focusing on the relation between closeness and distance in intimate relationships. This challenges a commonly held notion, which maintains that the two constructs are opposite poles on a single continuum. The authors present an alternative conceptualization employing dialectical and reflecti...
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The aim of this article is to suggest a useful approach demonstrating the focal role of processes of reflectivity in qualitative research. In particular, we distinguish between levels of analysis and analytical procedures for generating and organizing the interpretation of data and meanings in knowledge construction. We argue that reflective proces...
Article
This study investigates how ambivalence over emotional expressiveness (AEE) relates to various aspects of intimate relationships, including perception of the relationship, marital satisfaction, and dyadic closeness. Whereas most commonly AEE has been treated as an individual attribute, we suggest looking at a combined measure of the AEE of both spo...
Article
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The present paper addresses a timely topic by exploring the contribution of cultural, ethnic, and contextual attributes to close relationships within particular armed-political conflict. It is based on a series of studies to examine the daily lives of Jews and Arabs with different cultural orientations within the context of armed political conflict...
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The purpose of this paper is to critically analyse 'cultural competence' as a theoretical construct and re-conceptualise it within the framework of Emanuel Levinas' theory of 'Other'. Drawing on the work of the French philosopher (1905-95), this article discusses dominant mainstream conceptions of cultural competence through an examination of the c...
Conference Paper
Background and Purpose: All over the world, social work education has focused on issues of educating SW students towards multicultural perspectives, increased trust and acceptance of diversity. Those issues become even more imperative in societies that suffer from internal schisms, such as the Israeli society. The ethnic composition of the student...
Conference Paper
Background and Purpose: Intellectually disabled (ID) children, often present challenging behavior to their caretakers, characterized by aggressiveness. Caretakers, including parents, are challenged to control themselves in the face of such behavior. Social workers are legally obligated to respond to any violent behavior against children, by alertin...
Article
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Mixed-orientation marriage is usually an invisible phenomenon, but its frequency is not insignificant. The present paper describes and examines the experiences of 13 heterosexually married gay men, seven of whose wives were aware and six who were unaware of their husbands’ homosexuality. We take the insiders’ perspective as a point of departure to...
Article
The goal of this paper is to propose a theoretical framework that integrates between what has been traditionally presented in the risk literature as two opposing perspectives: the positivist-probabilistic and the contextualist. Acknowledging the differences between the two, we argue that a reconciliation of both could deepen and expand our understa...
Article
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Our goal with this article is to present a dialectical approach to examining the interaction between researchers and research participants. A dialectical approach maintains that an apparent contradiction at one level might, in fact, be integrated as a synthesis of the two opposing poles at a higher level of conceptual analysis. We claim that a rese...
Article
The present study focuses on the life stories of mental health professionals who treated battered women in their practice and experienced intimate and domestic violence in their personal lives. Narrative interviews were conducted with 9 women in the mental health professions who experienced violence in their intimate relationships. The article atte...
Article
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This article contributes to the body of knowledge on qualitative interviewing in as much as it highlights the inherent connection between a sense of differentness among interview partners and processes of knowledge construction, which is the overarching goal of qualitative research. The authors argue that a sense of differentness serves as the star...
Article
The study examined similarities and differences between people having individualist and collectivist cultural orientations in terms of what they perceive as stressful and uplifting experiences in their daily lives, and the relation between daily experiences and family and life satisfaction. Data were collected from two representative community samp...
Article
We examined the association between work-related stress of both spouses and daily fluctuations in their affective states and dyadic closeness. Daily diary data from 169 Israeli dual-earner couples were analyzed using multilevel modeling. The findings indicate that work stress has no direct effect on dyadic closeness but rather is mediated by the sp...
Article
The article explores how partners in intimate relationships experience and construct the meaning of dyadic distance. It challenges the common notions that closeness and distance are two poles of a continuum and that distance can be defined as the absence of closeness. Analyses are based on detailed semistructured interviews that produce a conceptua...
Article
Despite considerable attention devoted to theory and research on close relationships, the construct of dyadic closeness has remained vague. This article attempts to clarify the concept of closeness in couple relationships and presents a conceptual model of “dyadic closeness.” Qualitative analysis of detailed interviews indicates that dyadic closene...
Article
An important aspect of Israeli life is its continuous state of conflict with the neighboring Palestinian people and Arab countries. Given that security-related stress is so intensely experienced by all Israeli residents, we examined the effects of daily fluctuations in security-related stress on dyadic closeness among Jewish and Arab couples. Time...
Article
The present study was designed to examine the experiences and constructed meanings of adoptive single mothers. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 women who were in their 40s when they decided to adopt a child. The analysis of their narratives reveals a fundamental duality with respect to two phenomenological arenas: the personal and private...
Article
This study explores the constructed meanings of falling in love in midlife. In depth interviews were conducted with 12 participants, all of whom had experienced falling in love in midlife. Analysis of the interview data suggest that midlife forms the prism through which the experience of falling in love is perceived: it provides the context, colors...
Article
This study was designed to examine the subjective experiences of Israeli lesbian mothers. We explored the constructed meanings that both biological and nonbiological mothers relate to their motherhood experience. Eight lesbian couples who were parenting together and who had 1, 2, or 3 children were interviewed. Our data suggest that the birth of th...
Article
The present article focuses on couple types based on 2 personality traits, attachment security and neuroticism, as they relate to 2 facets of the marital relationship--a global evaluation of relationship quality and dyadic closeness-distance. The sample consisted of 248 married couples who completed measures of attachment anxiety and avoidance, neu...
Article
This study examines how neuroticism and emotional expressiveness relate to perceptions of marital quality. Data were gathered from a sample of 197 Israeli couples. Wives scored higher than husbands on neuroticism and emotional expressiveness, but no significant gender differences were found in perceived marital quality. Structural equation models w...
Article
• Summary: The present study explores the relationship between perceived social support and well-being among students in the two main populations living in Israel: Jews and Arabs. More specifically, it compares the well-being of Israeli Jewish students and Palestinian students and examines the role of social support in their well-being. The sample...
Article
The present research focuses on cultural variations in the experience of daily stresses and strains. It simultaneously examines the experiences of daily hassles among people holding different cultural orientations (individualistic vs. collectivist) and different socioethnic groups (Jews and Arabs). Data were gathered from 662 Jewish and 300 Arab Is...
Article
This study identifies patterns of utilization of social support among Israeli Arab students.The sample consisted of 64 Arab students. Findings show that Arab students distinguish between emotional and instrumental support and allocate sources of support accordingly. Emotional support is sought within the social network and instrumental support is s...
Article
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This study explores the ongoing experience of women who were sexually involved with their psychotherapists (therapist–client sex, TCS). Fourteen women who had been engaged in TCS were interviewed to examine the constructed meanings associated with their experiences. Respondents described themselves as having been problem-saturated, lonely, and vict...
Article
In the present study, the authors explore the differential meaning of choice among battered women who stay in violent relationships and challenge the either/or paradigm that equates leaving with choice and staying with entrapment. A theoretical sample of 25 interviews was selected from a database of 120 in-depth, qualitative interviews with cohabit...
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 3-year help line project as an alternative modality of help among the Arab population living in Israel. Specifically, the authors examined the perception and experience of help among both users and service providers. The research sample consisted of 131 callers and 15 volunteers. Ques...
Article
This study examined similarities and differences between Jews and Arabs in Israel in terms of their daily stressful and uplifting experiences and assessed the relation between these experiences and family and life satisfaction. Data were collected from representative samples of 697 Jews and 303 Arabs by using a computerized-assisted telephone inter...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates similarities and differences between Arab and Jewish professionals living in Israel regarding their knowledge and attitudes about AIDS. Although AIDS in Israel is not considered to be a pressing crisis, the aim of the research is to document and analyse what professionals in the helping professions – Arabs and Jews alike – k...
Article
The current exploratory study examines the different functions of social support (rather than the people who provide them) and their relationship to burnout among 128 Israeli (40% males and 60% females; mean age 28 yrs), 64 Israeli Arab (35% males and 65% females; mean age 24 yrs), 751 Hungarian (38% males and 62% females; mean age 21 yrs), and 48...
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The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the experience of the sister of the anorexia nervosa (AN) patient. This experience was examined in terms of the illness, the sister herself, and relations within the family during the course of coping with AN. A qualitative study method was employed in an attempt to understand the complexity and nat...
Article
The present study explores the relationship between perceived social support and well‐being among students of the three main populations living in Israel: Israeli‐born Jews, Israeli‐born Arabs and Russian immigrants. More specifically, it compares the well‐being of these three groups and examines to what extent perceived...
Article
This article focuses on an analysis of how members of self-help groups perceived professional involvement and what they defined as the dimensions of such involvement. Models to predict these identified dimensions are also suggested. The instrument developed for the study consisted of two parts: (1) demographic question and (2) 12 statements concern...
Article
Recent studies in Israel revealed that Arab students were more stressed than their Jewish counterparts. In light of these findings, the present study examines support functions and the utilization of social support among israeli Jewish and Arab students. The study used a convenience sample of university students (127 Jews and 64 Arabs) in two of th...
Article
This study describes and analyses attitudes towards homosexuality among faculty in departments of three helping professions: social work, psychology and education. The sample consists of 235 faculty members in the five main universities in Israel. Out of 849 questionnaires that were sent to all faculty members of the relevant departments of social...
Article
The kibbutz is a uniquely Israeli phenomenon which is currently undergoing major changes, both ideologically and practically. It has attracted worldwide sociological and psychological research attention due to its unique characteristics, particularly in relation to communal child-rearing, education, and family life. The purpose of this paper is to...
Article
This study explores the meanings associated with the term "self-help" among Arab professionals living in Israel. Several themes surfaced as the most prevalent: problem-solving; help obtained from non-professionals; self-help groups; mutual help; emotional support; and the individual meaning, which refers to one's ability to solve one's problems and...
Article
Suicide rates among homosexuals are higher than those among hetero-sexuals. This article suggests that gay youth who attempt suicide represent a special case in which the meanings associated with life and death are worth exploration. In light of the phenomenological paradigm, we are interested in how sixteen gay men who attempted suicide perceived...
Article
Throughout most of the western world, self-help clearinghouses have evolved primarily as an attempt to meet the growing needs of the self-help movement. However, in Israel the situation is quite different; organized self-help is a relatively new phenomenon. There is only one self-help clearinghouse, which has been operating for less than ten years....
Article
This paper compares Palestinian and Israeli members of self-help groups regarding their understanding of the concept “self-help” as well as their attitudes towards participation in self-help groups. While both samples are similar in terms of the meanings they associate with the concept “self-help,” they are different in their attitudes towards part...
Article
While AIDS in Israel is not considered to be a pressing crisis, the aim of the research is to document and analyze what Arab professionals living in Israel know and how they feel about AIDS. The study also explores thoughts and feelings concerning AIDS-related education and training. This is the first scholarly attempt to investigate Israeli Arab p...
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Full-text available
This study examines Arab adolescents' future orientation toward their education, family plans, economic status, and social adjustment. Arab adolescents' future orientation is of interest since, presently, Israel is experiencing major internal and external political changes. The Arabs in Israel are a non-assimilating minority. They differ from the J...
Article
This study explores the meanings associated with the term 'self-help' among Israeli students in the helping professions. It compares these associated meanings across various groups created by several demographic variables. In particular it examines differences between participants who have had some type of involvement in self-help groups versus tho...
Article
This study explores the meanings associated with the term "self-help" among Israeli professionals in the helping professions. It compares these associated meanings across various groups created by several demographic variables. In particular, it examines differences between participants who have had some type of involvement in self-help groups and...

Citations

... For refugees arriving in Israel, despite an often exhausting and traumatic land journey involving torture, rape, and murder, safety has been guaranteed upon arrival, but only in the narrowest sense of the word (Lijnders and Robinson 2013). As in many other countries, African AS in Israel are isolated (Ghorashi et al. 2018) and not permitted to work (Müller 2015), and suffer from both institutional and "street" racism (Tsfati et al. 2020). Over the years, Israel has implemented several policies attempting to deport the AS or to create such harsh conditions for them, that they would leave the country "voluntarily" (Physicians for Human Rights Israel et al. 2019). ...
... The positioning of the review procedure as hierarchical and intended to stop researchers from performing potentially harmful activities damages the perception of research as a cooperative process and strengthens the adversarial relationship between the researcher and participants in the study. This approach treats participants as research subjects rather than partners in the process (Ben-Ari & Enosh, 2020;Enosh & Ben-Ari, 2010). ...
... The postmodern family encompasses many different agreements, two-parent working families, single-parent families, adoptive families, newly married families, as well as families of gay and lesbian parents [19]. The GLBT family understands that the process of family empowerment, where social norms with respect to gender and parenting influence are deconstructed and then rebuilt [41], consider that the education starts from combining other strategies, as artificial insemination, or adoption between people of the same gender. Families can extract meanings that are anchored in consumption to create a family identity [2]. ...
... Discrimination against sexual minorities is common, and it may be influenced by religious and cultural beliefs. Furthermore, Malaysians have a strong There are also cases where gay males have hesitated to come out, claiming that they will be forced to marry women owing to social pressure (Zack & Ben-Ari, 2018). Circumstances as such take place when gay males are neglected due to the societal norms in Malaysia that fail to recognize the rights of gay males, and therefore, this study is determinant to explore their optimism. ...
... Being a parent (of any kind) is a path towards acceptance by a society that sanctifies family values and continuity [57]. In the case of the LGBTQ population, parenthood can be considered a victory over the prevalent message that LGBTQ individuals are not meant to be parents [58]. ...
... In this context, realizing fatherhood desires, especially after contending with the numerous hurdles restricting gay men's access to fatherhood, could lead to a sense of victory and elevated levels of of both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being [22,23]. Similarly, as parenthood is considered a primary path to social acceptance and inclusion in Israel's familistic society, it has been suggested that the transition to fatherhood among gay men may tap into a stronger sense of social acceptance and belongingness that could also explain the elevated levels of well-being [24]. ...
... The term mixed-orientation relationship has been used to describe a relationship in which one partner identifies as homosexual or bisexual and the other partner identifies as heterosexual (Adler & Ben-Ari, 2018). The term "mixed" refers to the incongruency that exists between the partners' sexual orientations. ...
... Some gay men willingly enter straight marriage because they love the women they are marrying, and such marriage is equally valid. A similar conception is also found among wives of gay men in study of Adler and Ben-Ari (2017). The women were willing to reconstruct the perception of their marital relationship so that the heteronormative, monogamous ideal was done away with to make way for marital relationships that were more open. ...
... To reach there, researchers need to be tuned toward that which is implicit rather than self-evident or given. Researchers' reflexivity may be characterised by two processes, one of discovery and one of construction (Enosh and Ben-Ari 2015). The researcher strives to identify inconsistencies and, having done so, treats them as sources of new knowledge; thus, researchers combine both processes when reflecting on the studied phenomena. ...
... Nevertheless, as we have demonstrated, by focusing exclusively on the cultural dimension, adaptation practices refrain from crucial structural and socio-political aspects and therefore depoliticise the professional discourse. De-politicisation is defined as a retreat from the political dimension, or as excluding occurrences in the political arena (Herman et al., 2009;Nadan et al., 2016). This depoliticising tends to ignore crucial societal forces and policies that are at play in the lives of indigenous people and communities (Healy, 2014;Nadan, 2017). ...