# Adi Shamir's research while affiliated with Weizmann Institute of Science and other places

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## Publications (258)

Drones have created a new threat to people’s privacy. We are now in an era in which anyone with a drone equipped with a video camera can use it to invade a subject privacy by filming the subject in his/her private space using encrypted First Person View (FPV) channel. Although many methods have been suggested to detect a nearby drone, they all suff...

The extreme fragility of deep neural networks when presented with tiny perturbations in their inputs was independently discovered by several research groups in 2013, but in spite of enormous effort these adversarial examples remained a baffling phenomenon with no clear explanation. In this paper we introduce a new conceptual framework (which we cal...

Format-Preserving Encryption (FPE) schemes accept plaintexts from any finite set of values (such as social security numbers or birth dates) and produce ciphertexts that belong to the same set. They are extremely useful in practice since they make it possible to encrypt existing databases or communication packets without changing their format. Due t...

We suggest a method to determine whether a passing drone is used for spying or not. It can be used to detect spying drones when the victim is in a house or driving a car.

In standard rounding, we want to map each value $X$ in a large continuous space (e.g., $R$) to a nearby point $P$ from a discrete subset (e.g., $Z$). This process seems to be inherently discontinuous in the sense that two consecutive noisy measurements $X_1$ and $X_2$ of the same value may be extremely close to each other and yet they can be rounde...

The problem of online checkpointing is a classical problem with numerous applications that has been studied in various forms for almost 50 years. In the simplest version of this problem, a user has to maintain k memorized checkpoints during a long computation, where the only allowed operation is to move one of the checkpoints from its old time to t...

The slide attack is a powerful cryptanalytic tool which can break iterated block ciphers with a complexity that does not depend on their number of rounds. However, it requires complete self similarity in the sense that all the rounds must be identical. While this can be the case in Feistel structures, this rarely happens in SP networks since the la...

Boomerang attacks are extensions of differential attacks, that make it possible to combine two unrelated differential properties of the first and second part of a cryptosystem with probabilities p and q into a new differential-like property of the whole cryptosystem with probability \(p^2q^2\) (since each one of the properties has to be satisfied t...

Determining the security of AES is a central problem in cryptanalysis, but progress in this area had been slow and only a handful of cryptanalytic techniques led to significant advancements. At Eurocrypt 2017 Grassi et al. presented a novel type of distinguisher for AES-like structures, but so far all the published attacks which were based on this...

The existence of adversarial examples in which an imperceptible change in the input can fool well trained neural networks was experimentally discovered by Szegedy et al in 2013, who called them "Intriguing properties of neural networks". Since then, this topic had become one of the hottest research areas within machine learning, but the ease with w...

Today, about 10% of TLS connections are still using CBC-mode cipher suites, despite a long history of attacks and the availability of better options (e.g. AES-GCM). In this work, we present three new types of attack against four popular fully patched implementations of TLS (Amazon's s2n, GnuTLS, mbed TLS and wolfSSL) which elected to use "pseudo co...

In this paper, we show that a large class of diverse problems have a bicomposite structure which makes it possible to solve them with a new type of algorithm called dissection, which has much better time/memory tradeoffs than previously known algorithms. A typical example is the problem of finding the key of multiple encryption schemes with r indep...

In the area of espionage between countries, an infiltration covert channel used to trigger a silent malware installed on a network of a critical organization (such as 911 services, missile launching facility, etc.) from the outside world is extremely dangerous to the target country’s security. In order to prevent attackers from establishing such a...

Drones have created a new threat to people's privacy. We are now in an era in which anyone with a drone equipped with a video camera can use it to invade a subject's privacy by streaming the subject in his/her private space over an encrypted first person view (FPV) channel. Although many methods have been suggested to detect nearby drones, they all...

In this article, we describe a new type of attack on IoT devices, which exploits their ad hoc networking capabilities via the Zigbee wireless protocol, and thus cannot be monitored or stopped by standard Internet-based protective mechanisms. We developed and verified the attack using the Philips Hue smart lamps as a platform, by exploiting a major...

We introduce a new problem of finding the best way to protect a computer system against cyber and ransomware attacks by choosing an optimal backup scheme using k storage devices. While in standard backup schemes it is beneficial to backup as frequently as possible, in the case of sophisticated cyber attacks any attempt to connect a backup device to...

This article presents a proof-of-concept illustrating the feasibility of creating a covert channel between a C\&C server and a malware installed in an organization by exploiting an organization's scanner and using it as a means of interaction. We take advantage of the light sensitivity of a flatbed scanner, using a light source to infiltrate data t...

Random number generators (RNGs) play a crucial role in many cryptographic schemes and protocols, but their security proof usually assumes that their internal state is initialized with truly random seeds and remains secret at all times. However, in many practical situations these are unrealistic assumptions: The seed is often gathered after a reset/...

One of the most common tasks in cryptography and cryptanalysis is to find some interesting event (a needle) in an exponentially large collection (haystack) of \(N=2^n\) possible events, or to demonstrate that no such event is likely to exist. In particular, we are interested in finding needles which are defined as events that happen with an unusual...

CRYPTOGRAPHY IS UBIQUITOUS. Secure websites and financial, personal communication, corporate, and national secrets all depend on cryptographic algorithms operating correctly. Builders of cryptographic systems have learned (often the hard way) to devise algorithms and protocols with sound theoretical analysis, write software that implements them cor...

Many computers emit a high-pitched noise during operation, due to vibration in some of their electronic components. These acoustic emanations are more than a nuisance: They can convey information about the software running on the computer and, in particular, leak sensitive information about security-related computations. In a preliminary presentati...

Slide attacks use pairs of encryption operations which are slid against each other. Slide with a twist attacks are more sophisticated variants of slide attacks which slide an encryption operation against a decryption operation. Designed by Biryukov and Wagner in 2000, these attacks were used against several cryptosystems, including DESX, the Even-M...

The fundamental problem of differential cryptanalysis is to find the highest entries in the Difference Distribution Table (DDT) of a given mapping F over n-bit values, and in particular to find the highest diagonal entries which correspond to the best iterative characteristics of F. The standard bottom-up approach to this problem is to consider all...

Feistel structures are an extremely important and extensively researched type of cryptographic schemes. In this paper we describe improved attacks on Feistel structures with more than 4 rounds. We achieve this by a new attack that combines the main benefits of meet-in-the-middle attacks (which can reduce the time complexity by comparing only half b...

In this work, we present several new generic second-preimage attacks on hash functions. Our first attack is based on the herding attack and applies to various Merkle–Damgård-based iterative hash functions. Compared to the previously known long-message second-preimage attacks, our attack offers more flexibility in choosing the second-preimage messag...

Iterated Even-Mansour (EM) encryption schemes (also named “key-alternating ciphers”) were extensively studied in recent years as an abstraction of commonly used block ciphers. A large amount of previous works on iterated EM concentrated on security in an information-theoretic model. A central question studied in these papers is: What is the minimal...

In this paper we consider the problem of finding near- collisions with Hamming distance bounded by \(r\) in generic \(n\)-bit hash functions. In 2011, Lamberger and Rijmen proposed a modified version of Pollard’s rho method, and in 2012 Leurent improved this memoryless algorithm by using any available memory to store chain endpoints. Both algorithm...

The iterated Even-Mansour (EM) scheme is a generalization of the original 1-round construction proposed in 1991, and can use one key, two keys, or completely independent keys. In this paper, we methodically analyze the security of all the possible iterated Even-Mansour schemes with two n-bit keys and up to four rounds, and show that none of them pr...

Combinatorial search problems are usually described by a collection of possible states, a list of possible actions which map each current state into some next state, and a pair of initial and final states. The algorithmic problem is to find a sequence of actions which maps the given initial state into the desired final state. In this paper, we intr...

Many computers emit a high-pitched noise during operation, due to vibration in some of their electronic components. These acoustic emanations are more than a nuisance: as we show in this paper, they can leak the key used in cryptographic operations. This is surprising, since the acoustic information has very low bandwidth (under 20 kHz using common...

We study random number generators (RNGs) with input, RNGs that regularly update their internal state according to some auxiliary input with additional randomness harvested from the environment. We formalize the problem of designing an efficient recovery mechanism from complete state compromise in the presence of an active attacker. If we knew the t...

On October 2-nd 2012 NIST announced its selection of the Keccak scheme as the new SHA-3 hash standard. In this paper we present the first published collision finding attacks on reduced-round versions of Keccak-384 and Keccak-512, providing actual collisions for 3-round versions, and describing an attack which is \(2^{45}\) times faster than birthda...

A message authentication code (MAC) computes for each (arbitrarily long) message \(m\) and key \(k\) a short authentication tag which is hard to forge when \(k\) is unknown. One of the most popular ways to process \(m\) in such a scheme is to use some variant of AES in CBC mode, and to derive the tag from the final ciphertext block. In this paper,...

The Keccak hash function is the winner of NIST’s SHA-3 competition, and so far it showed remarkable resistance against practical collision finding attacks: After several years of cryptanalysis and a lot of effort, the largest number of Keccak rounds for which actual collisions were found was only 2. In this paper, we develop improved collision find...

In this paper, we present advanced meet-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks against the lightweight block cipher LED-64, improving the best known attacks on several step-reduced variants of the cipher in both single-key and related-key models. In particular, we present a known-plaintext attack on 2-step LED-64 with complexity of \(2^{48}\) and a related-k...

The Bitcoin scheme is the most popular and talked about alternative payment scheme. One of the most active parts of the Bitcoin ecosystem was the Silk Road marketplace, in which highly illegal substances and services were traded. It was run by a person who called himself Dread Pirate Roberts (DPR), whose bitcoin holdings are estimated to be worth h...

The Even-Mansour (EM) encryption scheme received a lot of attention in the last couple of years due to its exceptional simplicity and tight security proofs. The original 1-round construction was naturally generalized into r-round structures with one key, two alternating keys, and completely independent keys. In this paper we describe the first key...

IDEA is a 64-bit block cipher with 128-bit keys which was introduced by Lai and Massey in 1991. The best previously published attack on IDEA could only handle 6 of its 8.5-rounds. In this paper, we combine a highly optimized meet-in-the-middle attack with a keyless version of the Biryukov–Demirci relation to obtain a greatly improved attack on 6-ro...

The Even–Mansour cryptosystem was developed in 1991 in an attempt to obtain the simplest possible block cipher, using only one publicly known random permutation and two whitening keys. Its exact security remained open for more than 20 years in the sense that the lower bound proof considered known plaintexts, whereas the best published attack (which...

Cube attacks were introduced in Dinur and Shamir (2009) as a cryptanalytic technique that requires only black box access to the underlying cryptosystem. The attack exploits the existence of low degree polynomial representation of a single output bit (as a function of the key and plaintext bits) in order to recover the secret key. Although cube atta...

The Bitcoin scheme is a rare example of a large scale global payment system in which all the transactions are publicly accessible (but in an anonymous way). We downloaded the full history of this scheme, and analyzed many statistical properties of its associated transaction graph. In this paper we answer for the first time a variety of interest-ing...

In this paper we show that a large class of diverse problems have a bicomposite structure which makes it possible to solve them with a new type of algorithm called dissection, which has much better time/memory tradeoffs than previously known algorithms. A typical example is the problem of finding the key of multiple encryption schemes with r indepe...

In this paper we describe the first single-key attack which can recover the full key of the full version of Grain-128 for arbitrary keys by an algorithm which is significantly faster than exhaustive search (by a factor of about 238). It is based on a new version of a cube tester, which uses an improved choice of dynamic variables to eliminate the p...

Hamsi is one of the 14 second-stage candidates in NIST’s SHA-3 competition. The only previous attack on this hash function
was a very marginal attack on its 256-bit version published by Thomas Fuhr at Asiacrypt 2010, which is better than generic
attacks only for very short messages of fewer than 100 32-bit blocks, and is only 26 times faster than...

We present a new variant of cube attacks called a dynamic cube attack. Whereas standard cube attacks [4] find the key by solving a system of linear equations in the key bits, the new attack recovers
the secret key by exploiting distinguishers obtained from cube testers. Dynamic cube attacks can create lower degree representations
of the given ciphe...

The Keccak hash function is one of the five finalists in NIST's SHA-3 competition, and so far it showed remarkable resistance against practical collision finding attacks: After several years of cryptanalysis and a lot of effort, the largest number of Keccak rounds for which actual collisions were found was only 2. In this paper we develop improved...

In this paper we consider the following fundamental problem: What is the simplest possible construction of a block cipher which is provably secure in some formal sense? This problem motivated Even and Mansour to develop their scheme in 1991, but its exact security remained open for more than 20 years in the sense that the lower bound proof consider...

GOST is a well known block cipher which was developed in the Soviet Union during the 1970’s as an alternative to the US-developed DES. In spite of considerable cryptanalytic effort, until very recently there were no published single key attacks against its full 32-round version which were faster than the 2 256 time complexity of exhaustive search....

We analyze how fast we can solve general systems of multivariate equations of various low degrees over F2; this is a well known hard problem which is important both in itself and as part of many types of algebraic cryptanalysis. Compared to the standard exhaustive search technique, our improved approach is more efficient both asymptotically and pra...

We analyze how fast we can solve general systems of multivariate equations of various low degrees over \({\mathbb{F}_{2}}\); this is a well known hard problem which is important both in itself and as part of many types of algebraic cryptanalysis. Compared to the standard exhaustive search technique, our improved approach is more efficient both asym...

The privacy of most GSM phone conversations is currently protected by the 20+ years old A5/1 and A5/2 stream ciphers, which
were repeatedly shown to be cryptographically weak. They will soon be replaced by the new A5/3 (and the soon to be announced
A5/4) algorithm based on the block cipher KASUMI, which is a modified version of MISTY. In this paper...

Side channel attacks are typically divided into two phases: In the collection phase the attacker tries to measure some physical property of the implementation, and in the analysis phase he tries to derive the cryptographic key from the measured information. The field is highly fragmented, since there are many types of leakage, and each one of them...

We describe several software side-channel attacks based on inter-process leakage through the state of the CPU's memory cache. This leakage reveals memory access patterns, which can be used for cryptanalysis of cryptographic primitives that employ data-dependent table lookups. The attacks allow an unprivileged process to attack other processes runni...

AES is the best known and most widely used block cipher. Its three versions (AES-128, AES-192, and AES-256) differ in their
key sizes (128 bits, 192 bits and 256 bits) and in their number of rounds (10, 12, and 14, respectively). While for AES-128,
there are no known attacks faster than exhaustive search, AES-192 and AES-256 were recently shown to...

The privacy of most GSM phone conversations is currently protected by the 20+ years old A5/1 and A5/2 stream ciphers, which were repeatedly shown to be cryptographically weak. They will soon be replaced in third generation networks by a new A5/3 block cipher called KASUMI, which is a modified version of the MISTY cryptosystem. In this paper we desc...

AES is the most widely used block cipher today, and its security is one of the most important issues in cryptanalysis. After 13 years of analysis, related-key attacks were recently found against two of its flavors (AES-192 and AES-256). However, such a strong type of attack is not universally accepted as a valid attack model, and in the more standa...

Hamsi is one of the 14 second-stage candidates in NIST's SHA-3 competition. The only previous attack on this hash function was a very marginal attack on its 256-bit version published by Thomas Fuhr at Asiacrypt 2010, which is better than generic attacks only for very short messages of fewer than 100 32-bit blocks, and is only 26 times faster than a...

We consider repeated communication sessions between a RFID Tag (e.g., Radio Frequency Identification, RFID Tag) and a RFID Verifier. A proactive information theoretic security scheme is proposed. The scheme is based on the assumption that the information exchanged during at least one of every n successive communication sessions is not exposed to an...

Almost any cryptographic scheme can be described by tweakable polynomials over GF(2), which contain both secret variables (e.g., key bits) and public variables (e.g., plaintext bits or IV bits). The cryptanalyst is allowed to tweak the polynomials by choosing arbitrary values for the public variables, and his goal is to solve the resultant system o...

CRYPTO 2008 saw the introduction of the hash function MD6 and of cube attacks, a type of algebraic attack applicable to cryptographic functions having a low-degree algebraic normal form over GF(2). This paper applies cube attacks to reduced round MD6, finding the full 128-bit key of a 14-round MD6 with complexity 2^22 (which takes less than a minut...

With increased use of passive RFID tags, the need for secure lightweight identification protocols arose. HB+ is one such protocol, which was proven secure in the detection-based model, but shown breakable by man-in-the-middle attacks. Trusted-HB is a variant of HB+, specifically designed to resist man-in-the-middle attacks. In this paper, we discus...

AES is the best known and most widely used block cipher. Its three versions (AES-128, AES-192, and AES-256) differ in their key sizes (128 bits, 192 bits and 256 bits) and in their number of rounds (10, 12, and 14, respectively). In the case of AES-128, there is no known attack which is faster than the 2 128 complexity of exhaustive search. However...

Cube testers are a generic class of methods for building distinguishers, based on cube attacks and on algebraic property-testers. In this paper, we report on an efficient FPGA implementation of cube testers on the stream cipher Grain-128. Our best result (a distinguisher on Grain-128 reduced to 237 rounds, out of 256) was achieved after a computati...

In this paper we formalize the notion of leakage attacks on it- erated block ciphers, in which the attacker can find (via physical probing, power measurement, or any other type of side channel) one bit of infor- mation about the intermediate state of the encryption after each round. Since bits computed during the early rounds can be typically repre...

In this paper we present a new kind of cryptanalytic attack which utilizes bugs in the hardware implementation of computer
instructions. The best known example of such a bug is the Intel division bug, which resulted in slightly inaccurate results
for extremely rare inputs. Whereas in most applications such bugs can be viewed as a minor nuisance, we...

This paper proposes new chosen-message power-analysis at- tacks against public-key cryptosystems based on modular exponentia- tion, which use specific input pairs to generate collisions between squar- ing operations at different locations in the two power traces. Unlike pre- vious attacks of this kind, the new attacks can be applied to all the stan...

At Crypto 2004 Joux showed a novel attack against the concatenated hash combiner instantiated with Merkle-Damgård iterated
hash functions. His method of producing multicollisions in the design was the first in a recent line of generic attacks against
the Merkle-Damgård construction. In the same paper, Joux raised an open question concerning the str...

We develop a new generic long-message second preimage attack, based on combining the techniques in the second preimage attacks of Dean [8] and Kelsey and Schneier [16] with the herding attack of Kelsey and Kohno [15]. We show that these generic attacks apply to hash functions using the Merkle-Damgård construction with only slightly more work than t...

We describe a new function called SQUASH (which is short for SQUare-hASH), which is ideally suited to challenge-response MAC applications in highly constrained devices such as RFID tags. It is exceptionally
simple, requires no source of random bits, and can be efficiently implemented on processors with arbitrary word sizes. Unlike
other ad-hoc prop...

In this paper, we present improved related-key attacks on the original DESX, and DESX+, a variant of the DESX with its pre- and post-whitening XOR operations replaced with addition modulo 264. Compared to previous results, our attack on DESX has reduced text complexity, while our best attack on DESX+ eliminates the memory requirements at the same p...

In 2008 we are celebrating the 10-th anniversary of CHES and the 30-th anniversary of the publication of the RSA paper at
CACM. In this talk I will survey some of the major RSA-related papers published at CHES during the last 10 years, describe
my own research on security and implementation issues, introduce some new attacks, and make predictions a...

Side-channel attacks are used by cryptanalysts to compromise the implementation of secure systems. One very powerful class of side-channel attacks is power analysis, which tries to extract cryptographic keys and passwords by examining the power consumption of a device. We examine the applicability of this threat to electromagnetically coupled RFID...