Adele Eskeles Gottfried's research while affiliated with California State University, Northridge and other places

Publications (56)

Article
This preliminary study determined whether there are distinct family personality profiles encompassing child-mother-father triads. Data were from the Fullerton Longitudinal Study. Latent profile analysis (LPA) using the Five Factor Model was conducted, resulting in a 3-profile solution characterizing families. Emerging profiles were labeled ordinary...
Article
In this prospective study, we examined the link between positive family relationships during childhood and adolescence and health and happiness three decades later in middle adulthood. We also investigated the stability of positive family relationships into adulthood as one possible pathway underlying this long-term association. Data were from the...
Chapter
Academic intrinsic motivation concerns enjoyment of learning for its own sake without receiving external rewards, and intrinsic motivation is recognized as being important for individuals' well-being and mental health. From childhood through adulthood, research shows that academic intrinsic motivation is a significant factor regarding academic and...
Article
This study examined the stability of the latent construct of intelligence from infancy through adolescence, using latent variable modeling to account for measurement error. Based on the Fullerton Longitudinal Study data, the present study modeled general intelligence across four developmental periods from infancy through adolescence. The Fullerton...
Article
The Fullerton Longitudinal Study offers a unique opportunity to model the stability of intelligence and achievement and their relations from elementary through secondary school. Using latent variable modeling, we fit a cross-lagged panel model to examine the relations between intelligence and achievement in two academic domains: mathematics and rea...
Article
Measurement invariance is a prerequisite when comparing different groups of individuals or when studying a group of individuals across time. This assures that the same construct is assessed without measurement artifacts. This investigation applied a novel approach of simultaneous parameter linking to cross-sectional and longitudinal measures of the...
Article
In 2013, Drs Allen and Adele Gottfried shared the Fullerton longitudinal data with us. The data provided a unique opportunity to investigate the intellectual development and the longitudinal relationshiprelation between intelligence and academic achievement. Previous studies have seldom addressed the latent nature of intelligence and academic achie...
Article
The construct of positive family relationships (PFR), defined as family members getting along well and supporting each other, was investigated in a long-term prospective study. A newly constructed scale of positive family relationships developed using the nominal response model of item-response theory, was subject to a longitudinal network of relat...
Article
Full-text available
This long-term longitudinal study addressed the theoretical underpinning of academic intrinsic motivation (AIM) from childhood through adolescence, to need for cognition (NFC) and educational attainment (EA) during adulthood. AIM was measured from 9 to 17 years old, NFC and EA at 29 years old, and IQ at 8 years old. Latent change and growth mixture...
Article
Curiosity is fundamental to scientific inquiry and pursuance. Parents are important in encouraging children’s involvement in science. This longitudinal study examined pathways from parental stimulation of children’s curiosity per se to their science acquisition (SA). A latent variable of SA was indicated by the inter-related variables of high schoo...
Article
Full-text available
A psychometric analysis was conducted using the nominal response model under the item response theory framework to construct the Positive Family Relationships scale. Using data from the Fullerton Longitudinal Study, this scale was constructed within a long-term longitudinal framework spanning middle childhood through adolescence. Items tapping this...
Article
SYNOPSIS: Objective. The quantity of time mothers read to their young children and the print environment in their homes were examined for their relations to reading achievement and intrinsic motivation across the school years and to educational attainment in adulthood. Design. Data from the 28-year Fullerton Longitudinal Study were analyzed using s...
Article
Objective. In a longitudinal study, researchers examined the transactional relations between two types of parental home involvement, academic instruction and academic socialization, and children's reading achievement from early childhood through adolescence. Academic instruction involves one-on-one interactions between parent and child that target...
Article
Across 20 years, pathways from math intrinsic motivation and achievement (ages 9–17) to high school math course accomplishments and educational attainment (age 29) were analyzed. Academic intrinsic motivation was the theoretical foundation. To determine how initial status and change in motivation and achievement related to course accomplishments an...
Article
Academic intrinsic motivation forms the basis of the identification of motivational risk status. It is positively correlated to school competency. Greater academic intrinsic motivation relates to higher academic achievement, self-concept, and lower academic anxiety. This chapter examines motivation from school entry level through to early adulthood...
Article
The present study elucidates developmental roots of leadership motivation by investigating how motivation from childhood through adolescence is linked to motivation to lead in adulthood. Academic intrinsic motivation, the pleasure inherent in an activity for its own sake with regard to school learning, provided the construct that was assessed from...
Article
This long-term longitudinal study examined the relation between aspects of adolescents' family context representing a supportive and intellectually stimulating environment and subsequent qualities of transformational leadership in every day leaders in early adulthood. In addition, we examined one pathway through which this link occurs. Specifically...
Article
This is the first study examining the developmental roots of leadership potential in a longitudinal framework from age 2 to 29years. Data are derived from the Fullerton Longitudinal Study. Using structural equation modeling (N=106), the direct and indirect effects of adolescent personality (extraversion) and intelligence (IQ) on adult social skills...
Article
Full-text available
The long-standing question of the role of traits, particularly personality and intelligence, in predicting leadership qualities was addressed using a longitudinal design in the current study. Based on data from participants in the Fullerton Longitudinal Study, we examined the relationship between adolescent personality and intelligence collected at...
Article
Full-text available
A longitudinal approach was used to examine the effects of parental task-intrinsic and task-extrinsic motivational practices on academic intrinsic motivation in the subject areas of math and science. Parental task-intrinsic practices comprise encouragement of children’s pleasure and engagement in the learning process, whereas task-extrinsic practic...
Chapter
The Fullerton Longitudinal StudyThe Upside of Maternal EmploymentConclusions References
Chapter
Gifted motivation was proposed by Gottfried & Gottfried (2004) as an area of giftedness in and of itself distinct from intellectual giftedness. Gifted motivation applies to those individuals who are superior in their strivings and determination pertaining to an endeavor. The foundation for theorizing about and providing empirical validation for thi...
Article
A longitudinal modeling approach was utilized to determine the existence of latent classes with regard to academic intrinsic motivation and the points of stability and transition of individuals between and within classes. A special type of latent Markov Chain model using Mplus was fit to data from the Fullerton Longitudinal Study, with academic int...
Chapter
While the previous chapter concentrated on the consistent themes presented in this book, this chapter focuses on examining the common threads visible in the findings about academic motivation and culture of schooling presented in this volume. It analyzes the convergence in results and conclusions both among chapters and across the entire volume as...
Article
The short- and long-term, and direct and indirect, relations between cognitively stimulating home environment and academic intrinsic motivation were investigated in a longitudinal study from childhood through early adolescence. Structural equations modeling was used to test the hypothesis that home environment positively predicts academic intrinsic...
Article
Research has established that academic intrinsic motivation, enjoyment of school learning without receipt of external rewards, significantly declines across childhood through adolescence. Math intrinsic motivation evidences the most severe decline compared with other subject areas. This study addresses this developmental decline in math intrinsic m...
Article
The Fullerton Longitudinal Study is a contemporary prospective investigation that spans approximately a quarter of a century. Commencing at age 1, children and their families were systematically followed every 6 months from infancy through preschool and annually at ages 5 through 17. They were again assessed at age 24. The course of development for...
Article
This article presents an overview of the major issues investigated in a longitudinal study of development from infancy through early adulthood regarding the relationships between maternal and dual-earner employment and children's development. Based on the results of this extensive and long-term study, as well as integrating the results of other res...
Article
The construct of gifted motivation was examined in a contemporary, long-term, longitudinal investigation. Adolescents with extremely high academic intrinsic motivation (i.e., gifted motivation) were compared to their cohort peer comparison on a variety of educationally relevant measures from elementary school through the early adulthood years. Asse...
Article
Whereas perspectives on giftedness have included motivation as a construct related to giftedness, the proposed conceptualization advances a new view that motivation is an area of giftedness in and of itself. Academic intrinsic motivation (i.e., enjoyment of school learning) is the domain focused upon in this conceptualization inasmuch as it has inh...
Article
Full-text available
In this chapter we focus on theory and research regarding maternal and dual-earner employment and parenting, including an overview of historical and central issues; major theories, themes, and perspectives; early and contemporary research defining 3 distinct phases; practical implications of the research; and future directions. Consideration is giv...
Article
Full-text available
Two aspects of continuity, stability of individual differences and means, were examined in a longitudinal study from the middle elementary through the high school years. Two hypotheses regarding individual difference stability were supported with structural equation modeling in both the general-verbal and math domains: (a) Academic intrinsic motiva...
Article
The short- and long-term, and direct and indirect, relations between cognitively stimulating home environment and academic intrinsic motivation were investigated in a longitudinal study from childhood through early adolescence. Structural equations modeling was used to test the hypothesis that home environment positively predicts academic intrinsic...
Article
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–2 (MMPI-2) norms based on 508 child custody litigants are presented. Defensive underreporting and self-favorability were often exhibited along with an elevation on the Over-Controlled Hostility (O–H) scale. Highest mean clinical scale scores were Hysteria, Paranoia, and Psychopathic Deviate. Differences w...
Article
Academic intrinsic motivation of intellectually gifted children and a comparison group was examined in the Fullerton Longitudinal Study. Children at ages 9 through 13 years were administered the Children's Academic Intrinsic Motivation Inventory which assesses intrinsic motivation for school learning in reading, math, social studies, science, and f...
Article
Introduction: Demography and Changing Families (A.E. Gottfried, A.W. Gottfried). Alternative Families and Children's Development: Primary Caregiving Fathers in Intact Familes (N. Radin). Role of Maternal and Dual-Earner Employment in Children's Development (A.E. Gottfried et al.). Revolution and Reassessment (C.E. Depner). The Gap between Psychosoc...
Article
Tested the role of parental motivational practices in children's academic intrinsic motivation and achievement in a longitudinal study of children at ages 9 and 10 yrs. Two types of motivational practices were assessed: mothers' encouragement of children's task endogeny and provision of task-extrinsic consequences. Structural equations path models...
Chapter
The research reported in this chapter is concerned with investigating the role of maternal employment in children’s development in our longitudinal study from infancy through early adolescence. In our prior research (A. E. Gottfried, A. W. Gottfried, & Bathurst, 1988), we studied maternal employment and children’s development from infancy (1 year)...
Article
concerned with investigating the role of maternal employment [and dual-earner status] in children's development [and home environment] in our longitudinal study from infancy through early adolescence / [focus on] research findings from middle childhood through early adolescence [8–12 yr olds] / examine aspects of mothers' and fathers' child involve...
Book
Families are undergoing dramatic changes in our society. Our tradi­ tional views are being challenged by new family arrangements. These new family arrangements are forcing redefinitions of what consti­ tutes a family and raising significant issues regarding the potential developmental consequences for children in these families, if such exist. More...
Chapter
Family change is pervasive. We need only read our daily newspapers—or watch television news—to be exposed to the vast diversity of family forms in existence. Moreover, demographic data on the U.S. population has tracked family structure over a 75-year period and provides documentation of family changes (Wetzel, 1990). The traditional family (i.e.,...
Chapter
The chapters contained in this book represent families whose structure is at variance with both historical and traditional views. The conventional perspective that families comprise a mother/housewife, a father/sole earner, and a child(ren) is demographically in the minority in U.S. contemporary society (Wetzel, 1990). Each chapter and its research...
Chapter
Family patterns are undergoing rapid change in our society, in part a consequence of maternal employment. The proportion of employed mothers with children under 18 has shown a steady increase from 1940 to the present (Hoffman, 1984b), and projections are for this trend to continue (Hayghe, 1982). Two-earner families are now prevalent due to the inc...
Chapter
The majority of mothers are now employed, and projections are for this trend to continue (Hayghe, 1982). Women’s roles have changed both within and outside the family. These changes have raised questions regarding the impact of maternal employment on children’s development. Investigating this issue has become increasingly important for social scien...
Chapter
Does maternal employment affect children’s development? The body of data presented in the preceding chapters provides a foundation upon which to answer this question. In this chapter, results will be integrated to determine generalizability of findings across studies, and some of the most important processes pertaining to the relationship of matern...
Book
In a review written in 1979, I noted that there was a paucity of research examining the effects of maternal employment on the infant and young child and also that longitudinal studies of the effects of maternal em­ ployment were needed (Hoffman, 1979). In the last 10 years, there has been a flurry of research activity focused on the mother's employ...
Article
Reviews longitudinal research findings on the role of early home stimulation in children's development, noting evidence that cognitive development is more clearly related to the consistency of the home environment over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Social power and Whiting's status envy theory were compared for their effects on children's model preferences. Kindergarten children observed a show in which neuter gender puppets exhibited behaviors dictated by these theories. Statistical analyses showed that: (a) sex was not associated with model preference and (b) the status envy model was signi...
Article
does maternal employment affect children's development results will be integrated to determine generalizability of findings across studies important processes pertaining to the relationship of maternal employment to children's development will be highlighted contemporaneous and long-term relationships between maternal employment status and ch...
Article
determine how maternal employment relates to home environment and children's development in a longitudinal study from infancy through the early school years is maternal employment status independently related to proximal home environment and children's development contemporaneously from infancy through the early school years is there a long-ter...

Citations

... Furthermore, Galambos et al. (2021) highlighted the importance of longitudinal research in understanding the processes leading to happiness. Lastly, prospective studies have shown personality traits are robust predictors of physical health outcomes later in life (Ramos et al., 2022;Leger et al., 2021;Strickhouser et al., 2017). ...
... Research on the stability of intelligence across the lifespan has almost universally focused on the stability of fullscale IQ (FSIQ) scores, individual scale scores, or principal component scores (Ahmed et al., 2020;Deary, 2014;Gow, 2016;Larsen et al., 2008;Lechner et al., 2021;Mansukoski et al., 2019;Schalke et al., 2013;Watkins & Canivez, 2004;Watkins & Smith, 2013). The exceptions are notable, as they reveal a major problem with approaches that do not use latent variables: due to some combination of unreliability and dimensionality, the stability of intelligence has been underestimated in studies that only used observed scores (Rönnlund et al., 2015;Yu et al., 2018). ...
... Penyelidikan berkaitan dengan persekitaran rumah dalam kaitannya dengan pencapaian kanak-kanak juga banyak telah dijalankan. Secara khusus Gottfried & Gottfried (1994) dan Gottfried & Gottfried (1995) mengutarakan teori proximal home background yang memberi penekanan bahawa aspekaspek penting berkaitan dengan persekitaran kanak-kanak seperti kognitif, sosio-emosi, rangsangan fizikal dalam keluarga boleh memberi kesan kepada perkembangan kanak-kanak. Jika aspek-aspek ini wujud maka terbentuklah situasi proximal atau hampir dengan situasi menggalakkan perkembangan kanak-kanak, berbeza dengan situasi yang distal atau jauh yang kurang menggalak perkembangan kanak-kanak. ...
... However, while results from the impact of father's unemployment tend to be more consistent, the influence of maternal unemployemnt its controversial. In the mid 20th century, with the slow but growing participation of woman in the labor market, research focused on exploring the negative effects of maternal employment due to its consequences in a lower availability and supervision of their kids (Gottfried & Gottfried, 1988). However, this research ignores the efforts of mothers and fathers to adjust to the re-distribution of roles (National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, 2003) and recent research has also shown positive effects of maternal employment on adolescents (McGinn, Castro, & Lingo, 2015). ...
... Academic achievement is the knowledge and skills acquired by students through learning and training (McCoach et al., 2017). Embodied Cognition Theory addresses the influence of the physical structure of the body on the cognitive abilities of individuals. ...
... However, it is important to highlight that this preliminary research produced profiles that related, in a conceptual and orderly fashion, to two distal outcomes nearly two decades later. Future research should expand the present findings to address how family relationships interact with the profiles (Preston et al., 2018). Despite the stability of the FFM, future research should attempt to assess personality simultaneously (that is, at the same time-point). ...
... Additionally, there is evidence of the stability of individual differences (i.e., relative position over time; Bornstein et al., 2017) in perceptions of family relationships across childhood and adolescence. Recent research by Preston et al. (2015Preston et al. ( , 2016Preston et al. ( , 2018 using a newly constructed measure of family functioning based on contemporary psychometric theory, the Positive Family Relationships (PFR) Scale, demonstrated measurement invariance across the perspectives of both mothers and children and longitudinally across ages 9 through 17 years. The PFR assesses how well family members get along and support each other, using a positive psychology framework that emphasizes the strengths, assets, and virtues that foster optimal psychological functioning (e.g., Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). ...
... Some individuals have a strong tendency to engage in and enjoy effortful thought, while other individuals have a weaker tendency to do this. NFC has been investigated in studies of framing (Chatterjee et al., 2000;Kuvaas and Kaufmann, 2004), motivation (Gottfried et al., 2017), and training (Towler and Dipboye, 2006), among others. These areas of research have benefited from including individual difference traits, such as NFC to uncover moderation effects (Chatterjee et al., 2000). ...
... Although conceptualizations differ, interest is generally understood to include both the spark of emotion we feel when we are excited or compelled to engage with something in a particular moment, as well as the more enduring motivation to reengage with an object, activity, or topic that we may begin to associate with we who we are as a person (Ainley, 2019;Renninger & Hidi, 2016). Through this ongoing process of interest development, the positive emotion of interest becomes linked to a constellation of related constructs, including knowledge and values, all of which are influenced by new experiences and, in turn, motivate further engagement inside and outside of school (Azevedo, 2011(Azevedo, , 2015Gottfried et al., 2016). ...
... Most of the literature on maternal employment and adolescent children comes from social sciences and most studies (see for example Gottfried and Gottfried, 1994) conclude that maternal employment does not affect outcomes such as academic achievement, delinquency, or substance abuse. However, both positive impacts (Richards and Duckett, 1994;Muller, 1995) and negative effects (Bogenschneider and Steinberg, 1994) have been found, and maternal employment has been found to have positive effect for girls, ethnic minorities or children with less educated parents (Bogenschneider and Steinberg, 1994;Wolfer and Moen, 1996) and when it is part-time rather than full-time. ...