Abigail Fraser's research while affiliated with University of Bristol and other places

Publications (386)

Article
Full-text available
Background: Understanding the course of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the factors that impact this is essential to inform decisions about when and for whom screening and intervention are likely to be beneficial. Objective: To provide meta-analytic evidence of the course of recovery from PTSD in the first year following trauma, and the...
Article
Background A history of preeclampsia is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease and experimental evidence suggests that a history of preeclampsia also increases the risk of restenosis. However, the extent to which a history of preeclampsia is associated with risk of restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention in women is u...
Article
Full-text available
Age at natural menopause (ANM) is associated with a range of health-related traits, including bone health, female reproductive cancers, and cardiometabolic health. Our objective was to conduct a Mendelian randomization phenome-wide association study (MR-pheWAS) of ANM. We conducted a hypothesis-free analysis of the genetic risk score (GRS) for ANM...
Conference Paper
Background The rates of both emergency and maternal request caesarean sections are increasing globally. Many factors are contributing to the rising rates and maternal outcomes are important to consider for care provision and decision-making. Qualitative evidence suggests that caesarean section is perceived to be protective of sexual function and th...
Article
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Background International research shows the significance and impact of intimate partner violence and abuse (IPVA) as a public health issue for young adults. There is a lack of qualitative research exploring pathways to IPVA. Methods The current mixed-methods study used qualitative interviews and analysis of longitudinal cohort data, to explore exp...
Article
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Background Women experience adverse changes in cardiovascular health in mid-life; whether the menopausal transition influences these remains strongly debated. The aim of this study was to examine associations of reproductive age (time since final menstrual period (FMP)) with change in carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and cardiovascular risk fa...
Article
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Objectives: To investigate the relationship between mode of delivery and subsequent maternal sexual wellbeing. Design: Prospective birth cohort study. Setting: Avon (in Bristol area), UK. Population: Participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (ALSPAC). Methods: Mode of delivery was abstracted from obstretric record...
Article
Objective To investigate the association between subfertility and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes. Design Prospective study. Setting Population-based cohort. Patient(s) We studied 31,629 women and 17,630 men participating in the Trøndelag Health Study. Intervention(s) Self-reported subfertility. As men were not directly asked abou...
Article
Within the ALSPAC (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children) resource, information concerning the health of the mother during pregnancy is available from three sources: (i) computerised data collected by midwives after the delivery of the baby, known as the STORK database; (ii) data abstracted by ALSPAC staff from detailed medical obstetric...
Preprint
Background Socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease risk begin early in life and are more pronounced in females compared with males in later life but the causal atherogenic traits that may explain this are not well understood. We explored sex-specific associations between indicators of childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) and changes...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To investigate the association between smoking and infertility. Design Prospective study. Setting Nationwide cohort. Patients 28,606 women and 27,096 men with questionnaire and genotype information from the Norwegian Mother, Father, and Child Cohort Study. Intervention Self-reported information on smoking (having ever smoked [both sex...
Article
Background: In the UK, around one-third of young people are exposed to Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse (IPVA) by 21 years old. However, types of IPVA victimization in this population (psychological, physical, sexual), and their relationship with impact and perpetration are poorly understood. Methods: Participants in a UK birth cohort reporte...
Article
Full-text available
Background Women’s reproductive factors include their age at menarche and menopause, the age at which they start and stop having children and the number of children they have. Studies that have linked these factors with disease risk have largely investigated individual reproductive factors and have not considered the genetic correlation and total i...
Preprint
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Childhood maltreatment is associated with CVD and may modify genetic susceptibility to cardiovascular risk factors. We used genetic and phenotypic data from 100,833 White British UK Biobank participants (57% female; mean age = 55.9 years). We regressed nine cardiovascu...
Article
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While we know there are high rates of mental health difficulties amongst young people in care (i.e., social welfare-involved children), there is limited evidence on the longitudinal development of these problems, particularly from when they enter the care system. Using the routinely collected carer-reported strengths and difficulties questionnaire...
Article
Background Women with a history of obstetric complications are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but whether they should be specifically targeted for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk screening is unknown. Methods and Results We used linked data from the Norwegian HUNT (Trøndelag Health) Study and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway to...
Article
Background Higher levels of PTSD symptoms are present among trauma-exposed females v. males in adulthood; however, much less is known about the emergence of this sex difference during development. Methods In a multi-study sample of 7–18-year-olds (n = 3397), we examined the effect of sex and age on the severity of PTSD symptoms after a single inci...
Article
Full-text available
Background Previous studies have shown an association between experience of intimate partner violence and abuse (IPVA) and depression. Whether this is a causal relationship or explained by prior vulnerability that influences the risk of both IPVA and depression is not known. Methods We analysed data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and...
Article
Full-text available
Background Although childhood abuse has been consistently associated with cardiovascular disease in later adulthood, its associations with cardiometabolic health in younger adults are poorly understood. We assessed associations between childhood physical, sexual, and psychological abuse and cardiometabolic outcomes at 18 and 25 years. Methods and...
Preprint
Full-text available
Alcohol intake increases blood pressure, yet estimates of associations between maternal intake and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are sparse and range from null to a protective effect. Here we estimated the association of maternal drinking during pregnancy with preeclampsia and gestational hypertension (separately and jointly, as HDP). W...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Quantifying long-term offspring cardiometabolic health risks associated with maternal prenatal anxiety and depression can guide cardiometabolic risk prevention. This study examines associations between maternal prenatal anxiety and depression, and offspring cardiometabolic risk from birth to 18 years. Design This study uses data from th...
Article
Full-text available
A history of preterm or small (SGA) or large (LGA) for gestational age offspring is associated with smoking and unfavorable levels of BMI, blood pressure, glucose and lipids. Whether and to what extent the excess cardiovascular risk observed in women with these pregnancy complications is explained by conventional cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs)...
Article
Background Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with increased risk of non-communicable diseases in adulthood, potentially mediated by chronic low-grade inflammation. Glycoprotein acetyls (GlycA) is a marker of chronic and cumulative inflammation. We investigated associations between ACEs and GlycA at different ages, in two generatio...
Preprint
Objective. To investigate the association between smoking-related traits and subfertility. Design. Prospective study. Setting. Nationwide cohort in Norway. Patients. 28,606 women (average age 30) and 27,096 men (average age 33) with questionnaire and genotype information from the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study. Intervention. Self-r...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Evidence from high-income countries (HICs) has documented a higher rate of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in females than males. However, data are limited on sex differences in PTSD from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), despite particularly high levels of trauma experienced by LMIC youth. Objectives: In a sample of ad...
Article
Full-text available
Study question: What is the association between BMI and subfertility? Summary answer: We observed a J-shaped relationship between BMI and subfertility in both sexes, when using both a standard multivariable regression and Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. What is known already: High BMI in both women and men is associated with subfertilit...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Women's reproductive factors include their age at menarche and menopause, the age at which they start and stop having children, and the number of children they have. Studies that have linked these factors with disease risk have largely investigated individual reproductive factors and have not considered the genetic correlation and total...
Article
Full-text available
Background Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the mechanisms of this relationship are not fully understood. We explored the relative contribution of anxiety/depression, smoking, body mass index (BMI) and C-reactive protein (CRP) to the association between CM and CVD in the United Kingdom (UK) and...
Article
Background Preterm birth is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, but it is unclear when this risk emerges. We compared life course trajectories from birth to adulthood of multiple cardiometabolic health measures in adults born preterm compared with term. Methods Multilevel models were used to compare trajectories from birth to ag...
Article
Background Pregnancy causes extreme cardiometabolic changes, yet evidence of its long-term cardiovascular effects is limited. Our aim was to estimate the causal effect of pregnancy on cardiovascular health. Methods We used a difference-in-difference (DiD) model to estimate the causal effect of pregnancy on multiple cardiovascular health measures (...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background Precise estimates of prevalence vary, but menstrual symptoms such as menorrhagia (heavy or prolonged bleeding) and dysmenorrhea (pain associated with period) are experienced by a large proportion of adolescent girls. Risk factors, co-morbidities and potential impacts of these menstrual problems on other areas of health and wellbeing are...
Article
Background Alcohol increases blood pressure, yet estimates of its association with pre-eclampsia range from positive to negative. Here we estimated the association of maternal drinking during pregnancy with preeclampsia and gestational hypertension, separately and jointly as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). We also used partner’s alcohol...
Conference Paper
Background Reproductive factors (RFs) in women, such as menarche and menopause, the age at which women start and stop having children, and the number of children they have, have been implicating in disease risk including, breast cancer, cardiovascular, respiratory diseases. While body mass index (BMI) has similarly been identified as a risk factor...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background In the UK, around one-third of young people are exposed to IPVA by 21 years old. However, types of IPVA victimisation in this population (psychological, physical, sexual), and their relationship with impact and perpetration are poorly understood. Methods Participants in a UK birth cohort reported IPVA victimisation and perpetration by ag...
Preprint
Background. Higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with subfertility in women and men. This relationship is further substantiated by a few small randomized-controlled trials of weight reduction and success of assisted reproduction. The aim of the current study was to expand the current evidence-base by investigating the association between BMI...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Previous studies have shown an association between experience of intimate partner violence and abuse (IPVA) and depression. Whether this is a causal relationship or explained by prior vulnerability that influences the risk of both depression and IPVA is not known. Methods and Findings We analysed data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide, even among young adults. This condition shares many risk factors with other metabolic disorders, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), but researchers suggest the presence of NAFLD itself may be a risk factor for developing CVD, independently of oth...
Article
Full-text available
Background Childhood maltreatment has been consistently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the mechanisms of this relationship are not yet fully understood. We explored the relative contribution of anxiety/depression, smoking, body mass index (BMI) and inflammation (C-reactive protein, CRP) to the association between childhood m...
Article
Full-text available
A few studies indicate that women with prolonged time-to-pregnancy (TTP) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This has not been studied in men. We evaluated CVD risk by self-reported TTP among parous women (n = 64,064) and men (n = 50,533) participating in the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study. TTP was categorized a...
Article
Full-text available
Background Whether earlier onset of puberty is associated with higher cardiovascular risk in early adulthood is not well understood. Our objective was to examine the association between puberty timing and markers of cardiovascular structure and function at age 25 years. Methods We conducted a prospective birth cohort study using data from the Avon...
Article
Full-text available
Background Although there is strong evidence for a relationship between child abuse and neglect and conduct problems, associations between child abuse experienced at different developmental stages and developmental trajectories of conduct problems have not been examined. We sought to investigate effects of timing of child abuse on conduct problem t...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
Full-text available
Background Males experience higher rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) than females, but the circulating traits underpinning this difference are poorly understood. We examined sex differences in systemic metabolites measured at four life stages, spanning childhood to middle adulthood. Methods Data were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents...
Article
Background: When the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) was planned, it was assumed that the clinical obstetric data would be easily accessible from the newly developed National Health Service computerised ‘STORK’ system. Pilot studies, however, showed that, although fairly accurate in regard to aspects of labour and delivery,...
Article
Background: Several studies have found that women who are overweight or obese have an increased risk of miscarriage. There is also some evidence of associations of other aspects of cardiometabolic health, including blood pressure and lipids, with miscarriage risk, although these have not been examined to the same extent as body-mass index (BMI). Me...
Article
Full-text available
Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant death worldwide, but the causes of preterm birth are largely unknown. During the early COVID-19 lockdowns, dramatic reductions in preterm birth were reported; however, these trends may be offset by increases in stillbirth rates. It is important to study these trends globally as the pandemic continues, an...
Article
Background: Approximately one-third of young people in the UK have suffered intimate partner violence and abuse (IPVA) on reaching adulthood. We need interventions to prevent IPVA in this population, but there is a lack of evidence on who is at greatest risk. Methods: We analysed questionnaire data from 3,279 participants of the Avon Longitudinal S...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Quantifying long-term offspring cardiometabolic health risks associated with maternal prenatal anxiety and depression can guide cardiometabolic risk prevention. This study examines associations between maternal prenatal anxiety and depression, and offspring cardiometabolic risk from birth to 18 years. Methods. Participants were 526-8,60...
Article
Objective: To examine the prospective association between constipation and risk of developing lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in parous middle-aged women. Materials and Methods: The study uses data from 3,729 women from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children who provided self-reports of medication intake for constipation at two ti...
Article
Full-text available
We characterised changes in reproductive hormones—LH, FSH, SHBG and AMH—by chronological age and time around the menopause (reproductive age) in mid-life women and explored their associations with lifestyle and reproductive factors. We used data from 1608 women from a UK cohort who had repeat hormone measures and experienced a natural menopause. Mu...
Article
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Purpose: To define and compare cardiovascular (CV) health scores (CHS) from adolescence (17 yrs) to emerging adulthood (24 yrs) using longitudinal data from a large British birth cohort. Methods: 3142 participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) study attended clinical investigations at 17.8 ± 0.4 yrs and 24.0 ± 0....
Preprint
Full-text available
Importance Whether earlier onset of puberty is associated with higher cardiovascular risk in early adulthood is not well understood. Objective To examine the association between puberty timing and markers of cardiovascular structure and function at age 25 years. Design Prospective birth cohort study. Setting The Southwest region of England. Par...
Article
Full-text available
STUDY QUESTION Is earlier puberty more likely a result of adiposity gain in childhood than a cause of adiposity gain in adulthood? SUMMARY ANSWER Pre-pubertal fat mass is associated with earlier puberty timing but puberty timing is not associated with post-pubertal fat mass change. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Age at puberty onset has decreased substant...
Article
Background: Approximately one-third of young people in the UK have suffered intimate partner violence and abuse (IPVA) on reaching adulthood. We need interventions to prevent IPVA in this population, but there is a lack of evidence on who is at greatest risk. Methods: We analysed questionnaire data from 3,279 participants of the Avon Longitudinal S...
Article
Full-text available
Aims. Early puberty is associated with an increased risk of self-harm in adolescent females but results for males are inconsistent. This may be due to the use of subjective measures of puber- tal timing, which may be biased. There is also limited evidence for the persistence of pubertal timing effects beyond adolescence, particularly in males. The...
Article
Background : Both anaemia and high haemoglobin in pregnancy are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes including foetal growth restriction. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between maternal haemoglobin in pregnancy and trajectories of length/height and weight from birth through childhood. Methods : Data from 7,597...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Preterm delivery (<37 weeks) predicts later cardiovascular disease risk in mothers, even among normotensive deliveries. However, development of subclinical cardiovascular risk before and after preterm delivery is not well understood. We sought to investigate differences in life course cardiovascular risk factor trajectories based on...
Article
Background: Several studies have found that women who are overweight or obese have an increased risk of miscarriage. There is also some evidence of associations of other aspects of cardiometabolic health, including blood pressure and lipids, with miscarriage risk, although these have not been examined to the same extent as body-mass index (BMI). Me...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Although there is strong evidence for a relationship between child maltreatment and conduct problems, associations between child abuse experienced at different developmental stages and developmental trajectories of conduct problems have not been examined. We sought to investigate effects of timing of child abuse on conduct problem trajec...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Although there is strong evidence for a relationship between child abuse and neglect and conduct problems, associations between child abuse experienced at different developmental stages and developmental trajectories of conduct problems have not been examined. We sought to investigate effects of timing of child abuse on conduct problem t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Although there is strong evidence for a relationship between child abuse and neglect and conduct problems, associations between child abuse experienced at different developmental stages and developmental trajectories of conduct problems have not been examined. We sought to investigate effects of timing of child abuse on conduct problem t...
Article
Full-text available
Background: There may be changes in cognitive function in women going through the menopause. The current evidence remains unclear, however, whether these changes occur over and above those of general ageing. We aimed to evaluate the potential impact of the menopause (assessed by reproductive age and hormone levels) on cognitive function in women i...
Article
Full-text available
Background Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is implicated in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there has been little study of HPA stress reactivity in association with PTSD symptoms (PTSS) in children; and there is limited research on PTSD in low and middle-income countries, where t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Childhood maltreatment has been consistently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the mechanisms of this relationship are not yet fully understood. We explored the relative contribution of anxiety/depression, smoking, body mass index (BMI) and inflammation (C-reactive protein, CRP) to the association between childhood...